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Strategies for Enhancing the Competitiveness of Jamaican Firms in the Global Knowledge Economy


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This two day conference highlighted the benefits and challenges for Jamaica’s development in the globally competitive knowledge economy. Some 90 thought-leaders from the private sector, public …

This two day conference highlighted the benefits and challenges for Jamaica’s development in the globally competitive knowledge economy. Some 90 thought-leaders from the private sector, public sector, media, NGOs, education and the political space, brainstormed and enthusiastically participated in the conference. The event was lead by a distinguished international group of experts in knowledge economy transformations and global competitiveness including Principal Advisors, Dr. Jean-Eric Aubert and Prof. Carl Dahlman (former Directors of the Knowledge Economy Division of the World Bank Institute), Prof. Neville Duncan, Dr. Dawn Elliott, Mr. Kenneth Hynes, Dr. Densil Williams, Prof. Evan Duggan, Prof. Hopeton Dunn, Dr. Carolyn Hayle, Dr. Andre Gordon, Mr. Robert Gregory, Dr. Anne Crick, Dr. Gunjan Mansingh and Mr. Richard Lumsden. The conference was opened by The Most Honourable Professor Sir Kenneth Octavius Hall, ON, GCMG, OJ, who indicated that it was now widely accepted that countries have been embracing knowledge and innovative related policies to improve growth and competitiveness and that policies should “identify, enhance, and exploit intangible assets in the areas of education, innovation, information and communication technology, and the prerequisite economic and institutional regime.”
The first session chaired by Prof Neville Duncan saw five presentations were delivered, which were geared towards establishing a shared understanding of key terms and concepts.
The second session chaired by Dr. Densil Williams saw four presentations being made on specific knowledge sectors in the Jamaican economy: ICT, telecommunications, hospitality and tourism and agriculture.
In the third session chaired by Prof Evan Duggan four presentations examined issues and policies related to two critical knowledge economy pillars; education and innovation and the nexus between both which provides the capability of powerful and important synergies; knowledge management and Vision 2030.
The fourth session was chaired by Prof. Winston Davidson and had two presentations; . Dr. Jean-Eric Aubert in his presentation provided some insight into innovation policy and suggested some generic policy measures to support innovation, for Jamaica. Prof. Carl Dahlman reviewed issues and policies of the Knowledge Economy related to education and training.

Three key Action Plans were subsequently crafted.
• How to engage public and private sector leaders in the drive for Knowledge Economy and Society transformation
• How to exploit competitive niche projects as a source of jobs creation and wealth increase
• How to adjust the Education and Training System to Competitiveness and Knowledge Economy Needs

All presentations are available at the Knowledge Society Foundation website

The conference was sponsored by Spatial Innovision ( using proceeds from the Pioneers of Prosperity Award

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  • 1. Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy Conference Report Editor: Silburn St. Aubyn Clarke, FRICS Friday April 15, 2011 and Saturday April 16, 2011 Mona Visitors Lodge and Conference Centre University of the West Indies, Mona Kingston, Jamaica
  • 2. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS GLOSSARY.............................................................................................................................................................................................2 PARTNERSHIPS, SPONSORSHIPS & ENDORSEMENTS .............................................................................................4 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY.................................................................................................................................................................5 OPENING CEREMONY....................................................................................................................................................................8 PRESENTATIONS AND DISCUSSIONS...............................................................................................................................12 DAY ONE - AM SESSION........................................................................................................................................................12 DAY ONE – PM SESSION.......................................................................................................................................................25 DAY TWO - AM SESSION......................................................................................................................................................45 DAY TWO - PM SESSION......................................................................................................................................................60 CLOSING CEREMONY..................................................................................................................................................................74 THE WAY FORWARD..................................................................................................................................................................76 FEEDBACK.........................................................................................................................................................................................79 APPENDICES ....................................................................................................................................................................................82 PARTICIPATING STAKEHOLDERS..............................................................................................................................83 CONFERENCE LEADERS / PRESENTERS....................................................................................................................87 LEAD SPONSOR, CONFERENCE DIRECTOR & RAPPORTEURS....................................................................97 PICTORIALS..............................................................................................................................................................................100
  • 3. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 2 GLOSSARY ADR Assessment of Development Results BRIC Brazil, Russia, India and China BSJ Bureau of Standards Jamaica CANTA Caribbean Association of National Training Agencies CARICOM Caribbean Community CDCC Caribbean Development and Cooperation Committee CITO Central Information Technology Office CSME Caribbean Single Market and Economy CVQ Caribbean Vocational Qualification DFID Department for International Development ECLAC Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean EU European Union FDI Foreign Direct Investment FY Financial Year GDP Gross Domestic Product GIS Geographic Information System GOJ Government of Jamaica ICT Information and Communication Technologies IDB Inter-American Development Bank IDRC International Development Research Centre ILO International Labour Organization INDECOM Independent Commission of Investigations IS Information System ISO International Standards Organisation IT Information Technology ITC International Trade Centre JAAA Jamaica Amateur Athletics Association JAMPRO Jamaica Promotions Corporation JBDC Jamaica Business Development Corporation JCF Jamaica Constabulary Force JCS Jamaica Computer Society JEF Jamaica Employers’ Federation JHTA Jamaica Hotel and Tourist Association JOA Jamaica Olympics Association JTI Jamaica Trade and Invest
  • 4. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 3 KSF Knowledge Society Foundation MDG Millennium Development Goal MSB Mona School of Business MSME Micro, Small and Medium Sized Enterprises MSTQ Metrology, Standards, Testing and Quality NCTVET National Council on Technical and Vocational Education and Training NGO Non Government Organisation NTA National Training Agency NTO National Tourism Organisation NVQJ National Vocational Qualification of Jamaica OAS Organization of American States OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development PC Personal Computer PIOJ Planning Institute of Jamaica PISA Programme for International Student Assessment PSOJ Private Sector Organisation of Jamaica R&D Research and Development SALISES Sir Arthur Lewis Institute of Social and Economic Studies SIDS Small Island Developing States SME Small and Medium Sized Enterprises STATIN Statistical Institute of Jamaica TPDCO Tourism Product Development Company TPM Telecommunications Policy Management Programme UDC Urban Development Corporation UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development UNDP United Nations Development Programme UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization UNICEF United Nations Children’s Fund UTech University of Technology UWI University of the West Indies WTO World Trade Organization
  • 5. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 4 PARTNERSHIPS, SPONSORSHIPS & ENDORSEMENTS The Knowledge Society Foundation expresses its gratitude to these kind partners and sponsors without whom this Conference would not have been possible. Title Sponsor:
  • 6. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 5 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Knowledge Society Foundation, an independent affiliate of the Jamaica Computer Society, planned, organised and delivered a historic and highly successful two-day conference on "Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy" at the Mona Visitor's Lodge and Conference Centre, University of the West Indies, Mona on April 15th and 16th , 2011. The conference was commissioned by Spatial Innovision Limited with financing from an Award of the Caribbean Pioneers of Prosperity Programme and endorsed/co-sponsored by Fujitsu Caribbean Limited, the Mona School of Business, the Information Division of the UWI Mona Campus, JAMPRO, the Private Sector Organisation of Jamaica and the Jamaica Computer Society. Immense interest has been expressed in this very important and timely topic, by a variety of persons, companies, trade unions and members of academia and the media, as the country continues the debate on growth strategies, grounded in our yet untapped unique human potential. The objective of the conference programme was to impart a deeper understanding of applied strategies for enhancing the competitiveness of Jamaican firms, society and economy for successful participation in the Global Knowledge Economy, in support of our national development. It is intended that among the many deliverables, that this Conference will be the start of a national, and hopefully through the University of the West Indies, a regional discourse and debate, resulting in national and regional action plans on the necessary strategies to be adopted for enabling our economies and societies to become more fully articulated into the global knowledge economy. Some 90 thought-leaders from the private sector, public sector, media, NGOs, education and the political space, attended and enthusiastically participated in the conference. The event was lead by a distinguished international group of experts in knowledge economy transformations and global competitiveness including Principal Advisors, Dr. Jean-Eric Aubert and Prof. Carl Dahlman (former Directors of the Knowledge Economy Division of the World Bank Institute), Prof. Neville Duncan, Dr. Dawn Elliott, Mr. Kenneth Hynes, Dr. Densil Williams, Prof. Evan Duggan, Prof. Hopeton Dunn, Dr. Carolyn Hayle, Dr. Andre Gordon, Mr. Robert Gregory, Dr. Anne Crick, Dr. Gunjan Mansingh and Mr. Richard Lumsden. The conference was opened by The Most Honourable Professor Sir Kenneth Octavius Hall, ON, GCMG, OJ, who gave the keynote address. In his remarks he expressed the hope that the
  • 7. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 6 outcomes of the conference would influence the policy direction chosen by Government to achieve the intended growth objectives for the country. On conclusion of the opening ceremony, the Day One AM Session commenced, chaired by Professor Neville Duncan. Five presentations were delivered, which were geared towards establishing a shared understanding of key terms and concepts; knowledge society, knowledge economy and competitiveness and proposing strategies for development at both the macro and the micro levels. Questions, comments and responses of the session centred on the interplay between macro and micro issues, the importance of collaboration in striving for competitiveness and the behavioural and cultural issues that impede progress. The Day One PM Session was chaired by Dr. Densil Williams and saw four presentations being made on specific knowledge sectors in the Jamaican economy: ICT, telecommunications, hospitality and tourism and agriculture. The feedback from participants and subsequent discussions revolved around the evolution of the ICT sector globally and in Jamaica; the recognition that the tourism sector is more than accommodation and that there are potential for areas such as health and wellness tourism; the critical role of education in creating a knowledge-based society and driving evidence based decision making; and identifying the emerging areas in a dying agricultural sector and how to overcome the barriers. In the morning of Day Two, the Session was chaired by Professor Evan Duggan. The two presentations before the break were devoted to the examination of issues and policies related to two critical knowledge economy pillars; education and innovation and the nexus between both which provides the capability of powerful and important synergies. After the break, there was a presentation on knowledge management and knowledge management systems and their applicability to issues of crime, healthcare and agriculture. The morning session closed with an examination of Vision 2030 and the facilitators and inhibitors of the operationalisation of Vision 2030. A lively discussion ensued with participants being concerned with issues such as: the contradiction of supporting processes of innovation within an organizational framework; the leadership deficit within the public and private sectors; the difference between creative and cultural industries and the policy implications for both; and the level of budgetary allocation for the Vision 2030 Plan. Day Two PM Session sought to pull together the discussions of the previous day and a half and focused the participants on strategizing for the implementation of practical knowledge economy initiatives for Jamaica. The session was chaired by Prof. Winston Davidson. Dr. Jean- Eric Aubert in his presentation provided some insight into innovation policy and suggested
  • 8. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 7 some generic policy measures to support innovation, for Jamaica. Prof. Carl Dahlman reviewed issues and policies of the Knowledge Economy related to education and training. Action plans on the way forward for driving the transform of the Jamaican landscape to a knowledge-based economy and society were crafted, during the hotly debated break-out sessions which followed, including rich ideas on;  How to engage public and private sector leaders in the drive for Knowledge Economy and Knowledge Society transformation  How to exploit competitive niche projects as a source of jobs creation and wealth increase  How to adjust the Education and Training System to Competitiveness and Knowledge Economy Needs All presentations are available for viewing on the Knowledge Society Foundation website at In summing up the recommendations Dr. Aubert and Prof. Dahlman made valuable suggestions for strengthening the suggested actions for greater effectiveness and results. The overall action plan, including these recommendations, is presented in the Section of the report entitled “The Way Forward”. This two day conference highlighted the benefits and challenges for Jamaica’s development in this globally competitive knowledge economy. A recurring theme throughout the conference was the need to ensure that the deliberations and recommendations are carried through to affect national policies and programmes. The organizers were encouraged to identify a vehicle through which this process of institutionalization would be driven and to move immediately into dialogue with the relevant stakeholders who are critical to the success of this process.
  • 9. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 8 OPENING CEREMONY Welcome and Opening Remarks. – Mrs. Jacqueline daCosta – Conference Chair In her opening remarks Mrs. daCosta, situated the conference in the current economic and social crisis facing Jamaica. She explained that Spatial Innovision, had recently won a prestigious award, which should have been allocated train staff, in the areas of competitiveness and knowledge, which are considered importance issues for doing business today. Instead, Spatial decided to host the Conference and extend the invitation to several critical persons in the society who have an interest in this area, to be a part of the training. Mrs. daCosta advised the participants that the Knowledge Society Foundation (KSF), an affiliate of the Jamaica Computer Society was hired to plan and organise the training session/conference. KSF is dedicated to advocating on the knowledge society and the wide scale adoption of ICT in the country. In welcoming all to the Conference she expressed the hope for a successful event with positive outcomes to the benefit of Jamaica. Opening Prayer - Rev. Lennox Scarlette In his opening prayer, Rev. Lennox Scarlette, called on God to lift up the industries of science, engineering and technology and the persons working in these industries at all levels. He gave thanks for the opportunity to meet, reflect and deliberate on the conference theme. It is God who gave us the raw materials for discovery and gifted us with the skills to make scientific and technological advances that contribute to the betterment of humanity. He prayed that deliberations would result in a firm foundation to finding more and better ways to use science and technology to connect, help and heal persons around the world. He prayed for encouragement for those who continue to search for solutions to the problems that still face us and the perseverance to endure, as we look with hope at the possibilities that await us. Conference Design and Objectives - Dr. Jean-Eric Aubert and Prof. Carl Dahlman Dr. Aubert in his remarks thanked the organisers for the opportunity to participate. He also thanked JAMPRO for organising the brief tour which allowed them to meet with persons in politics, business and academics, providing a good introduction and some insight into understanding the country. He emphasized that the Conference sessions were not just about
  • 10. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 9 training, but that it was important to arrive of some concrete action plans for implementing the Knowledge Economy in Jamaica, with a focus on competitiveness. The role of the facilitators would be to focus the ideas of the participants. They would however provide ideas which they think are relevant, but it is up to the participants to arrive at the conclusions. He reiterated the importance of maintaining the momentum of the conference and to allow the recommendations to be scaled up to the level of policy makers in order to have some national impact. Prof. Carl Dahlman indicated his pleasure at being invited to participate. He thanked especially, Spatial Innovision, for sharing the prize money in this manner. He advised that the conference programme was designed to highlight a number of perspectives, issues and approaches for improving competitiveness in Jamaica. After the knowledge sharing however, there would be need to focus on the critical issues and what could be done to make a difference. He emphasised that several studies have been undertaken and reports produced. The real proof of making a difference and getting the required returns, however, would be turning the ideas into concrete action plans for implementation. He challenged persons to listen as the presentations are made and to focus on the big challenges, to discuss them and to identify the key areas which can be tackled and which can be tackled in a way that can lead to some concrete actions. The participants were advised that at the end of the first day there would be a brainstorming session to start the thinking about these big challenges in different sectors. Breakout groups in the afternoon of second day would contribute ideas on what could be done. There would be many topics presented, but three areas would be identified to focus on in the breakout groups. Groups would be asked to focus on:  What are the issues?  What can be done about them?  What are the different entry points to be able to do something about it?  How do you mobilize stakeholder awareness of what has to be done?  How do you develop concrete objectives?  How do you mobilize actions towards reaching objectives?  How do you monitor and evaluate so that things can be adjusted? Prof. Dahlman reiterated that their role was that of facilitators and that the real work is to be done by the participants. He challenged persons to develop a process for continuity, as many issues are large and would required focused action. He reminded that the participants are the ones who knew the reality, problems and constraints in the country, but more importantly the key entry points to exploit, in order to promote positive virtuous cycles that can make a difference.
  • 11. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 10 Address and Official Opening of Conference - The Most Honourable Professor Sir Kenneth Hall, ON, GCMG, OJ The Most Honourable Professor Sir Kenneth Hall, ON, GCMG, OJ, in his address, indicated that the Conference was taking place at a strategic point in Jamaica’s efforts to stimulate growth and to reposition itself within the global economy. The Conference was also taking place at a time when other developments in the country suggest that growth is now the expected policy outcome of all these initiatives. He expressed the hope that the outcomes of the conference would influence the policy direction that will be chosen to achieve the intended growth objectives for the country. The underlying assumption of the organisers of the conference, however, was that by adopting an appropriate set of strategies, the country would be able to overcome those deficiencies that have combined to place Jamaica at 95 out of 139 countries according to the World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Report 2010/2011. He indicated that in fact all Caribbean countries had declined in their rankings and that this presented a sobering reason for the deliberations of the Conference. He expressed his hope that at the end of the Conference there would be some element of the deliberations which could be implemented. In selecting the Conference theme, he suggested, the organisers together with the supporters from the international community, accepted that Jamaica’s future is intricately bound up with successful participation in the global Knowledge Economy. Depending on how the global Knowledge Economy was defined however, he opined, it is possible that Jamaica has always been involved. Caribbean countries and Jamaica in particular, were created as a part of the global economy, called then the colonial imperial economy, which had a centre and global positions all over the world. Jamaica did not necessarily choose to be part of this economy but was part of it by definition. He found the notion that that competitiveness is the preferred policy direction to achieve participation in the global Knowledge Economy, intriguing, as if this were so, then one would have to conclude that none of the assumptions for the Knowledge Economy or competiveness have been adopted as the working model for Jamaica, judging by the last 35 years of anemic economic growth. The timing of the Conference he suggested, also coincided with the recent announcement by the Planning Institute of Jamaica that they had developed a growth strategy, accepted by Government, for reversing Jamaica’s poor economic performance. In elaborating on the strategy, he highlighted the emphasis placed on key areas such as: Crime reduction; Asset mobilisation; Competitiveness; Public Sector Transformation; Business networks; Build and The Most Hon. Prof. Sir Kenneth Octavius Hall, ON, GCMG, OJ
  • 12. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 11 natural environment and Urban-regional development. One central issue he emphasized is the extent to which the strategies emerging from the Conference would be compatible with, in conflict with, or at least complementary to, the new growth strategy. He also queried if the Conference would be proposing that Jamaica becomes a Knowledge based economy, or was it the assumption that it is so already and that Jamaica’s position would be enhanced by competitiveness. The assumption is that more and more countries have been embracing knowledge and innovation as policies to improve growth and competitiveness. At the core of these strategies are policies that identify, enhance, and exploit intangible assets in the areas of education, innovation, information and communication technology and the prerequisites economic and institutional regime. This new paradigm postulates that competiveness is directly connected to an interrelated set of factors, including the strength of institutions and laws, political stability, quality of infrastructure, public health, education and levels of technology and innovation. It was clear, he suggested, that from reviewing these variables that Jamaica and Caribbean countries, based on their current ranking on the competitiveness scale, will need to embark upon on a comprehensive policy agenda of innovation and transformation if they are at least hoping to reach acceptable levels of competitiveness that will assist them to participate effectively in the global economy. By listing these intangibles, he indicated, there is little connection to traditional specifications of economic growth. Competitiveness is not just about how resources are positioned, it is also about how to transform the society. This transformation takes on a new role, not just for quality of life, but also allows countries the option to be successful participants in the global economy. In concluding, he urged participants to emerge with a clear understanding of that it means to achieve success in this global knowledge economy and the importance of policymakers adopting the recommendations. In declaring the Conference open, he wished the organisers and participants well in their deliberations and expressed the hope that the Conference would be a historic one, as Jamaica emerges from its current state of uncompetitiveness.
