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Disability sport


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Sports for Disabled

Sports for Disabled

Published in: Health & Medicine, Sports

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  • 1. Disability Spor t Intr oduction Dr. Saim Ali Soomro. Deputy Director NSEC for PHC. Islamabad.
  • 2. Introductions     Ground Rules About me… About you… Favourite film?
  • 3. What is Disability?     Models What is a model? The earth is flat! Medical & Social Models
  • 4. Medical & Social Models  Medical Model  A person is disabled because they use a wheelchair and cannot climb a flight of steps into a building.  Social Model  A person is disabled because they use a wheelchair and a ramp is not provided to access the building.
  • 5. Barriers to Participation  National statistics - lowest participation rates for disabled people  Taking Part & Active People surveys – 8.8 – 9.5% disabled adults in regular moderate activity (pop. average 21%) (Sport England, 2006; DCMS, 2007)  44% of disabled young people not regularly physically active (12% non-disabled) (Sport England, 2001)
  • 6. Barriers to Participation  Key barriers to participation identified by disabled people themselves;  Adults - Health Problems (74%), Lack of money (5%), Lack of time (5%) (Sport England, 2002)  Young People – Disability/Health (58%), Lack of ‘disabled’ sports facilities (18%), Lack of adult’s time/supervision (14%) (Sport England, 2001)
  • 7. Terminology  Group exercise  Avoid old fashioned references  Don’t get ‘hung up’ on being politically correct…  No-one gets it right all the time…
  • 8. Stereotypes & Assumptions  Myths and fears promoted by media industries  Attitudes of local and national media  Ask the right questions AND listen to the answers!
  • 9. Benefits of Sport & Exercise  Inclusive Fitness Initiative
  • 10. Disability Sport  History/Overview  Disability sport as we know it credited to Sir Ludwig Guttmann who started sport as a rehab venture at Stoke Mandeville Hospital, post WWII.  First international games held in 1948  First ‘official’ Paralympics in 1952  First Paralympics held in same city as Olympics in 1988  Most sports now compete at national and international level, some in direct involvement with non-disabled counterpart organisations.
  • 11. Introduction to Classification  Classification is not exclusive to disabled sport  Examples: Judo – weight classes, Fencing – male, female, junior, veterans, Swimming – by discipline.  It’s aim in disability sport is to achieve fair and equitable competition.
  • 12. Classification cont…  There are two main forms of classification in disabled sport:  Medical  Functional  Recent developments include implementing points systems to increase participation in individual events and make them more ‘spectator friendly’
  • 13. Classification cont…  Minimal Disability  Is an entry level which describes the minimal level of disability/injury to allow eligibility to participate in disability sport.
  • 14. Classification cont…      Factors determining classification 1. Trunk function 2. Lower limb function 3. Upper limb function 4. Hand function
  • 15. Classification cont…  Volume of action- example w/c basketball  Vertical plane – rotating trunk to left or right whilst maintaining an upright position  Forward plane – bending trunk forwards reaching hands towards the feet & returning to upright position  Sideways plane – leaning trunk to left or right without movement in forward plane & returning to upright position
  • 16. Classification cont… Minimal disability – definition (example) Usually: must meet the following criteria: A) a wheelchair basketball player is unable to run, pivot or jump at speed and with the control of an able-bodied player;  B) a wheelchair basketball player has a permanent physical disability in the lower limb/s which can be objectively verified by an acknowledged medical and/or paramedical investigation such as measurement, x-ray, CT scan, MRI scan, etc…  N.b: degrees of pain are not considered as measurable and permanent disabilities.   
  • 17. Classification cont…  Wheelchair Basketball Points system  Each player is awarded a point value based on classification from 1pt to 4.5pts with .5pt increments between each class  Functional classification is polarised to achieve final classification  Review process followed/appeal
  • 18. Classification cont… IPC recognises 6 different disability groups: 1. amputees 2. athletes with Cerebral Palsy (CP) 3. blind or visually impaired athletes 4. spinal cord injured athletes 5. athletes with an intellectual/learning disability  6. other athletes (les autres) with a physical disability who do not fit into the above 5 categories.      
  • 19. Ethical Issues  Minimal disability…? Where do you draw the line?  Non disabled competitors in disability sport…? Inclusion/reverse discrimination?  Cheating…?  Substance use/Boosting  Do we really need classification?
  • 20. Summary – Q&A Medical & social models Barriers to participation Terminology Stereotypes Disability sport – history, classification, ethics  Any questions?     