Dr Urmila Aswar,
Sinhgad Institute of Pharmacy
Search Benefits for Inventors
• Better prepared to discuss ideas confidentially.
• Avoid infringement.
• Track research and development.
• Access to wealth of information.
Criteria of Patentability
What Is Prior Art?
Art = Technology
Conditions for Patentability
Novelty and Loss of Right to Patent
All information that has been disclosed to the public in
any form about an invention before a given date.
Examples of Prior Art
Sufficiently different from what has been used or
Non-obvious to person having ordinary skill in area of
Where to begin?
• Patent Application Information Retrieval
• Public PAIR: only displays issued or published
• Private PAIR: provides secure real-time access
to pending application status
7 Step search strategy
Access Full Text
Review & Reference
• Step 1 - Brainstorm Keywords
• Step 2 - Determine the Initial Classification
• Step 3 - Verify Relevancy
• Step 4 - Read Classification Definitions
• Step 5 – Search Issued Patents and Published
• Step 6 - Review Claims,
Specifications and Drawings
• Step 7 - Check All References
1. Keyword Searching
Titles and abstracts often vague
Slinky = “Toy and Process of Use”
iPod = “Media Device”
Keyword searchable from 1976
Disadvantages of key word search
• Keyword searching can often lead to very misleading results.
• For example, patents may be written in vague or inconsistent
terminology. The patent titled “Toy and Process of Use”
(Patent 2,415,012) is actually the “Slinky” spring toy.
• Terminology may change over time with some words
becoming obsolete. a stereo was often referred to as a “Hi-Fi”,
a bathroom has also been called a “water closet.”
• Words can also have very different meanings in different
2. U.S. Patent Classification System
• Recommended method
• 460+ classes and
• Eg 002: apparels
• 004: baths
• 019: textiles
• 015: brush
• Use keywords to obtain the subclasses using the
• Once you have discovered the most relevant
• Access the complete patent documents and published
applications by classification.
• Review the claims, specifications and drawings of
the documents retrieved to judge their relevancy.
• Then for the documents that are judged to be the
most relevant, expand on the search to retrieve and
review cited references
Cooperative Patent Classification
• MANAGED AND MAINTAINED BY EPO AND
• Bilateral classification system.
• Incorporates classification of EPO and USPTO.
• Consists of over 2,50,000 subdivisions.
• Launched in January 2013
EPO classifies in CPC only.
USPTO – classifies in both USPC and CPC.
Where to find information about
CPC Internet site: www.cpcinfo.org
Step 1: Brainstorm
• Purpose? Utilitarian or ornamental?
• Process or product?
• What is the invention made of?
• How is it used?
• Keywords and technical terms that describe?
• Vehicle Automobile Internal Combustion Engine Fuel Injection