  • 13. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 12 PRESENTATIONS AND DISCUSSIONS DAY ONE - AM SESSION Session Chair: Prof. Neville Duncan Overview The objective of the session was to establish a shared understanding of key terms and concepts. The focus was on the importance of knowledge society, knowledge economy and competitiveness and appropriate strategies for development at this point in the 21st Century. MODULE 1.1: COMPETITIVENESS IN JAMAICA. THE PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE – DR. DAWN ELLIOTT Dr. Elliott looked at Jamaica’s performance over the past 200 years and framed some benchmarks around the question: “How has Jamaica fared in her ability to gain access to knowledge; to use knowledge in practical life; to contribute to new knowledge and with what impact on her competitiveness”? She defined competitiveness as a process that includes measuring, learning, communicating and reasoning; and reminds us that knowledge is simply something that is known by somebody. This means that ICT, the newest body of knowledge though important in its ability to lower the costs of doing business and to level the playing field as a result, is no better than old stocks of knowledge. All knowledge matters, and the ability of firms to be competitive in an ICT biased world is no different in many ways than before; firms must be able to use this new knowledge in ways that allow them to produce a good or service of superior quality and in some cases at lower costs than others. Producing knowledge is to discover, invent, design, implement and or to communicate. The economic potential of knowledge lowers transaction costs; influences the type and volume of economic activity and encourages competitive outcomes. Knowledge is ubiquitous and dynamic and competitiveness, shaped by formal and informal norms, is about access to knowledge stock; the uses of the knowledge and the creation of new knowledge.
  • 14. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 13 In looking at Jamaica over time Dr. Elliott stated that Jamaica was and remains uncompetitive at all levels. The constraint is not seen as knowledge access but rather knowledge uses and knowledge creation. Knowledge Access: Country and Industry Level Indicators from the World Bank Report, showed Jamaica in 2008 with mobile penetration of 120% and internet penetration at 55.5%. There is evidence of strong knowledge access in Jamaica. The constraint however is how to encourage entrepreneurial behaviors that recognize economic payoff from competitive processes and how to pursue the changes needed to own the payoffs. Between 1929 and the 1990s literacy rates moved from 67.9% (1929); 87.0% (1980s); 87.9% (1990s). In the 1990s Secondary School enrollment reached 95% and Tertiary level was at 31%. Poor knowledge use is evidenced by weak formal school attendance with poor science and math enrollment; and low passing rates of these subjects as well as poor teacher quality. Many within the labour force have no formal examination passes and receive no on the job training; and many of the skilled and trained workers and tertiary trained are part of the outflow from Jamaica. Jamaica exhibits poor ability to use knowledge which is a critical driver of productivity and competitiveness. As a consequence of the constraints of knowledge use and knowledge creation Jamaica is faced at the industry and firm level with:  Uncompetitive national economy  Low and declining productivity ;even with growth in capital and access to skills and ICT  Low and declining growth rates and per capita incomes Jamaican firms struggle to survive globally and have start up and survival difficulties locally and regionally. As Jamaica seeks to create a platform for new knowledge there are certain non- negotiable competitive behaviors that are required.  Understanding benchmarks; o Who….is the competition, o What ….is the basis of the advantage, o Where….do you plan to go, o When….over what time  Measurement, Assessment, Process Improvement o Identify the competitive gap o Measure to close the gap o Measure the success  Devotion to be the best
  • 15. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 14 Conclusion While ICT has joined the stock of knowledge to enter the international market there is still the need to build on the full stock of knowledge to attain competitiveness. The Jamaican Music Industry offers lessons of missed opportunities and Track and Field lessons of how to use our talents in ways that make us competitive. The Music Industry is world renowned for innovation, creativity, and one of the most productivity, in terms of music recordings per person. Despite this it remains uncompetitive, with no control over production and distribution globally and as a result modest returns have been realized. On the other hand is track and field; it demonstrates how a commitment to be the best, to provide measurements of success, and to use these measurements to drive improvements and ensure domestic, regional, and global competitiveness. MODULE 1.2: WHAT IS THE KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY AND SOCIETY AND HOW CAN IT HELP JAMAICA? - PROFESSOR CARL DAHLMAN Professor Dahlman commenced with definitions of Knowledge Economy and Knowledge Society:  Knowledge Economy is one in which the generation and exploitation of knowledge play the main role in growth and development  Knowledge society is a society which values the creation, dissemination and use of knowledge and has the infrastructure, physical and social and cultural to support it. In the knowledge based world the most effective use and exploitation of all types of knowledge across all activities will be critical for competitiveness, growth and improvement in welfare. Global Knowledge trends include acceleration in the creation and dissemination of knowledge; increasing globalization; increasing importance of knowledge and competitiveness increasingly based on innovation, education and skills. As competitiveness is increasingly being based on the ability to make effective use of information and technology, to reduce transaction costs and improve capacity to respond quickly to opportunities and threats and having effective logistic infrastructure to reach market; there is increased attention across countries to:  Improving overall business environment  Improving education system  Improving information infrastructure  Improving physical and logistical infrastructure
  • 16. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 15 The new global challenges that have emerged include:  Energy  Environment and climate change  Inflation and Food Security  The great contraction of 2008/2009  Increasing inequality  Global uncertainty and global restructuring  Employment The implications for Knowledge Economy Strategies indicate that countries need to increase their elasticity of response flexibility to react to rapidly changing internal and external circumstances. The countries’ key areas would be improving economic and institutional regimes, including governance, capital, social safety nets and investment climate; as well as improving education and training through quality, relevance and lifelong learning. Other implications for Knowledge Economy Strategies include the strategic use of ICT and enhancing the innovation capability by tapping into the Global Knowledge and adapt to local use to create new and relevant knowledge. Knowledge Economy is equivalent to people with knowledge. Effective strategies make a difference and include Analysis, vision, planning, implementation as well as monitoring evaluation and adjustment. The SWOT analysis for Jamaica indicates opportunities:  To use ICT to overcome constraints to size and distance  To invest in education and enhance human resource  To leverage knowledge to overcome physical constraints  To draw on the Diaspora  To develop service industries e.g. tourism and creative industries In concluding his presentation Professor Dahlman indicated that the coordinated collaborative role of the stakeholders; Government, Businesses, Academia and Civil Society would be the catalyst to bring the opportunities to reality.
  • 17. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 16 MODULE 1.3: KNOWLEDGE – BASED DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES. LESSONS FROM THE GLOBAL EXPERIENCE- DR. JEAN-ERIC AUBERT Dr. Aubert posited that Knowledge-based development strategies are built on four pillars:  Education  ICT  Innovation  High quality business environment The knowledge economy based development countries, Finland, Singapore and South Korea were mentioned as possessing the features of the four pillars. There are countries , on their way to knowledge economy status that focus on only one or two of the pillars while neglecting the others. Usually the focus is on ICT and the neglected pillar is education. There are some critical attitudes shown by countries that are success stories in the knowledge economy. These are a strong sense of identity and culture; ambition; mobilization and speed. The two main strategic dimensions of successful knowledge economy based development are the societal strategy and the industrial strategy.  Highlights of the societal strategy are the building on cultural specificities and creating a climate of trust.  The industrial strategy builds on the natural resources and improving on the sophistication of the industrial ladder. The scaling up and time line for creating a virtuous cycle has an agenda which spans from an immediate to medium term to long term. The pilot projects are on the immediate agenda which then scale up to a critical mass of projects in the medium term. Initiatives from the top down and from the bottom up will impact on the projects after the scaling up and during the medium term agenda. While moving full force with the agenda will result over the long term with the adoption of major reforms and institutional changes. There are however some challenges and problematic evolutions to the Knowledge economy based development strategies.  There is the risk of over confidence which leads to lack of control and or speculation.  There is tension within the society due to inequality; rich and poor; highly qualified and poorly qualified  There are difficulties to overcome certain cultural features which were advantageous in the past but burdensome in the new challenges.
  • 18. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 17 Jamaica is facing a knowledge based transformation opportunity and there are some key steps to be taken to capitalize on the opportunity. Transformation opportunities are set in understanding the issues; building a trust based society with strong and positive identity; as well as possessing collective vision, leadership and exploitable resources. For Jamaica to progress along the knowledge economy development path Jamaica will need to address some key steps such as:  Overcoming individualism and silos at all levels and gathering leadership.  Promoting innovative programmes to create wealth, self confidence and jobs.  Programmes such as inner cities renewal, ICT, creative industries, clusters with linkages e.g. tourism and agriculture, may be opportunities to reap some low hanging fruits.  Piloting socio-political initiatives to transform and build a trust based society through education, social protection and fighting corruption and crime.  Materialising the vision through continuous measurement and evaluation and sharing the outcomes by publicising through all media sources. The government has a great role in knowledge economy based development. Dr. Aubert provided a powerful analogy to that of gardening. Government’s role was presented as “gardening” innovation which includes functions of watering, weeding and nurturing.  By watering, the Government will be providing support for the innovation  By weeding, the Government will be addressing deregulation as well as competition  By nurturing, the Government will be supporting research, education and information
  • 19. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 18 MODULE 1.4: WHAT IS COMPETITIVENESS? - MR. KENNETH HYNES Mr. Hynes commenced by stating that firms compete, not nations. Competitiveness he went on to say includes innovation and an understanding of customer needs. Customer needs can be identified through customer research. Some observations of competitiveness reveal that the issue is a preeminent one in every nation and to upgrade the export competitiveness of nations there is the need for shared understanding of competitiveness within the nation. Competitiveness is not simply about the exchange rate being favourable or having a positive balance of trade, nor is it about the industrial subsidies or low inflation rate. The definition used in this presentation was that competitiveness is the productivity with which resources are deployed. The resources include human resources, capital and physical assets. As competitiveness is hinged on the productive deployment of resources, it is the industry sector and firms within the sector that compete, not nations. Competitiveness was also stated as the ability to offer goods and services that meet quality standards locally and internationally at competitive prices and provide adequate returns on the resources that were employed or consumed in producing that goods or service. Mr. Hynes then used the Porter Diamond to locate competitiveness within the interplay of demand conditions, the behavior of the firm in investing in and supplying these demands, the factor conditions and the related and supporting industries. In the short term, productivity gains may be improved with improvement in government policy, by upgrading the factor conditions and by better use of technology. In the long run it is innovation which is the biggest determinant of competitiveness, with innovation being the ability of firms to design and develop cutting edge products and processes. Innovative firms have certain traits for which they are identified. These firms have high research and development intensity, have high investment in human capital and have their orientation towards export of their goods and services. These firms which display competitiveness have an understanding of customer needs and are capable of having answers to questions of what is being sold to whom; why do the customers buy from their firm and not another competing firm; as well as what prevents the competitors from imitating the goods and services of the firm and capturing the best customers away from the firm. From the innovative capacity which has its beginnings in market research, firms can achieve
  • 20. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 19 competitiveness improvement through productivity growth. The ultimate reality of this competitiveness in firms is prosperity. There are some seven forms of capital which combine and contribute to the stock of wealth of firms and the wealth of nations and these forms of capital can be categorized a social capital and physical capital. Social capital includes cultural capital, human capital, knowledge capital and institutional capital. Elements of cultural capital may be represented through mental mores, norms and tangible articulation, with examples of attitude, acceptable behavior, language and music. Human capital takes into consideration the whole human being, mental and physical, as well as education and training. The elements of knowledge capital include data, concepts and generation of insights. Institutional capital can be seen through good clean governance with transparency and also having a justice system providing predictable regulations. The presence of connective organizations such as chambers of commerce and unions is another element of institutional capital. Within the physical capital forms there are financial capital, man-made capital and national endowments. Financial capital includes wealth in the private and public domain and is embodied in the financial systems. Public wealth for example is the taxes and duties and macroeconomic stability of a nation. Man-made capital of transportation through roads and ports, of power through electric grids and generation capacity, of water distribution and sewage disposal through pipelines and pumping stations form part of the physical capital. The other physical capital is natural endowment. Raw material such as primary agriculture, mineral or petroleum is an element of natural endowment. Environmental issues and climate and location are some other representative elements of the physical capital of natural endowment. All these forms of capital are utilized in the build out of competitiveness and for competitiveness improvement. As competitiveness was defined as the productivity with which resources are deployed, then improvement in competitiveness should reflect improvement in productivity or productivity growth that should scale up to prosperity.
  • 21. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 20 MODULE 1.5: ENHANCING ENTERPRISE COMPETITIVENESS THROUGH STRATEGY AND EFFICIENCY - DR. DENSIL WILLIAMS Dr. Williams commenced his presentation by looking at competitiveness at the national level and opined that if competitiveness is viewed through the lens of productivity improvement instead of competition, then the nation status can achieve competitiveness and this could be seen as a non zero-sum game. He then posed the question, if the same could be said to be true at the firm level. Firm level competitiveness was then reviewed and found to be multifaceted. Competitiveness at the firm level is observed when the enterprise displays the ability to export without preferential treatment and the ability, using local talents and skills, to engage foreign direct investment.
  • 22. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 21 Additionally, the ability to operate at international standards is a sign of competitiveness at the firm level. Enterprises that have the ability to earn above average returns while competing with indigenous enterprises in the free market and have the ability to get things right, are noted as displaying competitiveness at the firm level. There are some common competitive drivers for firms in the Caribbean and Dr. Williams used examples of companies in Jamaica in his presentation for this segment. For the competitive driver of Effective Risk Management, with highly focused activities and with diversification to offset threats, references were made to BNS (Scotia Bank) and Grace respectively. Another competitive driver is the workplace transformation and upgrade of Human Resources and the example of Jamaica Broilers Group was given, with up skilling and appropriate regard to its training as their focus. SuperPlus a local supermarket chain was able to garner good knowledge of the industry and had a broader world view of the enterprise and was able to benchmark against international competition. Caribbean firms possessing competitive drivers focus on innovation, marketing, technology and quality.  Sandals Hotels and Superclubs focus on quality to keep their service competitive.  The marketing thrust employed by Courts in its turnaround, is another competitive driver.  Lasco is innovative in the positioning of its soy-based drink.  Wray & Nephew Ltd., makers of Jamaican rum, has earned the internationally accepted mark of quality through its International Standard Organisation (ISO) certification.  At the company Grace Kennedy, corporate leadership is at the helm and is central to leading change in the organisation The five common competitiveness drivers in Caribbean firms are:  Attention to Risk Management  Workplace Transformation  Benchmark against international competition  Focus on Innovative Marketing Technology and quality  Corporate Leadership With regard to some generic competitive strategies, Dr. Williams looked at where the Caribbean firms should be located and used a 2 x 2 matrix to set out Strategic Advantages and Strategic Target to illustrate the competitive strategies of Cost Leadership, Differentiation (Uniqueness) with Cost Focus and Focused Differentiation.
  • 23. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 22 Strategic Advantage LOW COST DIFFERENTIATION (Uniqueness) StrategicTarget Broad (Industry Wide) Cost Leadership Differentiation Narrow (Particular Segment) Cost Focus Focused Differentiation Dr. Williams in his use of the 2 x 2 matrix, opined that the Caribbean enterprises should be situated in the focused differentiation quadrant where the strategic advantage is high and the strategic target is narrow and there is a particular segment to be targeted. With each strategy there are risks. The risks that may occur from any of the strategic choices identified and must be guarded against include:  How can the strategy be sustained when: o Technological change is fast paced and can easily nullify investment and learning of recent past o Evolution of industry can erode right strategic value and can weaken the defences against the competition. The Value chain analysis was used by Dr. Williams to highlight the operational efficiency of competitiveness of firms where the primary activities of the production of goods and services aided with the support activities – human, financial sourcing and technology can lead to competitive advantage and profit margin. To maintain competitive advantage, efficiency and innovation, all areas of the value chain, must be operated efficiently. Efficiency must be utilised to create greater value, to lower cost and to generate quality output. Dr. Williams then offered some key points to attaining operational efficiency:
  • 24. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 23  Review the current situation against the industry standards  Optimise the business process. Reduce time to market – Business Process Re- engineering (BPR) is a suggested process  Upgrade assets to current industry standards. This helps to lower operational cost  Modernise business thinking o Create new opportunities for outsourcing o share production capabilities  Enhance dynamic efficiency by having a rapid response to new development in the industry while addressing the unique operational challenges. In conclusion, Dr. Williams stated that enterprise competitiveness requires a combination of efficiency and good strategy and an understanding of the industry structure in which the firm is located. The Porter’s five (5) forces model of industry competitiveness was used as a framework for which firms can better understand their industry. DISCUSSIONS ON MODULES 1.1-1.5 The discussion centred around some key themes: Collaboration vs. Competitiveness  There was consensus that a high degree of collaboration is a precondition for competitiveness. One is not inconsistent with the other.  Collaboration internationally can lead to competitiveness. Collaboration can result in lower costs, lower risks and allow access to expertise.  Collaboration is an issue in Jamaica, linked to the factor of trust. People and culture  Jamaicans were characterised as transgressive people, unable to stick to rules and time.  There is a socio-historic factor which has not been studied but which needs to be. This trait is impacting on getting business done, due to the negative approach to work at all levels. The informal norms that have been practised from slavery until now are still in play.  There is however no country in the world that has taken this type of look at itself and Jamaica would be the first if this were to be achieved. This study can be done at the firm level or the macro level.
