Hypertension
Dr Urmila Aswar
Location of the Heart






The heart is located between the lungs
behind the sternum and above the
diaphragm.
It is s...
Anatomy of heart
Anatomy of the heart


The walls of the heart
are composed of
cardiac muscle, called
myocardium.



It consists of four
...
Blood circulation via heart
• The blood returns from the systemic circulation to the right
atrium and from there goes thro...
Hypertension
Hypertension means high blood pressure. High
blood pressure is an increased pressure in blood
vessels.
It can...
Types of hypertension
In 90-95% of patients presenting with
hypertension, the cause is unknown. This
condition is called p...
Hemodynamic basis of hypertension






Blood pressure levels are a function of
cardiac output multiplied by peripheral...
Hypertension
1/3/2014

11
Hypertension






The major factors which help maintain
blood pressure (BP) include the
sympathetic nervous system and...
Hypertension
Category
Normal

Systolic Blood
Pressure
< 120

Diastolic Blood
Pressure
<80

Pre-hypertension

120-139

80-8...
Hypertension



As many as 2.8 million children also have
high blood pressure.
The prevalence of hypertension increases
...
Prevalence of Hypertension by
Age


Age








18-29
30-39
40-49
50-59
60-69
70-79
80+



% Hypertensive



...
Hypertension




When the normal regulatory mechanisms
fail, hypertension develops.
Hypertension is dangerous because it...
Untreated

hypertension can result in:

Arteriosclerosis
Heart Attack
Enlarged

heart

--Kidney damage
--Stroke
--Blin...
Factors Influencing the Development of
Hypertension




High-normal blood pressure
Family history of hypertension
Overw...
Factors Influencing the Development of
Hypertension


Excess Consumption of Sodium Chloride



Certain segments of the p...
Factors Influencing the Development of
Hypertension
 Exercise:

Less
active
individuals are 30-50% more
likely to develop...
Factors Influencing the Development of
Hypertension
 Other

Dietary Factors

Potassium:
 Calcium:
 Magnesium:

Treatment for Hypertension






Maintain a healthy weight, lose weight if
overweight.
Be more physically active.
Drin...
Hypertension
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Hypertension

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Hypertension

  1. 1. Hypertension Dr Urmila Aswar
  2. 2. Location of the Heart     The heart is located between the lungs behind the sternum and above the diaphragm. It is surrounded by the pericardium. Its size is about that of a fist, and its weight is about 250-300 g. Its center is located about 1.5 cm to the left of the midsagittal plane.
  3. 3. Anatomy of heart
  4. 4. Anatomy of the heart  The walls of the heart are composed of cardiac muscle, called myocardium.  It consists of four compartments:  the right and left atria and ventricles
  5. 5. Blood circulation via heart • The blood returns from the systemic circulation to the right atrium and from there goes through the tricuspid valve to the right ventricle. • It is ejected from the right ventricle through the pulmonary valve to the lungs. • Oxygenated blood returns from the lungs to the left atrium, and from there through the mitral valve to the left ventricle. • Finally blood is pumped through the aortic valve to the aorta and the systemic circulation..
  6. 6. Hypertension Hypertension means high blood pressure. High blood pressure is an increased pressure in blood vessels. It can be caused by many factors such as stress, high cholesterol, and inactivity. It is classified into mild, moderate, and severe hypertension. The mild, moderate, or severe hypertension, have an increased risk of having a heart attack or a stroke.
  7. 7. Types of hypertension In 90-95% of patients presenting with hypertension, the cause is unknown. This condition is called primary (or essential) hypertension. The remaining 5-10% of hypertensive patients have hypertension that results secondarily from renal disease, endocrine disorders, or other identifiable causes. This form of hypertension is called secondary hypertension.
  8. 8. Hemodynamic basis of hypertension    Blood pressure levels are a function of cardiac output multiplied by peripheral resistance (the resistance in the blood vessels to the flow of blood). Heart rate, stroke volume Vascular tone
  9. 9. Hypertension
  10. 10. 1/3/2014 11
  11. 11. Hypertension    The major factors which help maintain blood pressure (BP) include the sympathetic nervous system and the kidneys. Optimal healthy blood pressure is a systolic blood pressure of <120 mmHg and a diastolic blood pressure of <80 <120/80.
  12. 12. Hypertension Category Normal Systolic Blood Pressure < 120 Diastolic Blood Pressure <80 Pre-hypertension 120-139 80-89 Hypertension – Stage 1 140-159 90-99 Hypertension – Stage 2 >160 >100
  13. 13. Hypertension   As many as 2.8 million children also have high blood pressure. The prevalence of hypertension increases with age.
  14. 14. Prevalence of Hypertension by Age  Age        18-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 60-69 70-79 80+  % Hypertensive        4 11 21 44 54 64 65
  15. 15. Hypertension   When the normal regulatory mechanisms fail, hypertension develops. Hypertension is dangerous because it gives off no warning signs or symptoms.
  16. 16. Untreated hypertension can result in: Arteriosclerosis Heart Attack Enlarged heart --Kidney damage --Stroke --Blindness
  17. 17. Factors Influencing the Development of Hypertension    High-normal blood pressure Family history of hypertension Overweight
  18. 18. Factors Influencing the Development of Hypertension  Excess Consumption of Sodium Chloride  Certain segments of the population are ‘salt sensitive’ because their blood pressure is affected by salt consumption
  19. 19. Factors Influencing the Development of Hypertension  Exercise: Less active individuals are 30-50% more likely to develop hypertension.  Alcohol consumption
  20. 20. Factors Influencing the Development of Hypertension  Other Dietary Factors Potassium:  Calcium:  Magnesium: 
  21. 21. Treatment for Hypertension     Maintain a healthy weight, lose weight if overweight. Be more physically active. Drink alcoholic beverages in moderation. Reduce the intake of salt and sodium in the diet to approximately 2400 mg/day.

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