  • 25. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 24  An opposing view expressed was that there was no special transgressive trait belonging to Jamaicans, rather if the incentive structure allows persons to get away with breaking the rules, then they will.  Studies have shown that those countries that adhere to the rule of law are more competitive and do better economically.  The issue of gender emerged in terms of how women are treated and the resultant lack of leadership. An alternative view was expressed in this regard, as Jamaica’s gender issue may be in fact male marginalisation, which is different from many other countries. Women are in fact far more skilled than the men.  The issue of trust is a major one in the society.  Attitude of workers is critical. If workers are not motivated and disciplined then the desired output cannot be achieved. Macro vs. Micro levels  Will companies succeed despite the macro economic issues  There is a strong interaction between the macro and micro, but the split between the two is not an artificial one. They have to work in tandem.  There needs to be collaboration between government and the private sector  It is worthwhile to examine success stories with different models, as even in challenging macro environments you have companies doing well. Market capitalism vs. Protectionism  If we start viewing competitiveness as a zero sum game, then barriers will be erected. This will distort trade, which results in inefficiency  What should be the role of government. Should government be the one who control the commanding heights of the economy or should government set the framework in which the owners of the commanding heights of the economy operate
  • 26. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 25 DAY ONE – PM SESSION Session Chair: Dr. Densil Williams Overview This session reviewed specific Knowledge Industries and Sectors in the Jamaican economy. MODULE 2.1: REVIEW OF THE ICT SECTOR IN JAMAICA – PROF. EVAN DUGGAN Basing his introduction on a book called “Fault Lines: How Hidden Fractures Still Threaten the World Economy” by Raghuram G. Rajan, Professor Duggan noted that Jamaica has a “network of fault lines” of economic, social and environmental vulnerabilities. There is a paradox that whereas there is growing optimism that ICTs can assist in building resilience to vulnerabilities in Small Island Developing States (SIDS), the vulnerabilities themselves place burdens on the capability of SIDS to employ ICTs effectively and make it sometimes impossible to find the remedies we seek. ICT in Jamaica must be located within the global context and the watershed events in the history of ICT. Major highlights were: the introduction of the ABC computer in 1937; the contribution of the computer architecture by John Von Neumann, which, to this day, is the basis of computer design; the seminal paper by Grace Hopper that provided the impetus for computer programming and information systems; the development of the microprocessor (1968) and the production of the PC by IBM in 1981. These all prompted Time Magazine’s choice of the electronic computer as machine of the year instead of “person of the year”, in 1982. Further developments include (1) digitization which gave the impetus to the convergence of computing and communications technologies and the formulation of standards and protocols which allowed seamless communication between (even incompatible) computers (2) miniaturization (3) the creation of the internet (started in 1969) and then the world-wide web. The cascade of ICT enabled innovations, dramatic improvement in price performance ratios and ubiquity of ICT then ushered in the digital economy and the knowledge society. Implications of the digital economy  Markets have become more competitive,  Customers are more discriminating, more information and choice,
  • 27. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 26  New business models have evolved which facilitate global market and create opportunities for market efficiencies, real time electronic relationships and shared processes (mass customization, co-opetition (cooperative competition)) There have several paradigm shifts in ICTs.  In terms of organizational impact, there has been a move from an internal focus on cost and efficiency, toward an external focus with new IT enabling business models.  In the past there have been distinct branches of computing studies (a) Computer Engineering (b) Computer Science and (c) Information Systems (application of ICT to the solution of business problems). For a long time we have focussed on computer science and only in recent times have we had Information Systems in business schools. This has impacted on our current situation and ability to satisfy our software needs and to participate in software exporting economy. Global ICT Performance Perspectives  Moore’s cost performance prediction accurately stated that, the power of integrated circuits would double every year for the same cost.  Fred Brooks in “No Silver Bullets, The Accidents and Essence of Software Engineering”, castigated the IS community for not taking advantage of the strides in computer science and engineering to establish effective organizational systems. This notion, which existed even before Brooks’ seminal work, had been dubbed the IS paradox and has persisted for a long time.  The Productivity Paradox (first insinuated by Robert Solow) highlighted the apparent disparity between the prevalence of information technology and the absence of its effects in the macroeconomic statistics, but this may have to do with how we measure benefits from the application of IT. The mere investment in ICT will not in and of itself produce benefits; effective use is considered a first order benefit and other factors that can mediate the realization of benefit include organizational capability, deployment effectiveness and change management. The Jamaican situation Jamaica has had positive experiences in some regards. For example, the liberalization of the telecommunications sector created competition and drove down prices and led to improved services. Similarly, the auctioning of the radio frequency spectrum and legislation to facilitate secure electronic transactions provided a useful climate for innovation. Over past years, much use has been made of GIS systems to combine spatial and location data to help us to make
  • 28. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 27 better decisions and there have also been some notable strides in the area of e-government. However, developments such as the creation of the Central Information Technology Office (CITO) and the development of the National ICT Strategy have not fulfilled their good intentions. Some institution (like CITO) with the overarching responsibility for the ownership of the provision and implementation of the national ICT strategy needs to be properly resourced and given the requisite authority to pursue activities to provide the impetus to apply technology; not merely to access and use acquired technology. Acquired innovations are useful and necessary, but real transformational benefits will only come from indigenous innovation. The ICT Strategic Plan (2006, Duggan, Dunn) has remained on the shelf. Professor Duggan noted that Jamaica kept pace with the best in Information Technology up to mid 1980s, after which many organizations dismantled their mainframe environments for a network of, and in some cases a group of unconnected, personal computers. The country has never recovered from the loss of human capital and familiarity with software production methods. Given the flight of human and economic capital, coupled with inadequate tertiary training in the area, Jamaica now relies on outsourcing and commercial off the shelf software. The absence of indigenous software is notable and it is reported that the English speaking Caribbean is the only regional block that does not have a significant presence in the software export market. Yet, like most developing countries, Jamaica staked a great deal of optimism on ICT as catalytic in building resilience to well known vulnerabilities. The frustration of not realizing some of the sought benefits has created a somewhat over focus on the digital divide and consequently on improving our ranking on the Network Readiness Index. Perceptions of ICT and Competitiveness in Jamaica While the focus on the digital divide is fairly new, the phenomenon has been with us for some time. For example, we make very little use of Business Intelligence (Data Warehousing, Data Mining, and Business Analytics), Knowledge Management Systems, Customer Relationship Management Systems, Intelligent Systems, and the concept of disintermediation (using ICT to remove intermediaries in order to reduce bureaucracy and corruption and increase efficiency and transparency). While these are not as consequential Internet-based innovations, they allow global competitors to outperform us. The digital divide has two elements - the external and the internal divide; both are problematic. The external divide is problematic because it permits the progressive encroachment of “digitally rich” nations whose competitive reach has now extended into commercial terrains that were once our exclusive purview and we do not have the capacity to reciprocate effectively. The
  • 29. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 28 internal divide permits entire sections of the society to be excluded from ICT-enabled opportunities for education and social mobility. In response, Jamaica has been building up ICT infrastructure of acquired innovations. However, the application of ICT to effect economic and social transformation, demands indigenous innovations; that is, maximally employing our stock of acquired innovations to generate solutions to our peculiar problems. In this regard, readiness is not a surrogate for effectiveness. Recommendations In the short term:  Focus on MDGs and use the acquired stock of ICT to do this  The Strategic Roadmap developed in the Dunn & Duggan ICT Strategy 2006 is still useful for implementing ICT in Jamaica.  Implement ICT governance – at the national level  Engage in ICT environmental scanning In the Longer term:  Focus on digital maturity effectiveness instead of “readiness” that is maximally employ the stock of acquired ICT to generate indigenous innovations to solve problems of national importance, and then eventually to innovate and alter the ICT producer/consumer ratio  Develop human capital to build the ICT industry, to pursue indigenous innovation  Assist SMEs to utilize ICTs effectively  Participate in the global software market MODULE 2.2: ENABLING THE KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY IN JAMAICA AND THE CARIBBEAN: THE ROLE OF CAPACITY-BUILDING IN DEVELOPMENT – PROF. HOPETON DUNN Professor Dunn’s presentation consisted of two parts: Part 1: Some thoughts on the knowledge society and the role of capacity building. Part 2: Selected outcomes of Recent Caribbean ICT Indicators and Broadband survey. Noting that knowledge is contextual, cultural, dynamic and evolving, Professor Dunn observed that the Information society is not based simply on technology. Drivers of knowledge differ from era to era and continue to vary through time. He noted that there needs to be a more dynamic notion of knowledge. The concept of knowledge societies covers political, economic, ideological and ethical aspects of society.
  • 30. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 29 Capacity building is crucial to the success of building the knowledge society. This knowledge society should be inclusive and span a wide range of social and economic groupings. That leads to a process of building a knowledge society based on a highly educated workforce, with a capacity for applied knowledge from within and outside of formal schooling. Knowledge must be accessible, in the context of geographic location, must be affordable and address varying levels of abilities, skills and interest. The present educational system in Jamaica privileges grammar schooling to a large extent, while the world is developing a broader approach, much of which is based on technology. Capacity building therefore has a multi dimensional nature including a geographic dimension (not just urban centres), distributional equity dimension (share the network in inner city areas) and the disability dimension (tapping the talent of the variably able). Key Observations:  Education remains a foundation requirement for knowledge society.  Ensure availability of learning tools to stimulate empowerment of people.  Privilege the ideas of young people and capture the ideas of the digital 'natives' and not just those of the so-called digital 'migrant'.  Seek to invest in innovation and disrupt old knowledge systems in order to build new ones. For example, the notion of mobility and the mobile phone as a disruptive technology transforms access to knowledge to a more dynamic resource available any time and at any place. This has enabled a lot of leapfrogging across pre-existing systems and social groups which can help to empower people.  Resourcing the knowledge society is an important challenge.  Public private partnerships are crucial but government must be leaders in use as well as in the setting of the framework through public policies and strategy.  The Universal Access Fund in Jamaica has collected approximately J$7 billion over the last five years. There is need for better deployment and more repurposing of these resources to help to grow the knowledge society beyond the walls of the school system and into the communities.  The LIME/FLOW partnership ($543M) is encouraging but also one to be examined in terms of the feasibility in targeting just schools. We need to be going into the wider community and seek to use the technology for development among the youth.  The role of research and greater international collaboration in this area is crucial. The academy should be able to provide indigenous research, benchmarked against international partners while placing an emphasis on promoting evidence based decision making.
  • 31. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 30 Highlights of the Findings of the Caribbean ICT and Broadband Survey The study conducted by the Telecommunications Policy and Management (TPM) Programme of the Mona School of Business, UWI, on broadband usage and ICT Indicators in Jamaica was recently completed. This was done under Prof. Dunn's leadership, in association with the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) of Canada and the Statistical Institute of Jamaica (STATIN), among other partners. The respondents represent an adequate and diverse base for analysis. The dimensions of analysis include location (Kingston Metropolitan Area, Other Urban Centres, Rural and National), age range (10 years and older), gender and diverse occupational categories. Some of the findings were as follows:  15.6% of households have internet access at home, meaning that 84% of homes are without home-based internet access.  24% of households have computer access at home, indicating that 76% of homes do not have dedicated computers.  Among internet non-users, 32.4% of respondents indicated the high cost of equipment as the main inhibitor (access), 23.9% indicated no need or interest (pointing to the need for public education). Other reasons include the high cost of internet service, the lack of availability of the service in certain areas and a lack of skill in using the necessary equipment, (an indicator of the need for more widespread training).  Urban centres (KMA and Other Urban Centres) saw the majority of internet usage (60%) (continuing the rural/urban digital divide), while more females (53%) used the internet when compared with males.  Among internet users, 43% used the internet at home, 36.6% at place of education, 28.4% at another person’s home, 22.5% at their workplace and 18% at a commercial internet facility. These data indicate the need for a strategy to build capacity in the home in addition to other spaces. Access via mobile devices can present limitations because of the user interface issues such as the small size of the screen and keyboard.  In terms of internet activities, 76.9% of respondents used the internet to send/receive emails, while 71.7% used it for social networking, formal education and learning.  52.6% of internet users had a fixed broadband connection, with 33.4% having access to mobile broadband.  74.5% of respondents have heard of accessing the internet via the mobile telephone, but have never used it. Although this is a growing trend, the survey showed that it was still not in widespread use in Jamaica.  Household monthly expenditure for Internet service peaked between $2001 - $4200 per month.
  • 32. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 31  As with internet usage, computer usage is higher among females (54.1%) and in urban areas (58.9%), again reaffirming the divides in terms of location and gender. Conclusions: The data suggests lower than desirable levels of access and continuation of the digital divide in Jamaica. These disappointing trends were consistent with the latest ICT Readiness Index produced by the World Economic Forum and which saw Jamaica tumbling several places in comparison to past performance and in relation to regional and global comparators. To ensure regional and global competitiveness, Jamaica will need to employ better strategic ICT planning and implementation in order to reap the potential benefits from the emerging new digital economy whose 'sunrise' sectors can supplement or substitute for the older sunset industries in the knowledge economy of the region. MODULE 2.3: REVIEW OF THE HOSPITALITY AND TOURISM SECTOR IN JAMAICA – DR. CAROLYN HAYLE Dr. Hayle began by noting that tourism is big business and is more than accommodation. The World Trade Organization estimated over 880 million international travellers in 2009 yielding US$900 billion. The Caribbean Region gets a small percentage of the international travel, but has been doing well. For Jamaica, data for 2010 shows arrivals of 2.8 million from the main source markets of USA, UK, EU and Japan, with US$1.975 in earnings. The importance of the source market is that tourism is usually based on foreign policy. An examination of the history of Jamaican tourism industry shows that it began with the London Trade Exhibition of 1851 and the consequent plans to host the 1891 Exhibition in Kingston. The development of the hotel industry was encouraged which would support the exhibition. Tourism is predicated on the nature of the accommodation sector. The first laws to support Tourism were passed in 1890 also to facilitate the trade exhibition. Over the years, Tourism continued to be driven by externalities, expanding into villa rentals and resort cottages with the onset of World War 2. These events drove the development of Montego Bay and Negril in the 1970s. Against this background, there was the development of National Tourism Organizations (NTOs) in Jamaica. The purpose of the Tourism organizations in Jamaica and the Caribbean is only now being defined. This is in contrast to other countries such as France where the tourism was a strategic choice and NTOs had a clearly defined purpose and structure. Dr. Hayle suggested that the Caribbean “happened upon tourism” and its development closely patterns colonialism
  • 33. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 32 and dependency. Research shows that this type of tourism was driven by trade which focussed on the enrichment of the generating markets rather than the needs of the local market. Gradually, Tourism moved from its focus as an outcome of trade to the actual industry. Starting with the Tourist Trade Development Board in 1922, a number of organizations/agencies have been created including the Ministry of Tourism in 1980 and the Tourism Product Development Company in 1996. With these organizations and agencies came the development of the legislative framework, including inter- alia, the Tourism Board Act, Hotel Incentive Act and Bath and Spas Act, River Rafting Authority Act and regulations such as the Travel Agency and Law Regulations and the Small Hotel Incentive Grant. In addition to the public sector structures, there are private sector institutional structure such as the Jamaica Hotel and Tourist Association. Why Tourism? Development is a western concept based on consumerism (Telfer and Sharpley 2002). Tourism by itself does not contribute to economic development, but it is a fully developed supply chain behind tourism that does. Consumerism is a driver for this development. Development is based on strategic choices by the Government and is based on a focus on the unique circumstances and vision of individual countries. It is achieved within the context of International Trade and Regulations which is then broken down to the national Regulatory Framework and driven through a National Planning Strategy. Tourism in Jamaica is based on a strategic choice by the Government of Jamaica and it is one of the choices of the Vision 2030 which seeks to “realize a vision of an inclusive, world class, distinctly Jamaican industry that is a major contributor to socio-economic and cultural development....” Linkage is critical. The challenge Dr. Hayle noted, is how to link this vision with the rest of the economy. She also noted that the focus remains on the tourism industry and not the tourism system, which consists of the generating market and the transit route which is the global distribution systems including the ICT. We have failed in not using research to craft our own destination and the industry. The success of the strategic choice can be influenced by Doxey’s Irritation Index. When tourism is introduced to a country for the first time, everyone is excited by the prospects which over time transforms to other attitudes, apathy, annoyance and antagonism. At this last stage, the strategic choice will fail. Within this context, possible roles for the NTOs include economic, environmental and social. Jamaica is focussing on all the elements for sustainable results. How do they interconnect?
  • 34. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 33 The tourism industry is composed of 8 sectors, Adventure, Travel Trade, Food and Beverage, Accommodation, Attractions, Events and Conferences, Tourism Services and Transportation. Most of focus is on the hospitality sector (food and beverage and accommodation), but some of the others are more lucrative. An examination of the elements of the Global Competitiveness Index for tourism shows that many of these are not driven by tourism. Therefore, there needs to be a strong linkage with these areas since they are used to measure tourism performance itself. This requires an integrated approach to infrastructure and management of all processes. It was noted that, based on the Global Competitiveness Index, culture and natural resources do not fall under the tourism strategy, but are integral to its performance. Management of Vision 2030 therefore needs to be cohesive and integrated. Dr. Hayle discussed the issue of the Creative Industries which presents many important opportunities as it encompasses a Caribbean lifestyle (music, fashion, visual and performing arts, sports, food etc). The strategy is to create a lifestyle that can be used as a platform to target other markets with similar lifestyles. Selection of Choices Strategic choices are influenced by underlying issues of ownership, equity, structures and systems. In the 1980s, most of properties were Jamaican owned and the leakage was lower than it is now. Foreign direct investment and globalization use a vertical growth strategy as their business model, influenced by transnationals. In response, Jamaica has created the events strategy which is a horizontal growth strategy. Events are the drivers of “heads to beds.” With support from the Tourism Enhancement Fund, money ($1M) is used to drive events in sports, music, heritage, literary arts etc. The supply chain behind these events is also supported through this strategy. A similar strategy is needed for community tourism which is small business management using the 8 sectors of tourism to capture the supply chain. Dr. Hayle noted that Jamaica has failed in these areas because of the tendency to operate in silos and general lack of accountability. Core ministries which support Tourism are Education and Environment. Primary infrastructure is critical and other ministries and agencies provide secondary support. The Caribbean has unique products (people, food, heritage, culture and natural environment), all of which can be used create lifestyle products to gain competitive advantage. Tourism is a critical tool for national development, moving from the strategy to good quality service which will lead to increased visitor expenditure, improved HDI, enhanced visitor experience and eventually to repeat visitors. It was noted that Jamaica has a high rate of repeat business. This shows that understanding the generating market is critical.
  • 35. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 34 Tourism hidden secrets  A need to focus on the tourism system instead of the industry.  Tourism is cyclical (6-7 years). There is the need therefore to build individual business/sectors that are associated with tourism, so that they can be sustained when the sector goes down. Planning for sustainable tourism Critical to this are the following:  Maximizing the multiplier effect and minimizing leakages.  Using the cluster approach (e.g. JAMPRO PSDP project).  Working on data to inform strategies – tourism satellite accounts.  Getting market intelligence.  Building trust (public/private partnership). The external trade environment and the generating markets are not clearly understood. Addressing this requires a managed process which will lead to sustainable tourism, “a management process which seeks to design implement, monitor and evaluate all aspects of tourism to ensure inter and intra-generational equity and repeated customer experiences that are based on value propositions.” MODULE 2.4: REVIEW OF THE AGRICULTURE SECTOR IN JAMAICA – DR. ANDRE GORDON Most developed countries depend on domestic agriculture to meet a variety of needs including food security, earning foreign exchange and preventing rural/urban drift. Dr. Gordon noted that Jamaica is no different and is also faced with a constantly changing environment. However, Jamaica has a relatively well developed and diverse agriculture and agribusiness sector. In the context of the current economic environment and because of growing global demand for food and fuel, a strong and competitive agricultural sector is now critical for Jamaica’s development. In the 1990s agricultural policies focused on retention of preferences for traditional crops and, as agriculture was not seen as a major driver for economic growth, it was de-emphasised. In the post 2004 period, new and more focused strategies were put in place, including specific sector strategies focused mainly on traditional crops such as citrus, banana and coffee. An assessment of Jamaica’s agricultural policies by CARICOM Regional Transformation Project (2005) found that policy measures were non-specific, raised the possible danger of the policies
  • 36. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 35 preventing commodities from achieving their potential and recommended the formulation of more detailed strategies for some identified commodities. Issues and challenges identified in current agricultural policy include declining competitiveness, limited application of modern technology, limited resources, an aging workforce, gaps in key infrastructure, loss of agricultural land to housing and environmental issues. The overall strategy is to contribute to growth and development through inter alia, employment creation, increased export earnings, stabilization, restoring lost productivity, development of agri- industry, involving youth in agriculture and promoting integrated rural development. Dr. Gordon presented data on performance trends in agriculture.  For traditional crops, there have been declines in bananas and coffee and increases in citrus and cocoa (though not at previous levels).  Data (2008) shows no substantial change in land use patterns.  The Crop Production Index shows relatively low production between 1968-1992, increasing in the 1990s, but now declining.  Domestic Food production increased in the 1990s but has been trending down, showing some recovery over the last few years.  Economically active population in agriculture has been declining since 1980.  Value added per worker was highest in the period of greatest economic turmoil (1995- 1997, declining in 1998.  Livestock sector has grown.  Use of fertilizer/hectare of arable land is much lower than what it used to be, representing a challenge and an opportunity.  Age distribution of Jamaican farmers (2002) shows more than 70% of farmers are below the age of 50 with an increasing percentage below the age of 30. This shows that younger people had started to go into agriculture.  In terms of export value of selected traditional products, despite increased production, the value of exports are down, with the exception of rum.  Value of nontraditional exports – Yam exports have grown significantly, ackee, fish, baked products, juice and sauces have been doing well and all are supported by domestic agriculture production,  There are a few crops which have shown increases, but in general there has not been significant growth. Given the current status of the agricultural sector, there is the need to focus on building sustainable global competitiveness by having the right information, understanding what is happening and applying the available technology. Dr. Gordon defined competitiveness as
  • 37. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 36 “Developing the capacity and systems to deliver goods and services, as, when and where needed, in the desired quantity and at the expected level of quality to discerning customers willing to pay a price for them that is profitable to the business.” There is the need to develop world class technology in a practical manner that is respectful of culture, people, organization and countries involved, that is, the knowledge circle. In focusing on information generation, access and use, it is noted that a key objective is to earn foreign exchange. However, Dr. Gordon pointed out that in some instances Jamaica was not exporting very smartly. For example, most exports go to New York which has the largest population, but was in the middle in terms of the population of West Indians or persons pre- disposed to buying our products. Jamaica continues to compete on price, rather than using targeted marketing. There is information on the fastest growing sectors, including medicinal and pharmaceutical products, the Jamaica EU profile shows growth and declining markets. Why do the policies not utilize such information? Key Global Trend  Food safety. Microorganisms are a reality which kills any brand. Bad press kills a brand. We need to understand how integrated the knowledge economy is. In January 2011 The Food Safety Modernization Act was passed in USA which gives the US government the right to inspect everything exported to their markets, including factories in overseas territories. This means that while domestic regulations are important, those of the global markets are far more so. There is significant need to implement food safety standards throughout the agricultural system in Jamaica. Application of technology The main requirements are knowledge-based soft technologies, a combination of systems technologies, specifically tailored, requiring highly competent experienced practitioners, incorporation of lessons learned and more people-oriented, less capital intensive approaches. The focus is best applied in clusters or value chains and should be based on problem solving, gaining and maintaining market access and systems implementation. These build competitive advantage and create differentiation in the market. Examples of Knowledge Application  The case for ackee exports required convincing persons that we understood the science behind the fruit and could implement food safety systems. This was done sensitive to cultural practices and this has led to a sustained transformation of the sector, allowing access to a previously closed market. By applying knowledge technologies, required changes are possible.
  • 38. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 37  The case of the Jamaica Business Recovery Programme. This required building the value chain by understanding the buyer-producer relationship as an enterprise and using soft technologies as a tool for achieving objectives. Highly knowledge intensive technologies were required. The programme provided complete production details, leading to better yields and quality and many young people saw agriculture as a business and a career. This has formed the basis for technology led agriculture being practiced in Jamaica today. Ultimately Dr. Gordon noted that there is the need to change the nature of the game, starting with the objective, planning without limitations and ignoring the rules of play. If agriculture is to make a difference in Jamaica, there needs to be excellence, defined as “ the result of caring more than others think is wise, risking more than others think is safe, dreaming more than others think is practical and expecting more than others think is possible.” DISCUSSIONS ON MODULES 2.1-2.4 The ICT Sector  On the issue of open clouds technology as a real replacement for mainframe technology, Professor Duggan remarked that it was available and used by some, though maybe not as well known. For example, the Centre of Excellence, MSB focuses on using methods such as cloud computing to assist SMEs.  The issue of ICT governance was raised and it was opined that there is no standard and leadership of how to employ ICT service management, that is, how to get service from the technology. In response, Professor Duggan noted that IT governance is focussed on enterprise governance at the corporate level. At the corporate level, governance is required to get benefits from investments, minimize the risks while aligning corporate strategies with IT strategies and measuring and managing performance. The same strategy has to be applied at the national level. In Jamaica, given the vulnerabilities such as, economic dependence on FDI and crime and corruption, we need to focus on leveraging investments in ICTs for development. It was noted that the CITO was never properly resourced and never had the status to provide the right governance structure to ensure that technology is applied for the benefit of the country.  Professor Dunn agreed that Jamaica has an inconsistent, almost absent ICT governance, however the problem and need is much wider. ICTs must be applied to a wide range of
  • 39. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 38 sectors for knowledge–driven development and the hub must be in the Cabinet office where it can pervade all Ministries. However, the expertise is not available at the highest level and there is no feeling of ownership or involvement. On the other hand, it was argued that each Minister ought to drive ICT through Cabinet, instead of out of the Cabinet office. The Cabinet Office services the conjoint needs of the different Ministers and ICTs should not be pigeonholed as the purview of a particular Minister. Another point of view was that the regardless of the coordination mechanism, the important thing was for the entity to be appropriately resourced and have the stature to effectively implement the policy and that there are penalties for circumvention of authority.  Given the demographics of Jamaica (70% are 40 years and under), it was observed that young people were not invited to contribute to this and other similar dialogue. Where are the digital natives? There is the need to give the young people a voice. This needs to be taken actively on board. It was noted that we need to empower, engage and involve a new kind of learner. Many leaders in global ICTs start sub-30 years.  The concern was raised with regard to computer access in community centres. How it is distributed in terms of rural/urban areas. Is that a viable option for increasing access? Additionally, the use of wireless vis-a-vis wired access. Access in community centres ranked 5th in the order (based on the Telecommunications Survey), partly due to the availability of such centres. More centres and education about the value, can lead to increased usage. Wireless is the fastest growing form of access and so there is need for public policy to expand access in line with previous recommendations.  Generally, we have failed to recognize the value of social media. Social media can provide a real time understanding of the market which is core to competitiveness. Business and government (for connection) need to leverage social media. According to the recent MSB survey, 72 % of respondents were engaged in social media. It is now an important part of communication, endowed with business possibilities. It was noted however that technologies are important, but these will not of themselves provide transformational benefits. There is need for a coordinated national strategy which will lead to transformational development. The Agriculture Sector  What about the focus on organic and raw foods in terms of new global trends as a niche producer. There are growing markets for speciality foods, but these require systems, the soft technology, the knowledge and understanding of what the market wants. These
  • 40. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 39 are not high volume markets, but these are niche markets which Jamaica can do well, but this requires a different level of knowledge intensity, implementation and approach.  Export volume has fallen but there is an increase in value. In expounding on the need to look at higher value chain products as a way to go as a niche producer, the strategy should be to identify what we produce now, how much we can produce based on best practices and then finding the markets which will give the best possible price. We don’t have to produce on price. We need to do the market research.  Why is the production of medical marijuana not being discussed as a means of putting money into the public purse as well as breaking the underground economy? The issue goes back to being willing to change the game in our interest and developing a strategic approach to make it happen. There is no reason why this should not be done. There are issues to do with barriers to trade. Persons have created products from marijuana, but we are not allowed into the US market. We have to know the rules of the game and change them. A similar case is that of the value- added on the tickets and the issue of taking it to the WTO. We must not be afraid due to our size.  With regard to the supposed shift in land for agriculture, to housing, it was noted that there is a propensity to complain rather than do something. Is it an issue of an absence of will rather than a real problem. Dr. Gordon noted that there has been no significant loss of land to housing, however if not careful, this can happen in the case of prime land, which is a policy issue.  Following the rise of technologies between 1995 and 1996, what has happened to aqua culture, where is the investment and why is it not taking place? There was a confluence of renewed activities at the time which reflected in the high activity. When traditional crops declined, activity fell. There is a programme with inner city areas with ornamental fish. It is about providing opportunity and shifting the paradigm. The Tourism Sector  What about health tourism? Dr. Hayle noted that Health tourism and Wellness are often confused. Wellness has potential for driving the supply chain and community based tourism. Health tourism is more lucrative. They are two important segments and we have the talent to service both in Jamaica. The value added from agriculture is important as a feeder to the tourism industry (wellness and health tourism). We need to look at the value added chain in terms of pharmaceuticals and nutriceuticals.
  • 41. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 40 JAMPRO’s focus on a wellness cluster has led to development of shampoos and soaps which are marketed through the hotels.  On the matter of the observation that the all inclusive concept does not support the supply chain, it was noted that all inclusive is a marketing strategy not a product. It does work; e.g. an all inclusive hotel has a company which sells tours to the hotel. Additionally, events like Jazz and Blues are sold as an all inclusive concept. Other issues  In terms of barriers to trade, there is an issue of reciprocity re USA policy. However, Dr. Gordon noted that we have spent too long complaining about what the world is doing to us rather than looking at the opportunities that exist. We need to look at ourselves and try to get the systems right. This will create access to markets which many other countries are not able to access if we are serious. The drive to food safety is a plus for Jamaica. Trade barriers will always be there, but these are driven by the consumers in the other markets. It does not call for an emotional response, but rather careful assessments.  Distributive trade is 50 % of the economy as the margins are very high on inputs and we cannot compete in manufacturing. It is because of the Jamaican paradigm and therefore how we operate is based on making money through trading. In Trinidad, money is to be made in manufacturing.  Is policy making based on pilots? Over years of work, companies such as the Competitiveness Co. has built on past knowledge and going forward strategically, implementing with the best people available local or overseas. The Jamaica Business Recovery Programme for example was based on taking, assessing the data and coming up with an effective strategic plan and implementing with the best people available (local/overseas). Does the Government apply a pilot approach? Some organizations use that approach, but there is no consistency.  The definition of excellence raises the question if we are bold enough to break the rules. Are we prepared to do the things necessary, equal to the stated conviction? Our history shows that we do have the courage to break stereotypes and barriers. It takes an individual mindset turned collective. The challenge is that we do not naturally collaborate. All pilots were done by working collectively and under the radar. We need to identify those things that have worked well and study them.
  • 42. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 41 Wrap up In wrapping up the discussions, Dr. Williams noted the key points of discussion as:  The evolution of the ICT sector globally and in Jamaica.  The tourism sector is more than accommodation.  The critical role of education in creating a knowledge-based society and driving evidence based decision making.  What are the emerging areas in a dying agricultural sector and how can we overcome the barriers. MODULE 2.5: BRAINSTORMING SESSION -DR. JEAN-ERIC AUBERT & PROF. CARL DAHLMAN The module allowed for brainstorming on key issues to be considered in the Knowledge Economy strategy, to be elaborated on the second day afternoon. Participants were asked to reflect based on the first day of presentations and discussions. Professor Carl Dahlman noted that the morning session of Day 1 focussed on challenges faced by Jamaica whilst the afternoon session concentrated on the opportunities. Some key questions arising from the presentation and discussions were:  What are the low hanging fruit?  What are required to bring them to fruition? How do we break the culture of lack of collaboration?  What resources (human and financial, local and overseas) are needed?  What is required for implementation? Key areas were highlighted.  The potential of ICT was seen as a major contributor to competitiveness. The issue is how to move the sector such that it can lead to concrete actions, reduce transaction costs and improve other sectors of the economy.  The role of education. There is a need for people who have the skills and knowledge to follow through for all sectors of the economy. How can ICTs help in provision of the education to provide the right kind of human capital? Dr. Aubert made observations about the Jamaica economy and the psyche.  There are many success stories.  There are low hanging fruits  There are organizations which function well with a lot of potential
  • 43. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 42  Transgressive capacity has negative aspects, but also positive aspects if one recognizes that innovators are fundamentally deviant.  Fundamental optimism gives a capacity to rebound, however can be easily satisfied with small progress without real systemic change  Fragmented society is an issue. Things are understood, but psyche reflects in the lack of move toward real change.  There is a need to think of well designed pilot approaches not only to the economic sector but also social aspects such as education, inner city development etc.  There is a need to do analytical work – Assessment for where you are coming from and cognitive work which tests capacity for action on small well defined targets and gradually build up confidence.  There is need to generate a self knowledge society; one that knows about itself and has the will to implement change. A number of points were made in the ensuing discussions as follows:  The example of Mexico was used to highlight a situation where there was a law that all social policies had to demonstrate impact assessment, which would ensure that the questions of who leads, who monitors and evaluates are answered. Can the private sector take the lead in such an approach?  Research and Development and Innovation at the macro level, how do we operationalise what needs to be done? How to get policy leadership? At the micro level, how do we get the innovation and R&D to have pilot ideas of innovative applications of knowledge? How do we frame the R&D for a meaningful way forward?  How can we maximize and leverage Agriculture and Tourism? Working from a sound theoretical framework, try to prove best practices in the Jamaican setting, analyse and document the learning, build on the positive and try new things. The philosophy was that if you want to be among the best, we have to go to the best in the world, locally or overseas, set the objectives and work out the approach without limitations. Target Europe 2: the objective is to identify the markets in Europe which can pay high prices and work back to the firms that should be able to deliver. It was noted that Jamaica does not have an enabling environment; many stumbling blocks by Government.  With respect to tourism, it is an export industry. Tourism is used to make sure goods and services are market ready. Market intelligence from the tourism sector is critical in taking us to the various export markets. Lifestyle is very powerful from a marketing
  • 44. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 43 perspective. This is then linked through the sectors to create the products. There is a need to focus on training at all levels on productivity, innovation and competitiveness, standards, certification and environmental issues in the private sector. An enabling environment needs to be created and it is an opportune time for the Cabinet secretary to find the synergies and implement with a monitoring mechanism. The critical issue is the coordination.  Private sector performance in the global productivity index is average while the Government has failed. To improve competitiveness at least within the context of the CARICOM states, we need to use the variables used to rank the competitiveness index and see how we can improve on those in the shortest possible time.  Over past 15 years, Jamaica has attracted foreign investment (25% of GDP) and therefore we should have been growing at higher rates. However there are obstacles such as implementation deficit incompetence at public, private sectors and regulations. We need to consciously identify ways to tackle each of the variables in the indices. We need broader governance systems to ensure that returns can be attracted to the economy. Action items  There needs to be serious sensitization of key stakeholders. Major stakeholders do not understand what the concept of competition is.  Define Jamaica’s “diamond” of national competitiveness. We can look at a small hub of diamonds – require driven leadership, locally, from the Diaspora and then the larger community of international players.  What are the most critical institutions for competitiveness and what can we do to strength these institutions? Note the absence of continuity in some sectors, e.g. in ICT governance. The Governance structure needs to be fixed.  The lack of enabling environment is driving away investment. We need to focus on how we use ICT to make bureaucratic red-tape redundant and create an enabling environment. We need to create more agile Government organizations, promote transparency and reduce corruption through disintermediation.  Many of the pillars discussed are already included in the Vision 2030 and the ICT plan however the interconnectivity between sectors is not strong. There needs to be full integration of ICT into all the aspects of the plan. We need to look at the Vision 2030 through the lens of developing a knowledge society, see how it can be deepened and put in place the relevant support structures for implementation.
  • 45. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 44  In Jamaica, we are good at writing policies, but not at implementation. Universities need to get together to see what the Jamaican society needs and what are the possible training solutions. We are not looking at transformation in the right way. We need to find ways to involve different groups of people to get the required changes. The dialogue highlighted the potential of some parts of the private sector and Government bureaucracy as a hindrance. The solutions need to address how to expand the understanding of what is at stake, to identify and convince champions and how to focus on concrete things. Dr. Aubert remarked that we need to have a change process that permeates all of the society. We also need to think through the process of change, including the procedures and incentives, adapted to the different issues which need to be tackled in a concrete manner.
  • 46. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 45 DAY TWO - AM SESSION Session Chair: Prof. Evan Duggan Objective of Session: To examine the issues and policies related to two critical knowledge economy pillars –education and innovation. INTRODUCTION The conference has provided some important insights and will seek to find the answers to some troubling questions. The session dealt with education and innovation. The nexus between both provides the capability of powerful and important synergies. The presentations covered the following issues:  Innovation factors and the global value chain: Entrepreneurial activity does not equate to innovation. We need to create the linkage between both.  How we can market and monetize the creative industries and repatriate some of the profits?  Talent Management and how to make intelligent human capital investments.  Vision 2030: Objective to transform Jamaica to a developed country. Can we find the diligence and tenacity using the intelligence we have in Jamaica and unusual approaches?  Knowledge management – How to harness and protect the knowledge of the organization to enhance competitiveness. MODULE 3.1: GLOBAL VALUE CHAINS AND COMPETITIVENES – MR. KENNETH HYNES The presentation by Mr. Hynes addressed four areas:  What constitutes value  Overview of Value Chains  Trends and Implications  Action Planning for Jamaica Using the example of two differently priced, but similar mangoes, Mr. Hynes demonstrated that value is not just about the product and has four 4 dimensions.  Time (Quicker is better)  Quality (depends on product and sector)  Service (Pre, During or Post Sale)
  • 47. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 46  Total cost – What is the total transaction cost, including variables such as travel and other transactions costs? The importance of value chains was underscored, that is, the set of activities that have to be sequenced to bring a product to market, in time, with high quality and follow up in a reliable way. A look at primary value chain activities (inbound logistics- operations-outbound logistics- marketing and sales- services) shows that all have to be coordinated in order to be competitive. All may be a source of competitive advantage. Logistics is an important aspect of competitive advantage. For example, in the case of Kenya as a dominant provider of horticulture in Europe, the product supplied is identical to other counties, but the difference is logistics. Three ways to strengthen a value chain:  Improve a segment of the value chain.  Remove a component that destroys value.  Align and co-ordinate the components of the value chain. Collaboration is an essential pre-condition to a competitive industry. ICT and transportation have globalized the value chain, with different parts of the value chain all over the world, for example, the value chain for apparel. Why is this relevant?  Outsourcing: No geographical limitations.  Market Access: Finding your place in the value chain is how markets are accessed.  Global Standards: There is a strict definition of what constitutes quality e.g. ISO. HACCAP. Standards are getting higher, but they are well defined. Key trends:  Rise of BRICs  Demographics (aging population in the west)  Sectors ( Finance and IT convergence)  Marketing and the rise of social media  Development, (additional 4 billion people represents a huge potential untapped market) Most importantly, affecting Jamaica and SMEs is a global value chain which means on the demand side, more choice for consumers and on the supply side, a decision about whom and where to target. This is positive, but it also represents a challenge.
  • 48. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 47 Implications for Jamaican firms  There is no margin for error in terms of product quality and operational efficiency. Focus and specialization are paramount. What is important is timeliness and reliability not simply getting the product to the market. In Jamaica, SMEs have become more specialized and have a greater understanding of where they lie on the value chain and what constitutes value.  Firms need to be thinking about the elements which bring competitive advantage, including choice of advantage (low cost or differentiated), choice of scope (geographic, segment etc) and choice of technology (leader or follower). Mr. Hynes noted that a good strategy integrates all the choices and should be informed by market research. Firms need to know exactly what the players consider to be value. This reinforces the need for specialization and collaboration. Action Planning Conversations re competitive issues in Jamaica follow a recurring pattern. Therefore, what is going to be different? Overcoming barriers to change must address a number of factors:  Mistrust (public/private sector), silos, fragmented private sector which can be reflective of social engagement but people like to do their own thing.  Lack of ownership.  Fear of failure - Social reputation has a high cost.  Pessimism - Maintaining momentum is difficult. The barriers to change are many and therefore any action ought to be a change process. The question is however, is there the wherewithal and commitment to see it through. There are five preconditions for change to occur.  Tension – disconnect with current state  Belief – change is possible  Insight through research  Receptivity – broad based openness to working together  Leadership – ensuring that preconditions for change are maintained or increased. Assuming that the financial and human capital resources are available, some thoughts on action planning going forward include the following:  Adopt the pilot approach - Let’s try something new;  A well defined objective is needed;  Plans should be limited in scope, in terms of outcomes and participants;  Adopt a low profile, under promise or over deliver;
  • 49. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 48  The approach should be to prove the concept, frame it as a new way of doing things, then disseminate results though media and local champions and then bring more people on board. These models exist in Jamaica and can be used to inform next steps. MODULE 3.2: A REVIEW OF THE CULTURAL INDUSTRIES: ITS PLACE AND ROLE IN A JAMAICAN KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY AND SOCIETY – MR. ROBERT GREGORY Starting with global interpretations of knowledge and competiveness, Mr. Gregory referenced the World Bank (2000) discussions on the subject which noted that “for developing countries to enter into and competitively participate in the global economy, they must forge the powerful combination of the best that the globe has to offer with the best of what they have to offer the rest of the globe.” It is the “unique innovation and creativity” inspired by its Culture which gives Jamaica the basis and means to forge its sustainable competitive advantage in a global knowledge economy. He asserted that since Culture is defined as EVERYTHING that we are as Jamaicans therefore, the creation of culturally inspired goods and services should not be confined only to economic activities related to inter alia, music, sport, cuisine and fashion, even though these are the areas that the Jamaica brand is best known for. This culturally inspired creativity and innovation has so far not been significantly replicated in any other industry sector, primarily because of the influence of the remnant perspectives of plantation society where, indigenous cultural expressions were narrowly defined as song, dance and related activities. This has continued to the present day where the innovation and creatively of the ordinary people is oftentimes marginalized and devalued. Only in more recent times have serious efforts to mainstream and capitalize on this industry been witnessed. A consequence of the failure to sufficiently formalize and mainstream cultural economic activities, is that a large part of the cultural industry is not captured/reported or analysed in The World Economic Forum’s annual assessments of Jamaica’s global competitiveness ranking. JAMPRO, The Ministry of Culture and a number of other agencies and new Industry groupings have been making efforts to formalize the cultural/creative industries using the cluster and linkage methodology and with some success. The Fashion sector, for example, has been exploring value chain possibilities (using indigenous sea-island cotton for their designs) to deepen their product differentiation and competitive advantage. For less mature and fledgling parts of the cultural industry such as, computer animation, digital and graphic design, theatre
  • 50. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 49 and video/film production, there is a need for organization and collaboration. However, low levels of trust remains the major inhibiting factor to these efforts. Mr. Gregory opined that the Jamaican worker should be the centre-piece of any competitiveness strategy. This requires a national mind-set repositioning of Jamaica as a knowledge economy and Jamaican workers as knowledge workers. Noting that over the past 25 years Jamaica has moved from a Primary agriculture based economy to a Tertiary services economy, the workforce and our thinking has not caught up with that reality. There is need to develop, through a transformed education and training system, knowledge workers whose professional practice, in whatever occupation, is dictated by their mastery of a standard globally recognized body of knowledge, relevant to their respective occupations. This mastery and know-how must be assessed and certified, as a guarantee of competence to either potential customers or employers local or foreign. An empowered knowledge worker is the key to Jamaica’s future as a globally competitive knowledge economy. Bearing in mind the above, Gregory elaborated further on the transformed education and training system as one that by deliberate design, is socially inclusive and affirms the legitimacy of all Jamaicans. For example, students in the early stages are formally introduced to the English language as the language of instruction by teachers respectfully using the Jamaican language as an instructional springboard while demonstrating it as an authentic and legitimate expression of Jamaican identity and culture. Education in a knowledge economy he asserted needs to be a life-long activity, learning and learner centred, not teaching and teacher-centred, where teachers facilitate student learning and encouraging innovation and creativity. Where the Jamaican ethic of “tun yu han mek fashion,” is acknowledged as authentic Jamaican behaviour. This culturally inspired innovation and creativity, he believes, will then be manifested in all sectors of our economy, the essential ingredient of what is called a Creative Economy. He challenged the conference to imagine the powerful implications for the competitiveness of the 21st century Jamaican knowledge economy, when our cultural/creative industries influence all economic activity across all sectors, resulting in the competitive production of highly distinguishable and differentiated quality brand Jamaica products and services…”to the world”.
  • 51. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 50 MODULE 3.3: THE APPROACHES, STRATEGIES AND SKILL SETS REQUIRED FOR SUPERIOR HUMAN CAPITAL MANAGEMENT – DR. ANNE CRICK Why is talent important? Cheese, Thomas and Craig note that 80% of value now comes from the intangible assets of organizations. It is less valuable to own land than to know when to buy and sell and relocate activity and this is the value that people bring to the knowledge organization. Definition of talent Talent is the attribute of individual with superior ability in a particular field. It differentiates us from the crowd. It is important but not easy to find. Dr. Crick pointed to a 2006 global survey finding which indicated that finding talent is the single most popular management preoccupation. Finding talent is one thing, motivating and retaining it is another. It was noted that Generation Y is not motivated solely by money. Organizations with embedded talent management will outperform those who do not have this. Talent is the source of competitive advantage in the knowledge frontier and it is not just an HR function; it is everyone’s job. Dr. Crick noted that “We need to create a culture of talent management.” Everybody manages culture (“the way we do things around here”) and so the management of talent is a shared responsibility. This also means that each individual is responsible for managing their own talent and every talent has to be maintained reinforced and rewarded. The context of knowledge work Knowledge organizations are fuzzy with blurred boundaries. There is the need to combine soft and hard skills. A knowledge organization must be a learning organization, one that is fluid, responsive and anti bureaucratic. However there are some contradictions in these knowledge organizations. They can be considered “ambidextrous” in that they need to be fluid enough to permit knowledge sharing, but organized; robust to ensure that the right people are hired, but fluid enough to ensure that they are not constrained; take time to germinate ideas but with a sense of urgency. Dr. Crick examined a number of organizational models.  Harris, Craig and Egan Model divide the knowledge worker into 4 groups in a typical pyramid organizational chart. It shows that division of labour is needed, but this creates a silo effect, it is hierarchical and limits the communication flow that needs to happen.  Customer service model is based on the concept that everyone is serving someone else. This model however still represents silos.
  • 52. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 51  Concentric circle model (new). This highlights the four groups which need to be in non- hierarchical relationships with each other without being in silos. Rigid boundaries do not exist and there is free flow of information. The advantages of the concentric circle model are that  It is open (removal of hierarchy and replacement with internal customer service and interaction).  It adopts the concept of self organization based on the notion that when we let people go and organize themselves they do really well.  It brings together the right people and creates learning.  It speeds up processes. How do we make it work?  Define the needs for talents, mission critical jobs and future strategic goals. Talent takes time to be developed and to be embedded into the organization.  Hire for diversity. Talent may not be found in the usual containers. Seek diversity.  Build skills and knowledge while recognizing that people will move in and out, according to the fit with particular projects  Recognize that knowledge organizations work based on projects and allow for self organizing principles.  Identify serial achievers and their life alignment curve.  Deploy talent in right place and right time, recalling that Generation Y is not just working for money. Challenges of talent management in Jamaica  Non hierarchical models are difficult to retain as hierarchy always creeps in. However there is room for the ambidextrous organization.  Difficulties in risk taking. If we want innovation, there needs to be a willingness to take risks.  Accepting diversity and rejecting traditional stereotypes.  Creating trust in an environment of low trust. MODULE 3.4: OPERATIONALIZING VISION 2030 JAMAICA– MR. RICHARD LUMSDEN Vision 2030 is the first long term (21 year) plan developed for Jamaica, with the aim of achieving developed country status by 2030, not measured solely by economic criteria, but by other developmental measures. The plan has bi-partisan support and is at the beginning of the
  • 53. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 52 third year. The plan seeks to move Jamaica to a new paradigm based on social (cultural, human, knowledge and institutional), rather than physical (financial, man-made, natural) stocks of capital (see below). The framework for Vision 2030 is based on the pillars of competitiveness which will take the country from the basic factor stage, through to the efficiency stage (current) and eventually transition to an innovation economy. It is a results-based management framework, beginning with a national vision, goals, outcomes, strategies and sector strategies and actions, leading to benefits for the population. Mr. Lumsden presented a breakdown on the plan. The Vision statement is “Jamaica, the place to live, work, raise families and do business,” recognising that we live in a global society but we want Jamaica to be the first choice. The vision is broken down into 4 goals, each with several national outcomes. The goals are:  Jamaicans are empowered to achieve their fullest potential.
  • 54. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 53  The Jamaican society is secure, cohesive and just.  Jamaica’s economy is prosperous.  Jamaica has a healthy natural environment. These are measureable and linked to an entire planning framework. Many of the identified outcomes under each goal are directly linked to generating a knowledge economy. To make planning more manageable, medium term priorities are determined in 3 year phases. The medium term framework for 2009-2012 focuses on 6 priority outcomes and some supporting outcomes to be achieved within the context of some guiding principles such as transformational leadership, accountability and transparency, partnership and cohesion, among others. There was an integrated planning (31 task forces) and implementation framework. Mr. Lumsden noted that it was not a collection of projects, but a strategic and aspirational plan. National strategic plans are translated into corporate plans of government, private sector, NGOs, international partners and the Diaspora. Achievement of alignment is important for successful implementation. The monitoring and implementation framework reports on progress, vis-a-vis targets, from a political, technical and consultative (sector and national level) standpoint. Vision 2030 provides an opportunity for collaboration among stakeholders, contributes to an integrated results based management system within government, provides a framework for linking development and spatial planning and a mechanism for communicating best practices in national development planning. To date, Vision 2030 has achieved alignment of plans and budgets and the creation of an integrated planning, budgeting and reporting system, executed a wide-based publicity and communication strategy and developed a monitoring framework. Key facilitators to date include inter alia, the existence of strong central training institutions, a powerful indigenous culture and strong nation brand, extensive metropolitan Diaspora, vibrant media and civil society, and a world class system for starting business. Key inhibitors include inter alia, low levels of certification of the workforce, high rates of crime, low investments in R&D, weakness in physical planning, major weaknesses in governance and limited data for measurement of indicators. Mr. Lumsden identified some relevant national outcomes, strategies and targets in relation to the knowledge economy. The outcomes are:  World Class Education and Training
  • 55. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 54  Authentic and Transformational Culture  Security and Safety  Effective Governance  An Enabling Business Environment  Strong Economic Infrastructure  A Technology Enabled Society  Internationally Competitive Industry Structures  Sustainable Management and Use of Environmental and Natural Resources  Sustainable Urban and Regional Planning In relation to above, there have been a number of achievements to date, including, the development of a draft National Parenting Policy, ongoing reform of the JCF and introduction of the Independent Commission of Investigations (INDECOM), upgrading of infrastructure and ICT in the Courts and establishment of the Justice Reform Implementation Unit. Steps have been taken to integrate various systems throughout government and organizations as a part of a comprehensive alignment process. Key medium term initiatives include the Community Renewal Programme, Tax Reform, a National Educations Strategic Plan and Public Sector Rationalization. The key challenges to achieving these are continuity and consistency, ensuring ongoing commitment of stakeholders, addressing gaps in human and technical capacity, ensuring integrated planning, resourcing and sustainability. The next steps will focus on the alignment of corporate, sector and national plans, finalization of targets, the establishment of a reporting mechanism and the development of a new medium term framework (2012-2015). The process will take place during the 2nd to 4th quarters of FY 2011/2012 and will involve the review and evaluation of progress, environmental scanning, risk analysis, strategic forecasting and development of new priorities for 2012-2015. It was recommended that the action plans arising from the Conference could be infused into the next round of planning. MODULE 3.5: SO THAT WE MAY REAP FROM WHAT WE HAVE SOWN: KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT & KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS – DR. GUNJAN MANSINGH Dr. Mansingh began her presentation with a discussion which defined data, information knowledge, knowledge management, and knowledge management systems and their
  • 56. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 55 importance. She indicated that knowledge consisted of data (raw facts) and information (processed data) which gives information with guidance for action. Knowledge is actionable information. Theory considers knowledge to be a significant resource of the firm which is embedded in its culture and identity, documents, processes, products and human capital. Knowledge management is concerned with the development of the organization’s knowledge assets and is based on perspectives such as state of mind, process, access to information and capability. We should focus on identifying the knowledge assets, determining their importance and how they can be used for development. The perspective of knowledge impacts on how one perceives and uses knowledge. Further, the knowledge management system relates to the ICT platform which enables collaboration and sharing of multiple knowledge services. These cannot be purchased off the shelf but are developed based on the particular organization or country. These knowledge services should be developed depending on the type of knowledge (explicit or tacit) that exists, a knowledge mix strategy of codification-personalization is recommended. Codification is done when the knowledge is mostly explicit and the focus is on capturing and storing these knowledge assets and personalization is when the knowledge is tacit and the focus is on facilitating knowledge sharing and connecting knowledge sources. For this purpose, social media is a very powerful tool in enabling people to share and communicate tacit knowledge. It is evident that the role of ICT changes accordingly, based on the strategy. The Wikipedia definition of knowledge economy is “the use of knowledge technologies to produce economic benefits as well as job creation”. Note that knowledge management is not a technology. Since we know that information and knowledge are different we cannot use the same technologies that we have used to manage information to manage knowledge. Examples of knowledge technologies are expert systems, knowledge mapping and data mining and warehousing. Expert systems reflect the fact that knowledge exists with humans, and seeks to mimic human experts using techniques to extract and codify existing knowledge from experts. An example is having such systems being developed for smart phones which can be used by farmers. Knowledge mapping is a visual representation of the relevant processes within an organization. Knowledge mapping relies on an ontology which is a formal representation of knowledge within a domain as a set of concepts and relationships. There are many different types of knowledge maps, each with their own focus. The maps represent who, what, when, where, why, how of the processes. This tool can be applied to Vision 2030. There are knowledge structure maps which display not only processes but also show the linkages with the environment and changes
  • 57. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 56 in such. Knowledge source maps focus on the different roles that are required to do a task and the different actors who are doing these roles. Data mining and warehousing are knowledge discovery methods from data. Mining is the use of software techniques to identify unknown patterns in data sets. Warehousing is accessing and storing data from various sources. Data mining techniques are predictive and descriptive and based on the data one can generate likelihoods with probabilities. Predictive modelling is useful in areas such as crime and healthcare, where the data is available. One issue is that basic systems for collection methods for areas such as healthcare and crime are missing. Dr. Mansingh presented an example of a decision tree modelling applied to an internet banking dataset and a case study of knowledge management in the Jamaica Constabulary Force (JCF). It was noted that in the JCF, knowledge technologies are being used, but these systems are ad hoc and based on individual or international interest. There is need for an overall architecture, as technology without strategy will not work. An example of a success story was the Richmond Virginia Police Department which used predictive analysis and geographic mapping, resulting in a drop in the crime rate in that city. It was due to active collection, analysis and use of data done every 8 hours rather than monthly. Knowledge is power and we have to learn to apply this knowledge to create possibilities in sectors such as those identified in the 2030 Plan. In conclusion, Dr. Mansingh noted that in going forward, the knowledge technologies that she presented can make a difference in the areas that have been identified in the World Bank report as areas where knowledge can contribute.  Driving competitiveness and productivity,  Facilitating welfare and the environment, and  Enabling institutions and governance. Knowledge that already exists in the different sources should be used to guide the formulation of policy and decision making. DISCUSSIONS ON MODULES 3.1 – 3.5 At the end of all the presentations, the participants were invited to comment on any pertinent issues raised. The ensuing discussions addressed a number of issues.  It was noted that there were certain specific structural and psychological problems facing the society which required diagnostics and therapeutics. It was suggested that
  • 58. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 57 the insights from Dr. Mansingh’s presentation would be useful in analysing such data and helping Jamaicans to understand their own personal problems. This can also be done through the use of applications on the mobile phone: the Psyche App where individuals can make a self analysis and the Hick App which uses transformational methodologies to create the new programme for self.  The challenge of how to resolve the process of innovation within an organizational framework was raised as a contradiction. It was noted that the organization needs to recognize the contradictions and take steps to resolve this. The use of the “skunk model” where departments are separated and then re-integrated in the organization would be useful. The Google model is also an option, but it was noted that this appeals to a certain age group. A revolutionary section of the company can be pulled out, but there needs to be a mechanism for subsequent link in. However, it was also noted that that innovators usually take it to the end and it is they who bring in the other skill sets they need and not vice-versa. There was agreement that innovations can happen outside of an organization and it was better to allow the innovators to get the additional skill sets they needed to get the product to market, as existing organizations had a tendency to stifle innovation. On the question of the source of data given that innovation is usually considered left field, it was noted that good data is likely to come from the innovator and not the corporate body.  On the matter of culture, the opinion was expressed that our tertiary institutions are woefully inadequate to do the research to determine the processes which have led to the development of a global industry underpinned by the reggae industry. This absence of knowledge has undermined our capacity to determine if the process can be replicated or learned. A lot of innovation and action research does happen, for example in the case of Boys/Girls Champs, which has evolved over time into a whole host of other areas such as the science of training and sports medicine etc.  It was noted that Dr. Mansingh’s presentation identified the crux of the matter. There is need for organizational ontology within Jamaica as a crucial platform to build the next real knowledge society. What we have now is a reflection of the confusion of the government and the multilaterals. Some of the software cannot even be applied and this is a waste of resources, time and energy which leads to a confusion of the globalization process.  An implementation and information deficit was identified and therefore the issue of realignment of the need for accelerated growth with the machinery of government is
  • 59. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 58 critical. Evidence based data should be the driver to create that culture in the planning process.  The point was made that Vision 2030 still reflects our capacity for thinking in silos. The level of accelerated growth required cannot be achieved without integration and creation of synergies. There is the question of the implementation deficit which permeates the system. We need to create a culture of evidence based data driven approach in the planning process. Mr. Lumsden stated that it was important to look at the bigger picture. The PIOJ uses the T 21 model, an integrated national development planning tool, and in terms of the implementation deficit, the concept of organizational ontology can be used for Vision 2030 Jamaica. There is a primary framework, at least within the public sector, but this needs improvement. The issue of alignment with budgetary allocations was seen as a concern for the Vision 2030 plan. What mandate does the PIOJ have to ensure that budgetary allocation reflect the national priorities such as the national export strategy and the development of the cultural industries?  The issue of a leadership deficit in the private and public sector was also discussed. Dr. Crick noted that there should be no assumption that leadership equates to management. It is a separate skill and therefore the focus should be on observing and elevating the leadership capacity. Mr. Gregory also contributed that the leadership deficit speaks to a followership deficit and a greater issue of lack of trust and social capital which impacts our position as a country.  It was noted that there is a difference between creative and cultural industries and the policy development implications for both. The transcendence from knowledge economy to the cultural and creative economy is an issue to be pursued in all sectors. This is part of the work at the Institute of Caribbean Studies. What is done at the business level should be translated and integrated at the national level. While there may be a distinction between cultural and creative industries, at the root of everything is culture. A creative economy is a natural outcome of a knowledge economy; it is the culture which defines the country.  There are strong mediating factors which influence our path such as low morale, lack of engagement of youth and Diaspora, mistrust, fragmentation, silos. There is need for effective leadership.
  • 60. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 59 Preparation for developing an Action Plan The session ended with a presentation by Professor Dahlman and Dr. Aubert of the plan for the 3 Breakout Groups for Draft Action Planning. The breakout groups were each asked to answer one of questions A, B & C. Each group was also to answer question Z. The Action Plans were to consider issues such as Objectives, Target Groups, Roadmap for Actions and Resources needed. Questions: A: How to engage public and private sector leaders in a competitiveness and Knowledge Economy based strategy? B: How to exploit competitive niche projects that could be source of jobs and wealth, i.e. what are the low hanging fruits? C: How to adjust the education and training system to competitiveness and Knowledge Economy needs? Z: How to institutionalize the Knowledge Economy operation and how to develop and efficient media strategy?
  • 61. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 60 DAY TWO - PM SESSION Session Chair: Prof. Winston Davidson Overview: The objectives of this session were:  Brainstorming on the essential components of a National Strategy and Action Plan for development of a Jamaican Knowledge Society and Economy for successful participation in the global economy.  Visioning and planning for the short, medium and long-term development and sustainability of the knowledge economy initiatives and the strategies for implementation. MODULE 4.1: INNOVATION POLICY - DR. JEAN-ERIC AUBERT Dr. Aubert reviewed the issues and policies of innovation policy. He stated that innovation policy has been developing in advanced economies since the early seventies. He defines innovation as the development and diffusion of new products and new practices, and emphasized that the term “new” should be related to a given context (“new” should not be understood in absolute manner). He underscored the point that sometimes innovation precedes research and that the key is to combine existing knowledge and technology. The combination and adaptation of technology, available worldwide, is especially useful in developing countries. Innovation is deemed a process conducted by entrepreneurs and supported by various actors, including “godfathers” in large organisations. Culture and institutions play a key role in the process of innovation. The role of Government in supporting innovation was again referred to as in Dr. Aubert’s earlier presentation as an analogy of gardening innovation, where Government would have the task of watering the garden through the provision of finance and support for the innovation. The removal of weeds, that addresses both deregulation and competition, would be another support that the government would have to offer, including through an appropriate judicial system. Nurturing the soil through research, education and information also contribute to innovation, and is another task of the government. The traditional positioning of the innovation policy residing with research and industry, and aiming at linking them, needs to shift to a different positioning where the innovation policy is at
  • 62. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 61 the heart and is pivotal to and impacts on all the facets of government actions such as trade, research, education, finance, industry as well as other areas. An innovation policy, to be efficient, needs also flexible agencies and focused programmes. Flexible agencies should be designed and operative with multiple instruments able to address the various needs of innovative enterprises, particularly small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Focused programmes include large scale programmes as those in space or defense in the USA, spatially focused programmes as in Japan and China with technoparks and cities, or pro-poor programmes as in India. Innovation strategies should build on country strengths and relate to development levels. The strategies should exploit the country’s assets, including agriculture, tourism, possibly manufacturing in selected sectors. These strategies should include in them foreign direct investments (FDI) as source of technology, management and trade channels. Thereafter the strategy would build out to further include advanced innovation systems to establish an internationally recognized science base. There are some generic policy measures which Jamaica could review and adjust to suit if needed.  There is the matter of education. It may be opportune to consider linking engineering and business education and to sensitise the students to innovation and entrepreneurship from the primary school level.  Incubators, technical services and business angels can all be developed as innovation support schemes  Other generic policy measures that may be addressed include the collaboration between universities and industry  The Metrology, Standards, Testing and Quality (MSTQ) Infrastructure may be developed and or upgraded  The mobilization of the Diaspora is yet another generic policy measure worthy of review and tapping into, to identify the technical competencies that reside in Jamaicans living outside of the country and to explore availability of funding  On site visits as well as study tours could be taken on for policy makers and other change agents. Jamaica could also develop an action plan that would yield fruits within a relatively short time span (3 to 4 years). Dr. Aubert suggested promoting export industries and promotion of societal innovations.
  • 63. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 62  Choosing the low hanging fruits of agro-foods, tourism and the creative industries could be a place to start with the promotion of the export industries.  Jamaica would have to address areas of finance, regulations and training by setting specific programmes to meet the 3 year timeline.  Societal innovations require the involvement of the youth in community projects from public procurement procedure through to completion.  Promotion and media to publicize all the stories, the successes and failures would be a sure way to inform, communicate and get the attention of the public. Dr. Aubert emphasized also the need to consider the specifics of the Jamaica’s culture, culture understood as ‘the way we do things here’ as anthropologists define it. It seems that Jamaica is affected by a lack of trust and by transgressive behaviors. Without self knowledge and capability for critical analysis, a knowledge society will be difficult to develop.
  • 64. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 63 MODULE 4.2: REVIEW OF ISSUES AND POLICIES OF THE KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY: EDUCATION AND TRAINING - PROFESSOR CARL DAHLMAN Professor Dahlman in his presentation looked at the role of education in development and how education and training compares in Jamaica. He noted that education and innovation are key elements and are becoming more important given the speed of creation and dissemination of new knowledge. With the half life of knowledge rapidly shrinking and knowledge creation being vital for a knowledge economy then it is clear that education is the fundamental enabler of the knowledge economy and is critical for long term competitiveness and growth. Addressing education within the context of a changing education and training programme is a global challenge. Moving from the traditional model of information based, teacher directed, terminal education to the knowledge economy model where education is now about knowledge creation, student centred initiative based on lifelong learning, is a challenge. To enhance education at all levels requires addressing the challenge of quality education, creation and adaptation of knowledge, use of knowledge and the challenge of global competition. Systems of lifelong learning will have to be developed and enhanced. At the tertiary level there is the need to respond quickly to the rapidly changing needs of the market. The tertiary institutions are challenged by finance, governance, cost of providing the higher education and the international competition. These tertiary institutions must become critical players in the innovation system at the national level. Education has gone global with millions of students studying abroad away from their home country. With the competition of foreign educational institutions setting up physical presence in another country, or collaborating with local institutions, there is greater pressure on the local education system. With internet based on-line courses and with globalization and greater competition developing countries will be faced with much greater pressure on their education system. To respond to the increase in international competition, developing countries will have to make major investments in education which must be geared to increase and improve the quality of education and training. Critical to the investments in education, the reform of the system and embracing of innovation are key elements to a successful outcome. The Global Competitiveness Report 2010, ranked Jamaica 115 out of 139 countries on the quality of mathematics and science education. In 2009 there were 5913 Jamaicans studying
  • 65. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 64 abroad, many of whom may never return home. There is however the opportunity to leverage the skills, expertise and network of these Jamaicans in foreign places. Prof. Dahlman suggested some possible steps to strengthen education and training in Jamaica:  Improvement in quality of education at all levels primary secondary and higher educational institutions.  Teaching students how to learn through their life time  For the knowledge economy elements of communication, problem solving, creativity and team work should be included in the curriculum with a view of meeting the needs of the private sector.  Jamaica, in spite of the financial constraints, needs to address both the stock and flow challenges of education and of the education system as the country gears towards a knowledge based economy.  To increase the resources for education as well as the productivity of education resources an educational financial market will have to be developed. From this market of private sector contribution and public resources student loan funds would be made available.  Private provision of education and training will have to be extended and increased. Productivity of education would have been improved through improving the pedagogy of education; through reducing the time to move from one level of education to the next; and through the more extensive use of ICT technologies. MODULES 4.3 & 4.4: DRAFT ACTION PLAN - KNOWLEDGE BASED ECONOMY Dr. Aubert and Professor Dahlman indicated that the outcome of the two day seminar was to have a draft action plan for implementation. In preparation the participants and stakeholders were broken out in three groups and each group given a particular area for discussion under the umbrella theme of enhancing Jamaica’s competitiveness in the global knowledge economy. The topics for discussion were as follows: Group 1: “How to engage Private and Public Sector leaders in a competitiveness and knowledge based strategy” Group 2: “How to exploit competitiveness in niche projects (low hanging fruits) that can be a source of jobs and wealth” Group 3: “How to adjust education and training system to address competitiveness and knowledge economy needs”
  • 66. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 65 The groups were charged with delivering their deliberations using no more than five PowerPoint slides. They were then advised that after the deliberations, the presentations would be of five minutes duration followed by fifteen minutes for comments and questions. The groups were to include in the presentations; the objectives, the targets groups and the road map of actions as well as the resources required. The main points from each group are presented below. The Chapter entitled “The Way Forward” provides a consolidated action plan arising from the session. Report of Group A: How to engage the Private and Public Sector leaders in a competitiveness, knowledge economy based strategy. Objectives:  Need to communicate what’s at stake. Create an awareness of the problem and its consequences and not in generic terms, so each stakeholders can know how it impacts his or her community  Get private sector involved in tangible practical pilot projects that will support the development of a knowledge economy  Reward those companies who become globally competitive Target Groups  Private Sector Organisation of Jamaica  SMEs  Jamaica Chamber of Commerce  Jamaica Manufacturers Association  Jamaica Exporters Association  National Competitiveness Council  Partnership for Transformation  Planning Institute of Jamaica  JAMPRO  Jamaica Teachers’ Association Road Map of Actions Consider the 4 pillars of success: Education, ICT, Innovation, Business environment.  Revising the national leadership around science and technology  Looking actively to curricula as a support
  • 67. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 66  A deliberate effort to engage the Private Sector through the National Competitiveness Council to improve Jamaica’s ranking on the competitiveness scale  Reexamine the system of taxation to foster greater competiveness  Reexamine the way we determine what gets the priority in terms of policy and enabling legislation. Legislation must be implemented at an accelerated rate, as even if we implement legislation we may make progress but not enough when compared with other countries  Engage with Diaspora, through their annual conferences e.g., in specific and active discussion on the Knowledge Economy  Develop incentives for private sector entities who adhere to international standards and benchmarks, to ensure that their goods and services are competitive Resources  Tax waivers  Provision of technical expertise  Assistance from International Development Partners Discussions on presentation by Group A Prof. Dahlman in commenting on the presentation indicted that he liked that it was very focused and pragmatic, however it sounded as if there were not many problems in the overall environment. Policy documents done by different business organizations, have identified a number of road blocks which need to be prioritized and acted on. He also commented on the seeming bias towards big existing businesses. He suggested that there was a need to look at impediments at the grassroots levels. This requires more nurturing, in terms of developing backward linkages, plugging into the tourism industry and the potential for business schools to facilitate students to go into business. Jamaica can exploit the high level human capital and opportunities available and identify where it makes senses to have collective action. Developing partnerships with foreign investors and organization and governments that can provide technical assistance and resources would be another strategy. Dr. Aubert in his comments highlighted the lack of specific actions targeted at the real leaders in the Jamaica society e.g. the politician, Members of Parliament and the dons. This is important as the key fundamental roadblocks to competitiveness for Jamaica have been identified as crime, corruption and bureaucracy. Report of Group B: How to exploit competitive niche products as a source of jobs and wealth: Identifying the low hanging fruit
  • 68. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 67 Most important is to adopt a strategy of focused differentiation. This will be taking advantage of that which is unique to Jamaica. No other country in the world can exploit the opportunities identified, as they do not have the natural advantages that we do.  Opportunities are in cultural industries and tourism: sports tourism, health tourism, production of craft items, giftware and personal care items. Opportunity: Cultural Industries Objective:  Capture a worldwide market that will sample a range of Jamaican cultural products and services. o Set up physical and organizational structures in each parish focused on a specific range of cultural industries. e.g. in Trelawny where we now have a yam festival, could have a food festival, with specific types of music. Portland which now has the jerk festival is another example. Would create a whole range of cultural services and products which are different for each parish. Accompanying this would be a marketing campaign to attract tourist from across the world, who would move from parish to parish to experience all Jamaica has to offer in terms of culture Target Groups  Public/private partnership  State actors Road Map of Actions  Establish Public/private partnership  Create a policy framework  Operationalize Resources  Centralized organization for Monitoring and Evaluation Opportunity: Sports Tourism Objectives: Create a Sports Tourism product that takes advantages of the reputation Jamaica has developed over decades, especially in the area of athletics.
  • 69. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 68 Target Croups  Universities in Jamaica  Jamaican Coaches  Jamaica Amateur Athletics Association  Jamaica Olympic Association  High School and College students worldwide Plan of Action  Package the business opportunity and present to sports teams, businesses and universities and a range of potential investors who would be interested in exploiting the business opportunity  Businesses to be certified by the Tourism Product Development Company to ensure quality. This is to ensure that the Jamaican brand is developed and not destroyed Opportunity: Craft Giftware and personal care items Objective: Create employment by targeting retail outlets, MSME Alliance, Edna Manley College, other tertiary institutions and the communities, that can come together to produce the craft products in Jamaica. After developing excess capacity for the production of these items, would sensitive the vendors who are selling fraudulently labeled items, then enforce the regulations and take advantage of the vacuum that would emerge in the market from stopping the sale of these items. Resources Needed  Training for artisans  Standards for prod  Enforcement  Resource capacity for research and development, so items can be globally competitive. Plan of Action  Developing policy clusters to can identify the synergies between all these opportunities  Then develop project plans. What has been presented are very broad outlines. Discussions on presentation by Group B  One of the challenges related to craft products is that by and large they are volume products and therefore it is difficult to compete. We should however strive to be a niche producer, low volume and high quality and so would need to find a way to make products that can be differentiated and cannot be produced elsewhere.
  • 70. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 69  Jamaica cannot compete with the products from China e.g. and as such the Jamaican made product must be clearly identified so the tourist can know which is a true Jamaican product  Investment should be made in ensuring that designs are indigenous and marketable and that they are copyrighted  The product can be enhanced by attaching to it the history and background o the producer Dr. Aubert indicated that he was impressed by the ambition for competitiveness on the global market. He wondered if this could be encapsulated into a branding name for Jamaica which can be sold on the global market, maybe the “island of enjoyment” which would cover our sport, culture, music, enjoyment of the body. He stressed the importance of being self organized, as trade groups and communities and to ask government to just undertake what was necessary for them to, such as standards and promotion. Prof. Dahlman indicated that what is required is a strong system of certification for the products, strong quality control, which would identify an authentic Jamaican product. Medical tourism he also identified as an incredible opportunity for Jamaica. This would need to be linked to the physical infrastructure for health care and well as the training to support the service functions. He emphasized to need to sustain the discussions, bringing in business people, self organization and not relying on government. On the issue of branding, Dr. Gordon advised the participants that the Jamaica Exporters Association and the Competitiveness Company have registered four collective marks and five certification marks covering key authentic Jamaican items. These are registered in the US and Europe and are supported by lawyers that will monitor their use and a international marketing campaign. Supporting the point made by Prof. Dahlman on the opportunity in health tourism, Prof. Davidson indicated that they are some 140,000 estimated persons on the ground now, who give care in their communities without any training. These persons could be trained as home care personnel, certified and this used as a stepping stone for the development of the health tourism sector.
  • 71. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 70 Report of Group C: How to adjust the education and training system appropriate for the competitiveness and Knowledge Economy needs Objectives:  What is the new role of education? It should be treated as a another sector of the mainstream economy  To achieve global standards that can be benchmarked against key skills of communication and problem solving. These are critical core skills that the product of the education system, our graduates, should have.  To build a network of champions as disciples of the new dispensation spread out across the country, in teachers colleges, schools, churches , communities, private business places, Jamaica Employers Federation , PSOJ who will promote and advocate the this new dispensation. This is an outside-in approach. The people should now say what they want and politically force that on the Ministry of Education to get the buy in.  Systematically affirm all students to build self esteem and self confidence which is needed for learning. From the early childhood phase Target Groups  Teacher training institutions  Trainers and Principals of schools  Parents and employers  Ministries and public institutions, including the National Council on Education Road Map of Actions  Implement the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) System, managed by the OECD Secretariat in Paris, for OECD countries, in Jamaica. It is an assessment for 15 year olds every year, on certain standards of competence. Many non OECD countries have joined, as their way to establish the competitive position of their education system vis-a-vis other education systems around the world.  Pilot the new curriculum and approach in certain schools and create them as centres of excellence for mainstreaming.  Use of on-line broadband systems and Information and Communication Technology to allow more democratic access to information for all our students.  Relook at the role of community colleges to help with retraining and reengineering the system. Change the curriculum, from a syllabus focus to a curriculum focus.  Provide the competence profile for the average 15 year old, and target it at our 15 year olds to aspire to excellence
  • 72. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 71 Resources Needed  Success stories  System of constant communication and updating, to link the champions  Create awareness to media programmes  Accessibility to a common curriculum  Champions Discussions  Presentation did not explicitly address adult learners. However, access at every age and stage is what is being advocated.  Two areas that seem to be accepted as sources of greatest deprivation are Mathematics and Science. Need to identify how these subjects are taught, as they are key to the Knowledge Society.  Quality outcomes from education have not always been consistent as quality failures have increased over the past 20 years. There needs to be a determination of what has shifted and identify what is driving that decline. It should be noted however that the participation rate in the current system is almost universal, so it is difficult to compare the results to over 20 years ago when participation was far more selective.  Experience globally is that teacher training is heavily methods-based. The methods evolve and become better fine tuned as they are found to be very effective in the teaching of Mathematics and Science. Jamaican teacher training is not methods-based and this is a recommendation for adoption.  A curriculum based approach, promotes a course of study with specific learning outcomes. The current syllabus based approach focuses on the child covering the syllabus for a particular subject area. The recommendation is for Jamaica to adopt a curriculum based approach. Prof. Dahlman in providing feedback on the presentation agreed that benchmarking is very important and supported the adoption of the OECD/PISA system. He gave the example of Germany who had improved their learning outcomes by adopting this system and focusing and working towards achieving the standards. He indicated that technologies are available for training in Math and Science e.g. Singapore. Another important issue of one of how to get buy in to undertake these changes. There needs to be pressure from the outside, e.g. the business sector or Ministry of Finance, who want to see greater return on the investment in education. Consideration also needs to be given to how to make the effort sustainable in terms of improving education.
  • 73. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 72 Dr. Aubert suggested that a determination needs to be made on where to place the priority translated to where to place the resources. He gave the example of Finland who is on top in the PISA system. In their society, no child is left out. They address the issues from the early childhood stage. Special educators are available who identify from early if a child has special needs. Their governance structure allows for a participatory system, with different levels meeting regularly. Jamaica should put an emphasis on the children with special needs and the early childhood sector. This combined with appropriate nutrition and health care will result in excellent performance. Closing remarks on the Group presentations On reviewing the objectives of the Session Prof. Davidson closed with a few observations.  Knowledge is the awareness of information, which is a cerebral function.  Hopefully the visioning done can be captured and some opportunity will be found in the future to explore the issues and questions that have arisen. It will require follow up by the organizers.  On all of the three presentations have emerged the issue of public/private partnerships which is key to our progress.  What is the political directorate responsibility and policy development Prof. Dahlman focused the minds of the group on how to carry the issues forward. The expressed the view that there is merit in keeping the energy going with a group like this together. There are issues that need to be worked on: the issues of trust, governance and use of ICT across the sectors. Is the organization to carry this forward the Knowledge Society Foundation, or somewhere else? He suggested that there are good examples of things that have been done and made a difference which need to get into the public domain. New ideas need to be communicated. As everything cannot be done at once, he recommended selecting initial activities, the low hanging fruit, and then scaling up. He then asked the question of the participant: What kind of mechanism do you see for seeing this initiative going forward? Some of the responses were:  Our approach has to be first of all looking at what information we have gathered here and how it can be implemented.  Need to incentivise the private sector to participate.  To lift country out of where it is, need to say to the policy makers that these are our findings, and they should tell us how they are going to implement policies to achieve the results.  Must share the information with a wider community of interest.
  • 74. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 73  In a fast paced world Jamaica is falling behind. As a people we need to pull together to define the objectives and go after the target audience. The message has to be refined.  Financial resources could be there to implement these recommendations, with proper governance and modern public sector reform, with the use of ICT.  Need a systematic data capture, to collect information, convert information into knowledge and can develop a national development plan from there. It is the only way to get the evidence needed for successful policy making. Any policy, plan or programme must be driven by evidence based data. Prof. Dahlman then articulated the outline of a Communications Strategy for adoption. Developing an communication plan – 5 step approach 1. Define objective a. Define specific outcome/results you want to achieve 2. Identify target audience a. Identify decision makers that can influence/determine the desired outcomes 3. Refine messaging a. Refine two or three themes you wish to stress b. Source supporting data including quick wins 4. Identify and build a constituency for the strategy a. Build network of advocates b. Ensure consistency re objectives and messaging c. Choose groups based not only on similar interest but ability to influence the target audience 5. Develop action plan to engage and activate channels a. Formalize relationships and discussions b. Ensure Messaging and activities are aligned c. Assign ownership of effort Dr. Aubert made some final remarks to close the session:  Make the project as good as possible, as history has shown that when there is a good project which is convincing, it is implemented, with the necessary resources.  Ensure that policy discussions are evidenced based.  The upcoming election can be seen as an opportunity to present something new, to the electorate that is concrete, simple and that lay people can grasp.  Raise the fundamental issues of financing the new kind of competitiveness regime.  If the Knowledge Society Foundation is strong enough and has the right clout then it can be used as the vehicle to carry the project forward.
  • 75. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 74 CLOSING CEREMONY Mrs. daCosta expressed pleasure at all of the presentations, which she described as world class. She highlighted our ability to recognise problems and to define them but, urged participants to work towards carrying the process forward. There is the need to indentify champions to do so, in government, private sector, community groups and the educational sector. In the final analysis she indicated, if the politicians do not buy in then we cannot move from where we are to where we ought to be. She advised participants that they may be called on further, as concerned persons who would like their country to move forward in a more concerted, constructive way, to regroup to work on bringing the plan to reality. Tokens of appreciation were then handed out to all the presenters by Silburn Clarke. In an impromptu moment, he introduced Karen Hewett- Kennedy, who presented her poem on knowledge, which was written during the time of conference. The sentiments in the poem, she indicated were motivated by her belief that knowledge resides in all of us. Mr. Clarke thanked all participants, on behalf of the Spatial Family, for an “awesome” conference. We closed by reminding all that although Jamaica is small, we can “punch above our weight class”. We have been doing so in sports and music and we can do so in other pursuits. We need to have embedded in our psyche, that Jamaica can be one of the best countries in the world and having decided that that is so, do the things that can make this a reality. He closed with his thanks to participants, presenters, organizers, the Spatial family, videographers, and the rapporteurs for making the event successful. He proposed that the Knowledge Society Foundation could be used as a broad based vehicle to move the process forward, as the basis for a wider resource group. He encouraged persons to become members.
  • 76. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 75 Ode to Knowledge By Karen Hewett- Kennedy Knowledge after me nuh have none But hold that thought me a bake bread and it no done A pinch of salt some flour, use nuff yeast Wait for it to rise and the lets have a feast Knowledge have me nuh have none But hold that thought while we cut a tune and have some fun With the rhythm and de beat the words are sweet So we can nu linga and gully creep, kiss me teeth Knowledge after me nu have none But hold that thought as I dig some yam what fun Some plants they don`t grow until its quite dark While others just drop them anywhere growing them is quite a lark Knowledge after me nuh have none But hold that thought for this race no done As I map a strategy should I run fast? Lean on the curve as I run the bend for Jamaica can`t come last Knowledge after me nuh have none But hold that thought what you say the whole of we mad Why because we just a stare into space is glad we glad Why all the fuss maybe we just need to trust That you respect me and I respect you for this is a must Knowledge after me nuh have none But hold that thought the knowledge is here and it can`t done It is in our genes, in our bodies and in our brains It pours out of our souls it is really no strain So let’s empower our people the knowledge is there But if we don`t release it, oh it will be really unfair And Jamaica will suffer and we will continue to live in fear. Presented at the 2011 Knowledge Economy Conference April 16 2011
  • 77. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 76 THE WAY FORWARD The working session of the Conference culminated with the drafting of a plan of action to implement key strategies towards achieving competitiveness in a knowledge economy. This was the result of group work by participants and informed by the experience of the Conference Advisors - Dr. Jean-Eric Aubert & Prof. Carl Dahlman. PLAN OF ACTION TO IMPLEMENT KEY STRATEGIES TOWARDS ACHIEVING COMPETITIVENESS IN A KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY Strategy: Engaging Public and Private Sector Leaders in a Competitiveness Knowledge Economy based Strategy Objectives • To create awareness of the problem and its consequences – what is at stake (not in generic terms) • For private sector to see the benefits of involvement of the process – incentives • To get private sector involved in tangible and practical pilot projects that will support the development of a knowledge economy • Reward companies that make themselves globally competitive. Target Groups • Private Sector Organisation of Jamaica • Small and medium enterprises • Jamaica Chamber of Commerce • Jamaica Manufacturing Association • Jamaica Exporters Association • National Competitiveness Council • Partnership for Transformation • Planning Institute of Jamaica • JAMPRO • JTA Road Map of Actions • Deliberate effort to engage the Private sector through National Competitive Council • Revive the national leadership around science and technology • Re-examine the system of taxation to foster competiveness • Engage with Diaspora – e.g. annual conference • Develop incentives for Private sector entities who adhere to international standards and benchmarks ensuring that their goods and services are competitive Resources • Resources for incentives, tax waivers and provision of technical expertise • Resources from international development partners Strategy: Adjusting the Education and training system to Competiveness/ Knowledge Economy needs Objectives • What is the role of the education system in the 21st century? • Achieve global standards which can Target Groups • Teacher training institutions, trainers and principals • Parents, employers and wider community as Roadmap of Actions • Establish the competitive position of our Education System • Implement PISA assessment system as in OECD countries Resources Needed • Success Stories • Communicate • Create awareness through media for programs that exist • Accessibility to a
  • 78. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 77 be benchmarked in relation to key skills e.g. communication, problem solving, creativity, teamwork and citizenship. • Build Network of Champions who promote and advocate the new dispensation • Get Buy-in – yes we have to! • Systematically affirm all students to build self esteem and self confidence advocates for change • Ministries and public institutions including The National Council for Education • Creation of pilot schools/Centres of excellence - to create success stories • Promote the use of National on-line broadband systems and ICTs • Change the curriculum • Re-look at the role of Community Colleges to help with retraining and reengineering • Provide the competency profile of the average 15 year old skills and competencies as a competitive spur for Jamaican 15 year old to aspire and excel. common curriculum • Champions Strategy: Exploiting competitive niche projects as a source of jobs and wealth Using a strategy of focused differentiation. Opportunities identifies: 1. Cultural industries 2. Sports Tourism 3. Production of craft items, giftware, personal care items Overall Plan of Action Develop policy clusters. Identify the synergies. Create project plans. Opportunity: Cultural Industries Objective: To capture a worldwide market that will sample a range of Jamaican cultural products and services in Jamaica. Targeted Groups • Public-Private Partnership • Investors • Min of Tourism, JTB , JAMPRO, JBDC and other state actors • Development Bank of Jamaica • UDC Road Map of Actions • Establish a PP partnership • Establish the policy framework • Create a blue print for the physical and organizational structures to create these in each parish • Operationalize Resources • A centralized organization for monitoring and evaluation Opportunity: Sports Tourism Objective: Creation of a sports tourism Targeted Groups • Universities in Jamaica • High school and college students Plan of Action • Package the business opportunity and present it to sports teams, businesses and Resources • UTech, UWI, GC Foster College • Multi-purpose facility
  • 79. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 78 product. worldwide • Jamaican Coaches • JAAA, JOA Universities • The businesses exploiting the opportunities would be certified by TPDCo. • Min. of Sports and Culture • Jamaican coaches and teachers Opportunity: Craft, giftware, personal care items Objective: To create employment through domestic production of craft items for sale to tourists and capture forex. Targeted Groups • Retail outlets • BSJ, Min. of Commerce • JHTA, In bond Merchants Assn • MSME Alliance • Edna Manley College of the Visual and Performing Arts, other tertiary institutions • Heart NTA • Communities Road Map of Actions • Get the buy-in from the political leadership and the BSJ. • Develop a Plan of Action • Develop excess capacity for production of craft items. • Sensitize vendors who are selling fraudulently labeled items. • Enforce regulations. Resources Needed • Training for the artisans • Standards for the products • Enforcement • Resource capacity for R&D to be globally competitive CONCLUSION The ideas and ideals of the conference have resonated with a broad cross-section of our society and will be sustained by participants in their various fields of endeavour as well as through the vehicle of the Knowledge Society Foundation. As part of the Action Plan, a communication strategy will be developed and implemented, taking into account the suggestions made by the Conference Advisors and local knowledge. The Knowledge Society Foundation looks forward to the participation and involvement of key stakeholders such as those who participated at this historic Conference, as we strive to pull Jamaica up in the world Competitiveness and Knowledge economy rankings and work towards achieving the vision of “Jamaica the place of choice to live, work, raise families and do business”
  • 80. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 79 FEEDBACK Silburn Congratulations on an excellent conference. Sorry we had to leave before the end. I would love to receive the summary and slides from the end session I am particularly interested as to where we all go from here. I think that the most important step would be collaborative linkages between the persons who attended. The conference brought together some of the most creative and active persons in Jamaica as participants One love Fred Dear Silburn, Congratulations are in order for this critical work that you are doing and I am looking forward to working with you in the future. Hilary Silburn I join Carl in expressing my warm thanks and congratulations for the exceptional event that you have set up. Since our earliest contacts, it has been a very great pleasure working with you, and also very rewarding. Many thanks also to Jackie for her perfect support throughout the process and to JAMPRO for the excellent visit prior to the Conference. The future is bright. As promised, I will send you a few pages reflecting on the conference and next steps. Warm regards Jean-Eric Silburn, Great start. Please send me copies of the presentations as soon as you can. Quite informative conference. Thank you Marjorie
  • 81. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 80 Dear Silburn, Congratulations on what appears to have been an extremely successful conference. JAMPRO is pleased to have been able to assist and I thank you for taking the time to recognize the work of the JAMPRO team and to express your appreciation for their assistance. Warm regards, Sancia Dear Silburn and Jacqueline, Although I did not have a chance to speak much with either of you, I’d like to express my appreciation for all the work that went in to making the Knowledge Economy conference such a success. Amongst other things, I was impressed by your attention to detail – which manifest in a professional and smoothly-run two days. As I know that this was a team effort, please also pass on my words of congratulations to the entire team! When leaving, Jacqueline asked me to contribute my thoughts further – and this I would be glad to do. I would however love to learn more about how these two days’ results will be translated into something practical. I’m sure this was discussed in the final sessions today – and so I could well have missed the outcome as I unfortunately had to leave a little early. With thanks again, Katrine Silburn, Congratulations on your efforts to stage this forum. I think it deals with a crucial subject-matter, and I am sorry I was not able to participate in the brainstorming and closing sessions. However, I would like to see how we can collectively move this dialogue forward and translate it into working projects that are aimed at arriving at solutions to the problem of building an environment to foster commercialization of research and ideas particularly in the areas of science and engineering, broadly speaking. One of the discussion I think involves the organization of research in the science and engineering as part of driving the "knowledge sector" with a focus on commercialization. Again, let me congratulate you and your team for a well-executed effort. The presentations were instructive.... Cheers! Reggie
  • 82. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 81 Silburn Congratulations on an excellent conference. I was very impressed by the excellent group of people you were able to assemble for the workshop, not just the presenters, but especially the participants. I also want to thank you, Jackie and Jampro for the excellent set of meetings that were set up for Jean-Eric and myself prior to the conference. They give us important perspectives and insights that were very useful for our presentations and for our comments during the conference. I also enjoyed talking to some of your staff and you students at the reception last night. A very impressive group of young minds. I am sure they will go far. As I also told you I was extremely impressed that you decided to use the prize your company got to finance this event--really extraordinary. Warm regards, Carl Dahlman Dear Silburn, Congratulations on what was, by all accounts, a great conference, and I am very glad that the PSOJ was able to contribute in some measure to that success. I was not able to be present personally, I am however, checking regularly on the conference web site for the upload of conference material so that I may review them. Best regards, Joe Silburn Congratulations on a very special production. You and your team made us proud. For the time I was able to attend I found the presentations and discussions valuable. I look forward to bouncing around some ideas with you soon as KM is an area of interest and one in which I did my MPhil a few years ago. Great conference. Hope it will be an annual event. Blessings. Nsombi
  • 83. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 82 APPENDICES
  • 84. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 83 PARTICIPATING STAKEHOLDERS Name Organisation Stacy Adams JAMPRO Winston Adams University College of the Caribbean Llewelyn Allen Entrepreneur Jean-Eric Aubert Innovation and Knowledge Economy Consultant Ian Bailey-Harris Reborn Sancia Bennett Templer JAMPRO Marcia Binns-Morrison Spatial Innovision limited Joy Ann Bramwell Management Institute for National Development Ancile Brewster IDB Fabian Brown Value Added Services Winston Butler University of the West Indies Roshaun Clarke International Artiste Silburn Clarke Spatial Innovision Limited Maurice Coke Jamaica Computer Society Brigitte Collins University of the West Indies Avrill Crawford e-Learning Jamaica Company Limited Anne Crick UWI Brenda Cuthbert Jamaica Employers Federation Jacqueline daCosta Knowledge Society Foundation Noel daCosta Red Stripe Carl Dahlman Georgetown University Glenda Davis Jamaica Fashion Cluster Winston Davidson University of Technology Natalie Dobbs Spatial Innovision Limited Charles Douglas Jamaica Productivity Centre Evan Duggan University of the West Indies Hopeton Dunn University of the West Indies Claude Duncan JAMPRO Neville Duncan University of the West Indies
  • 85. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 84 Name Organisation Paulette Dunn-Smith Dunn, Pierre, Barnett & Associates Dawn Elliott TCU Delroy Ellis Digital Systems and Supplies Ltd Mervyn Eyre Fujitsu Caribbean Karis Flowers PSOJ Nicole Foga FOGA DALEY Marcia Forbes Phase Three Productions Ltd. Sharon Fox-Mould Fine Artist Donna-Maria Freckleton Donna-Maria Freckleton & Associates Sandra Glasgow PSOJ Andre Gordon Technological Solutions Limited Damian Graham Spatial Innovision Limited Delroy Green Northern Caribbean University Robert Gregory Consultant Kenneth Hall Retired Governor General and Former Principal, UWI, Mona Cherryl Hanson Simpson Financially SMART Services Kerry-Ann Harriott Spatial Innovision Limited Winston Harrison Fujitsu Caribbean (Jamaica) Limited Carolyn Hayle HEART Trust/NTA Maxine Henry-Wilson University of the West Indies Deborah Hickling University of the West Indies Frederick Hickling University of the West Indies Karen Hewett-Kennedy Portmore Community College Andrea Hutchinson Spatial Innovision Ltd. Anthony Hylton Hylton Brown Kenneth Hynes ontheFrontier Fitz Jackson House of Representatives Nsombi Jaja Quality Management Consultancy Co. Ltd Everard Johnson Spatial Innovision Limited Sandra Jones Fujitsu Caribbean (Jamaica) Limited Glenice Leachman The Port Authority Of Jamaica
  • 86. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 85 Name Organisation Andrew Lee Columbus Communications Jamaica Limited (Flow) Glaister Leslie The Competitiveness Company Richard Lumsden Planning Institute of Jamaica Kerry-Ann Mahabeer Spatial Innovision Limited Horace Manderson Businessman Raymond Martin Jamaica Organic Agriculture Movement Gunjan Mansingh University of the West Indies Patrick McLean Spatial Innovision Limited Matthew McNaughton ./roots Developer Community Maurice McNaughton Mona School of Business, UWI Henley Morgan Caribbean Applied Technology Centre Limited Rohan Morris TELiCON Ltd. Cara Murray Xsomo International Charmaine Nelson Office of the Prime Minister Douglas Nelson Spatial Innovision Limited Lawrence Nicholson University of the West Indies Reginald Nugent University of Technology Blossom O'Meally-Nelson University College of the Caribbean Craig Perue University of the West Indies Ingrid Riley ConnectiMass Danny Roberts University of the West Indies, Open Campus Hilary Robertson-Hickling University of the West Indies Natasha Sampson Ministry of Finance and the Public Service Lennox Scarlett St. Paul's United Church Donovan Senior Fujitsu Caribbean (Jamaica) Limited Terine Sewell Spatial Innovision Dean Smith University of Technology Katrine Smith Visual & Performing Arts Jamaica Tanisha Smith Fujitsu Caribbean (Jamaica) Limited Deloree Staple Chambers Tax Administration Department Tassia Stewart JAMPRO
  • 87. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 86 Name Organisation Marjorie Straw JAMPRO Milton Samuda JCC Elizabeth Terry ICT4D Jamaica/HEART Trust/NTA Mark Tracey IMF Michele Thomas Mona School of Business, UWI Ralph Thomas Mona School of Business, UWI Sean Thorpe University of Technology Densil Williams University of the West Indies George Wright Tax Administration Jamaica ,
  • 88. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 87 CONFERENCE LEADERS / PRESENTERS The Most Honourable Professor Sir Kenneth Octavius Hall, ON, GCMG, OJ Former Governor General of Jamaica The Most Honourable Professor Sir Kenneth Octavius Hall, ON, GCMG, OJ, was appointed Governor-General of Jamaica on February 16, 2006. He is currently an Honorary Distinguished Fellow of the Mona School of Business, at the Mona Campus of the University of the West Indies. Professor Sir Kenneth Hall holds a PhD in History from the Queen's University in Ontario, Canada. In 2004, the Government of Jamaica conferred upon him the Order of Jamaica for significant contribution to education and regional development. His has been a career that spans over four decades and one that has blazed a trail of excellence in the field of Education both in Jamaica and the United States. He is also renowned for his contribution to advancement of the regional integration process, during his tenure at the CARICOM Secretariat from 1975-1977 and again, between 1994 and 1996. Prior to assuming his position as Governor-General, Professor Kenneth Hall was Pro Vice Chancellor and Principal of the University of the West Indies, Mona Campus. During the ten years (1996-2006) at the UWI, the policies he implemented resulted in a significant transformation in academic programmes, physical infrastructure and in student relations on the Campus. He was zealous in his efforts to establish an environment that was conducive to learning; and one that was supported heavily by information and communication technologies. Dr. Jean Eric Aubert Dr. Jean-Eric Aubert is an international expert in innovation policies and in development strategies. After a career at the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Dr. Jean-Eric Aubert worked for ten years (2000-2009) at the World Bank. As Lead Specialist, he led the World Bank Institute “Knowledge for Development Program”, promoting knowledge economy work in the Bank and related activities in client countries in form of strategic studies, international conferences and workshops, and project
  • 89. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 88 identifications, covering a broad range of policy topics including innovation, education, ICT and the business environment. He managed the World Bank Institute in Paris providing video conferencing-based training sessions worldwide. He was also in charge of the World Bank office in Marseille, France, of which he initiated the transformation into the Centre for Mediterranean Integration, a multi-partner, intergovernmental platform for North/South collaboration and joint learning in economic, social and environmental policy fields. Throughout his career, Jean-Eric Aubert has operated as policy evaluator and advisor in more than 40 countries of all development levels. He is the author or director of some 50 international publications and books. A French national, Jean-Eric Aubert holds Post Graduate Diplomas in Economics and a Ph.D in Applied Mathematics (Docteur de Troisième Cycle) from Paris Universities. Prof. Carl J. Dahlman Professor Carl J. Dahlman is the Luce Professor of International Relations and Information Technology at the Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University. He joined Georgetown in January 2005 after more than 25 years of distinguished service at the World Bank. At Georgetown, Prof. Dahlman’s research and teaching explore how rapid advances in science, technology and information are affecting the growth prospects of nations and influencing trade, investment, innovation, education and economic relations in an increasingly globalizing world. At the World Bank Prof. Dahlman served as Senior Advisor to the World Bank Institute and managed the Knowledge for Development (K4D) since 1999. Prior to that he served as Staff Director of the 1998-1999 World Development Report, Knowledge for Development, was the Bank’s Resident Representative and Financial Sector Leader in Mexico, and led divisions in the Bank’s Private Sector Development, and Industry and Energy Departments. He has conducted extensive analytical work in major developing countries including Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Russia, Turkey, India, Pakistan, China, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam. He has co-authored eight books on the knowledge economy in different countries and many chapters and articles on education and skills, and innovation. He is currently finalizing a book on the implications of the rise of China and India for the world.
  • 90. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 89 Dr. Anne Crick Dr. Anne P. Crick is a Senior Lecturer of Organizational Management at the University of the West Indies Mona Campus and was a former Head of the Department of Management Studies and the Centre for Hospitality and Tourism Management located in Nassau, Bahamas. She is also a former Associate Dean of the Faculty of Social Science. She holds a BSc. degree in Hotel Management from the University of the West Indies, an M.S. in Organizational Management from Pennsylvania State University and a PhD in Organizational Management from Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey. She is also a certified trainer in hospitality management and is a trained facilitator. In her current position at the University of the West Indies she lectures in Organizational Behaviour, Human Resource Management, Organizational Development and Organizational Design. She has also developed courses in Quality Service Management for the graduate and undergraduate level. Dr. Crick is an active researcher who focuses on the mechanisms that enhance and detract from the effective delivery of service in Jamaican organizations. She has approximately 20 book chapters and articles relating to her field of service and has done numerous presentations locally and overseas. Dr. Crick worked in several of Jamaica’s leading hotels as a manager and as a trainer before moving fully into academia. She has facilitated and trained at some of Jamaica’s leading organizations including the Sandals Chain, Insurance Company of the West Indies, Rural Agricultural Development Authority, Digicel, Bank of Nova Scotia, The National Housing Trust, Grace Kennedy and Company and the Cigarette Company of Jamaica. Her style is characterized by a focus on the underlying factors that will drive sustainable change rather than developing a quick solution to the organization’s problems. Prof. Winston Davidson Professor Winston Davidson, is Professor of Public Health & Health Technology and Head of the School of Public Health & Health Policy at the University of Technology, Jamaica. Prof. Davidson developed and deployed the National Primary Health Care program throughout Jamaica derived from research done in the Department of Social & Preventive medicine 1973 to 1975 which is still in existence after 30 years; facilitated the development of the National drug abuse
  • 91. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 90 prevention Institutions i.e. Detoxification Unit UWI Hospital observation Ward, Richmond Fellowship Drug Rehab Centre , Addiction Alert , William Chamberlain Drug Rehab Centre , Eighteen Community Development Action Committees in fourteen Parishes utilizing the POPIE method of Community Development; developed and implemented the Integrated Demand Reduction program which was endorsed by the United Nations after its adoption as both a Caribbean Model and a Global strategy for Drug demand reduction ; led the organizational reform of the Ministry of Health, GoJ, resulting in the development of Primary Secondary and Tertiary Health Care establishing the continuity of care and integration of care model; developed the conceptual framework document and led a relentless campaign for the implementation of the National Health Fund, which is an institution which used proceeds from a tax on cigarettes to offset the costs of drugs for the treatment of chronic disease and promoting wellness and healthy lifestyles. Prof. Davidson’s pioneering research in Telemedicine in Jamaica and in developing the National Electronic Health Record System of the Jamaican Government is globally recognized. Prof. Davidson’s publications includes 57 papers and publications related to Health Policy, Planning and Organizational issues; Primary Health Care; Drug Abuse Prevention, Epidemiology, Community Development, Public Health, Control of Communicable Diseases, Philosophy, Telemedicine, Information Technology and Wellness. Prof. Evan Duggan Professor Evan Duggan is the Executive Director of the Mona School of Business and Professor of Management Information Systems. He joined the Mona School of Business in 2006 after eight years at the Culverhouse College of Commerce & Business Administration, University of Alabama, USA. Professor Duggan obtained the Ph.D. and MBA degrees from Georgia State University with concentrations in Decision Sciences and Computer Information Systems and the B.Sc. from the University of the West Indies, Mona. He has many years of progressive IT experience in industry and academia. He worked at Alcan Jamaica Company (now Windalco) for 25 years in all areas of IT, including the position of Manager of the Information Services Department, and served a short stint as Chief Systems Analyst at Alcan’s Head Office in Montreal Canada, where he led a team in the development of a common IS project management methodology for use by the organization worldwide. His research interests involve the management of information systems (IS) in corporations, with particular reference to IS success factors and quality and systems delivery methodologies. He
  • 92. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 91 has published extensively in refereed IS and allied journals. Professor Duggan has also written papers for edited books, and major conference proceedings as well as other scholarly outlets. His book (with co-editor, Han Reichgelt) Measuring Information Systems Delivery Quality (published by Idea Group Inc.) is in the libraries of leading Business and Engineering schools. In addition to conducting ad hoc reviews of papers for a number of journals and conferences, he is a Section Editor for the African Journal of Information Systems, Associate Editor for Communications of the Association for Information System, and he is on the editorial boards of several international journals, scholarly publishing companies and book series. Professor Duggan has taught Management Information Systems and Decision Sciences courses in several US institutions. At UWI, he teaches in the Masters and Doctoral programmes and provides academic leadership to the IS PhD students. He has been the Academic Director for the Doctorate in Business Administration programme. He is a faculty mentor for the US-based KPMG Information Systems Doctoral Students Association and was the Chairman of the Doctoral Students Affairs Committee for the Decision Sciences Institute (2006-2007) and faculty advisor at the Doctoral Consortium of the Information Resources Management Association International Conference (2004-2006). Professor Duggan was honoured by his inclusion in Marquis Who’s Who in Science and Engineering, 2005-2006. Prof. Neville Duncan Professor Neville Duncan holds the B.Sc. Economics & M.Sc. Government Degrees (University of the West Indies), and Ph.D. from Manchester University, England. He is a retired Professor in Caribbean Policy Studies and a former Director of the Sir Arthur Lewis Institute of Social and Economic Studies (SALISES), UWI, Jamaica. He is the author/editor of nine (9) books or monographs, nine (12) reports, 70+ academic and scholarly articles, several published other research, and hundreds of papers and manuscripts. He has undertaken considerable scholarly work in international political economy, governance, poverty and community development and has had important consultancies with IDB, World Bank, OAS, UNDP, UNICEF, ECLAC/CDCC, DFID, ILO, CARICOM, OXFAM, NGOs, among others. Recent evaluation consultations were done for the British Virgin Island Government (Social Sector Policy and Implementation Plan); for the Ministry of Water and Housing Jamaica (National Housing Policy and Implementation Plan); Assessment of Development Results (ADR) report, Governance Consultant with a team, doing an ADR on UNDP, Jamaica; and on The Political Economy of Implementation Deficit for the World Bank.
  • 93. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 92 He was a member of the National Council of Local Government Reform and functioned as coordinator of research for the Council, acted as Deputy Chair and later as Chairman. His service to the University community has been extensive, having served as chair of major Committees, led the staff trade union, headed the Credit Union, organised many international conferences, and enhanced the reputation of the University through his public service and scholarly activities. He is well-known for his public commentaries on Caribbean Political Economy. Prof. Hopeton Dunn Professor Hopeton S. Dunn is the Academic Director of the University of the West Indies, Mona, Master’s Degree Programme in Telecommunications Policy and Technology Management. He holds the Digicel Foundation Chair in Telecommunications Policy and Management at the University of the West Indies. He is the Secretary General of the International Association for Media and Communication Research, Chairman of the Broadcasting Commission of Jamaica and a member of the Jamaica National Commission for UNESCO. Professor Dunn is the former Chairman of the Jamaica Telecoms Advisory Council of the Government of Jamaica, and a former Chairman and CEO of the Creative Production and Training Centre and its Media Technology Institute. His books and academic papers are in the areas of New Media and Telecommunications, Theories of Globalization, and the Political Economy of African and Caribbean Information Networks. He has delivered lectures or presented on academic panels on these subjects in the Caribbean, Latin America, Africa, Asia, Europe and North America. Professor Dunn has won multiple awards for research and is author or editor of four books and numerous book chapters and scholarly papers. Dr. Dawn Elliott Dr. Dawn Elliott is an Associate Professor in the Department of Economics at Texas Christian University. She completed her undergraduate training at the UWI Mona. This laid the foundation for her specialization in economics, in particular development economics. Her research interests include a wide range of issues related to Caribbean Development and her most recent publications may be found in the Studies in Comparative International Development; Forum of Social Economics; Journal of International
  • 94. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 93 Trade and Economic Development; International Journal of Development Issues; Applied Economics; Journal of Economic Issues; and the Journal of International Women’s Studies. Dr. Andre Gordon Dr. André Gordon is the Managing Director of Technological Solutions Limited (TSL), a company which provides technical services to the manufacturing, distribution, food service, hospitality and export sectors and Chief Executive Officer/Principal Consultant of TSL Technical Services Limited a consulting company. Both are located at The Technology Innovation Centre on the campus of the University of Technology, Jamaica. In 1994, Dr. Gordon conceptualized and built the Grace Technology Centre, where he was the Manager, before leading a management buyout from Grace, Kennedy & Co. Ltd. in 1996. TSL is the only private sector-owned, organization of its kind in the Caribbean and the first laboratory in the region to have been ISO 9002 certified. Mr. Robert Gregory Robert Gregory presently consults in the area of organisational development and project implementation services, lecturing, leadership coaching and mentoring. Mr. Gregory was the President of Jamaica Trade and Invest (JTI) from 2007-2009 providing strategic leadership for a team of more than eighty (80) professionals and facilitated over US$1/2 billion of Foreign Direct Investment. In 2008, JTI won the coveted International Trade Centre (ITC) of UNCTAD Award for “Best Trade Promotion Organisation from a Small State Economy”. In 2009, JTI led a coordinated private/public sector Multi- Agency collaborative which launched the National Export Strategyof Jamaica. From 1991 to 2007, Robert was the Executive Director of the premier workforce development institution in Jamaica, the Human Employment and Resource Training Trust/National Training Agency (HEART Trust/NTA). There he directed the successful organisational restructuring of the Trust – then a national youth vocational training institution– to assume the role of the National Training Agency of Jamaica. The Trust was awarded the Employer of Choice by the Jamaica Employers Federation (JEF) in 2005. He led the establishment of the National Council on Technical and Vocational Education and Training (NCTVET), the ISO certified, quality assurance body which awards the National Vocational Qualification of Jamaica (NVQJ) and spearheaded the formation of the Caribbean Association of National Training Agencies (CANTA) where he served as Charter President. CANTA led the Caribbean-wide introduction of the CARICOM
  • 95. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 94 approved Caribbean Vocational Qualification (CVQ), which now enables the free movement of certified workers within the Caribbean Community. Dr. Carolyn Hayle Appointed as Executive Director of the HEART Trust /National Training Agency (HEART Trust/NTA) in November 2009, Dr. Carolyn Hayle has had a distinguished career both locally and internationally in tourism, education and marketing. She holds a Ph.D. in Sustainable Development from the University of the West Indies (UWI), a MBA (General Management) from Howard University and a B.Sc. in Business (with minors in Economics and Finance) from Strayer College, USA. As Executive Director, she is accountable for the strategic leadership and operational management of the organization, guiding policy direction on national and regional workforce development and Technical and Vocational Education and Training. She also sits on the policy- making HEART Trust/NTA Board of Directors, and serves on a number of Management Committees of the Board. Dr. Hayle has held a number of senior management positions at the UWI where she was responsible for developing various UWI tourism programmes. She was also responsible for the administration of the UWI Centre for Environment and Development. She also lectures on sustainable tourism, marketing and tourism management in the Masters of Science programme in Tourism & Hospitality Management. Mr. Kenneth Hynes Kenneth Hynes, Managing Director of ontheFRONTIER Group, has over 10 years experience advising public and private sector leaders, and the donor community, on how to improve national competitiveness and prosperity. Ken currently leads the Pioneers of Prosperity Program; a global awards program that seeks to identify, reward, and promote innovative small to medium sized firms so that their success can be replicated by others. Ken recently completed a cluster best practices study for the Inter-American Development Bank, which informed the design and implementation of the Compete Caribbean Program. Ken has led the design and implementation of over a dozen cluster competitiveness programs encompassing value chain analysis, market analysis, cross-country benchmarking, and public
  • 96. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 95 private dialogue. In 2009 he led the Opportunities and Constraints to Growth in the Caribbean Study, which helped to guide DFID’s support to the Caribbean Single Market and Economy (CSME). Previously, he advised the political and business leadership in Jamaica on the development of sector strategies for agribusiness, entertainment and tourism. Mr. Hynes is frequently asked to speak on issues of innovation, competitiveness and prosperity. Most recently, he spoke at the Euromoney Latin American Finance Conference and a conference on Caribbean investment opportunities hosted by former U.K. Prime Minister Tony Blair. He is a contributing author to “In the River They Swim” a book on Enterprise Solutions to Poverty (Templeton Press 2009). He has also written a number of columns for the Jamaica Observer. Mr. Richard Lumsden Mr. Richard Lumsden is the Programme Manager, Vision 2030 Jamaica, in the Plan Development Unit, at the Planning Institute of Jamaica (PIOJ). He is a former Corporate Planner at JAMPRO and has many years experience in Business Consulting. Mr. Lumsden is a former Jamaica Scholar, a graduate with a B.A. degree in Economics from the Yale University, USA, and an MBA in Finance from the Manchester Business School in the UK. Dr. Gunjan Mansingh Dr. Gunjan Mansingh is a Lecturer in the Department of Computing at the University of the West Indies (U.W.I), Mona, Jamaica. She obtained a PhD. in Information Systems and an M.Phil. in Computer Science from U.W.I. and a B.Sc. from Bombay University, India. She worked for a few years in the IT industry in Jamaica before moving to academia. Her research interests are Data Mining, Knowledge Management, Ontologies and Expert Systems. In her research she has worked in different domains in Jamaica such as healthcare, crime, agriculture and ecommerce. She has publications in refereed journals such as Knowledge Management Research and Practice, Information Sciences, Expert Systems with Applications and British Journal of Sports Medicine. She also has several papers published in the proceedings of international conferences. She teaches various courses at the undergraduate and the graduate level in Computer Science and Information Systems.
  • 97. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 96 Dr. Densil Williams Dr. Densil Williams is senior lecturer of International Business in the Department of Management Studies, at UWI, Mona Campus. He is also the Head of the Department of Management Studies, UWI, Mona. His research interests are in the areas of international business with special focus on the international activities of small firms; strategy and, international development. His works have appeared in major international journals in North-America and Europe. He has also presented his works at major international conferences in Europe and North- America. In 2009, one of his papers was awarded the best empirical research paper at the International Council of Small Business World Conference in Seoul, South Korea.
  • 98. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 97 LEAD SPONSOR, CONFERENCE DIRECTOR & RAPPORTEURS LEAD SPONSOR: Spatial Innovision Limited Spatial Innovision Limited, is the leading geospatial solutions company in the Caribbean. Formed in 1998 the company has a staff of 15. Headquartered in Kingston, Jamaica, approximately 70% of the company’s revenue is from the region. In 2008 the firm was inducted into the Jamaica Exporter’s Association (JEA) US$1million club, was named Champion Exporter for the Services Category US$1mil to US$5mil and was awarded the National Commercial Bank’s Regional Innovation Award. In 2009 the firm was again declared a Champion Exporter of the JEA and was named a winner in the inaugural Pioneers of Prosperity 2009 Caribbean Programme ( and ranked among the 1% of Small Business firms in the Caribbean. For the third year in succession, Spatial copped the 2010 JEA Champion Exporter Services Category. CONFERENCE DIRECTOR: Mrs. Jacqueline daCosta Mrs. daCosta has held many senior positions in the Jamaican Government. These include Consultant Coordinator Special Programmes and Projects in the Cabinet Office, Technical Advisor to a number of Cabinet Sub- Committees and Permanent Secretary in the Ministry of Land and Environment, which included Sustainable Development Planning, Mining and National Spatial Data Infrastructure. Prior to that she was the Senior Advisor on Land Policy and Physical Development, to the then Prime Minister of Jamaica. She is at present a Private Consultant, working in some of the areas mentioned above and is the Chair and CEO of the National Best Community Foundation.
  • 99. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 98 EDITOR: Silburn St. Aubyn Clarke, FRICS, MBA, MSc, MEng Silburn St. Aubyn Clarke‘s career is filled with successful stints in the public service, academia, the private sector and in voluntary community service. Silburn is the Owner, Chairman and CEO of Spatial Innovision Limited which he founded in 1998 after 25 years in the public sector. He is the 1979 recipient of the Hart Prize for Academic Excellence from the University College London, UK. In 2005 Silburn was elected a Patron of the Faculty of the Built Environment, University of Technology. In 2007 he was named the GIS Entrepreneur of the Year by the Land Information Council of Jamaica. Silburn was conferred the GIS Lifetime Achievement Award from the Government of Jamaica in 2009 for outstanding, invaluable and sustained contribution to the growth and development of the geospatial industry and related technologies in Jamaica. Silburn is the President of the Jamaica Computer Society and a member of the Governing Council of the Land Surveyors Association of Jamaica. Silburn is currently completing his Doctorate in Business Administration at the Mona School of Business, UWI, Mona. His research interest includes innovation, entrepreneurship, knowledge, culture, strategy, firm ambidexterity and development with a particular focus on small and medium firms. CHIEF RAPPORTEUR: Mrs. Charmaine Nelson Charmaine Nelson is a certified Project Management Professional (PMP). Her academic qualifications include an MBA (Distinction) and a BSc. (Hons.) in Computer Science, both from the University of the West Indies. A multi-skilled individual, her work experience spans the private, public and NGO sectors, primarily in the fields of management, information systems development and project management. Her early work years were in the area of Information Systems Design and Programming in the financial sector. Mrs. Nelson also worked at the Jamaica Social Investment Fund (JSIF), from its inception, with her final position there being Operations Manager. She is currently assigned to the Public Sector Transformation Unit of the Cabinet Office, as their Project Management Specialist. This places her in a small team of highly skilled professionals charged with leading the transformation of the public sector for greater efficiency and cost effectiveness. Mrs. Nelson is currently pursuing her Doctorate in Business Administration at the Mona School of Business, UWI, Mona. Her research is focused on uncovering strategies, mechanisms and tools to improve the management and performance of public sector projects.
  • 100. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 99 RAPPORTEUR: Mrs. Michele Thomas Michele Thomas is a Research and Management Consultant, currently providing research, teaching and business services in a number of areas, including Information and Communications Technology. Mrs. Thomas has a background in telecommunications policy, social and economic research and planning, having worked as Director, Policy and Strategic Planning at the Spectrum Management Authority (2002-2008), and a Senior Economist at the Planning Institute of Jamaica (1998- 2002). In her professional capacity, Mrs. Thomas has provided research, policy and regulatory advice and services on a wide spectrum of issues to inter- alia, the Telecommunications Policy and Management Programme, Mona School of Business, various Government Ministries and Agencies, Non-Government organizations and the Caribbean Telecommunications Union. She holds a MSc. Regulation and Policy (Telecommunications), University of the West Indies (St. Augustine), 2006, a MSc. Economics from the University of London (Birkbeck College), 1997 and a BSc. (Hons.), Economics and Management from the University of the West Indies (Mona), 1990. RAPPORTEUR: Mrs. Brenda Cuthbert Brenda Cuthbert is currently the CEO of Jamaica Employers' Federation. She is the first Jamaican female to obtain a BSc (Hons) in Agriculture from UWI St Augustine Trinidad. As a Hubert H. Humphrey Fellow, Mrs. Cuthbert attended Colorado State University and was awarded post graduate diploma in Agri-Business Management and Finance. Her MBA was earned at Nova South Eastern University and she has pursued post graduate studies at Wharton School of Business at University of Pennsylvania. Her work experience has been in Agriculture in the Public Sector and as Agriculture Manager and later Marketing Manager at National Commercial Bank. Mrs. Cuthbert spent six years as General Manager of City of Kingston Cooperative Credit Union prior to her present position. She is in the Doctorate in Business Administration programme at Mona School of Business UWI Mona and plans to do research on cooperatives and development.
  • 101. Conference Proceedings: Strategies for Enhancing Jamaican Competitiveness in the Global Knowledge Economy 2011 100 PICTORIALS
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