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health education and health prumotion

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  • 1. Chapter 4Health Education and Health PromotionCopyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  • 2. Health Education Today• Number of factors increased need for, importance of health education• Teaching: independent function, primary nursing responsibility included in all state practice acts Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  • 3. Purposes of Health Education• Allows individuals to make informed decisions regarding life, health• Helps people adapt to illness, prevent complications, follow prescribed regimens• Allows people to achieve maximum health potential• Reduces health care costs, prevents patient/public dissatisfaction Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  • 4. Question• Tell whether the following statement is true or false:• Health education is an independent function of nursing and a primary nursing responsibility. Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  • 5. Answer• True.• Rationale: All nursing care is directed toward promoting, maintaining, and restoring health; preventing illness; and helping people adapt to the residual effects of illness. Many of these nursing activities are accomplished through health education or patient teaching. Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  • 6. Adherence to the Therapeutic Regimen• Adherence: process of faithfully following guidelines or directions• Therapeutic regimen: routine that promotes health, healing Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  • 7. Variables that Influence Adherence• Demographic: sex, race, age, education, socioeconomic status• Illness• Complexity of regimen, side effects• Psychosocial: intelligence, availability of support person, religious or cultural variables• Finances: direct, indirect costs of regimen Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  • 8. Teaching and Learning• Learning: act of gaining knowledge, skill• Teaching: imparting of knowledge• Learning readiness: optimal time for learning to occur – Usually corresponds to learner’s perceived need, desire to obtain specific knowledge Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  • 9. The Learning Environment• Setting up learning environment• Formal vs. informal• Interpersonal aspects• Physical environment• Selection of time Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  • 10. Strategies and Techniques• Discussion• Group teaching• Demonstration, practice• Teaching resources• Reinforcement, follow-up Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  • 11. The Teaching Care Plan• Use of nursing process• Assessment• Nursing diagnosis• Planning• Implementation• Evaluation Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  • 12. Assessment• Assess person’s readiness for health education• Organize, analyze, synthesize, summarize collected data Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  • 13. Nursing Diagnosis• “Ineffective therapeutic regimen”• “Knowledge deficit” – Diagnosis should be used cautiously because knowledge deficit is not human response (Carpenito- Moyet, 2008; NANDA International, 2007)• Nursing diagnosis relates specifically to learning needs, serves as guide in development of teaching plan Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  • 14. Planning• Establish priorities• Determine goals in collaboration with patient• Identify teaching strategies• Establish expected outcomes• Develop written plan• Involve learner, family, team Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  • 15. Implementation• Health care team carries out teaching plan• Use appropriate language, teaching aides• Encourage active learning• Be flexible, creative• Provide feedback• Record responses• Nurse coordinates teaching activities Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  • 16. Evaluation• Vital part of process• Do not assume that since teaching has been done that learning has been achieved• Evaluate if goals, expected outcomes have been met• Ask questions: “What can be done to improve teaching and enhance learning?”• Conduct follow-up evaluation Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  • 17. Question• A nurse identifies that a patient is unable to identify the correct number of oral medication to take each morning. Which step of the nursing process does this problem involve?A.AssessmentB.PlanningC.ImplementationD.Evaluation Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  • 18. Answer• A. Assessment• Rationale: Planning involves developing the written teaching plan including diagnosis, goals, teaching strategies and expected outcomes. Implementation is putting the teaching plan into action. Evaluation is determining if the goals were achieved. Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  • 19. Modifying the Teaching Plan to the Needsof the Individual• Teaching strategies for teaching people with disabilities• Cultural-assessment components to consider when formulating teaching plan Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  • 20. Health Promotion and Wellness• Health: dynamic, ever-changing condition that enables people to function at optimal potential• Wellness: reflection of health; not the same for every person• Health promotion: those activities that assist people in developing resources that maintain or enhance well- being, improve quality of life – Focuses on person’s potential for wellness Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  • 21. Health Promotion Theories• Health belief model• Health promotion models Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  • 22. Health Promotion Principles• Self-responsibility: personal accountability for one’s actions or behavior• Nutrition awareness: deal with food, nourishment• Stress reduction and management: behaviors, techniques used to strengthen person’s resources against stress• Physical fitness: condition of being physically healthy from proper exercise, nutrition Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  • 23. Health Promotion Across the Life Span• Variables that affect health promotion• Health screening• Promotion of safety/healthy lifestyle practices• Gerontologic considerations Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  • 24. Role of the Nurse• Nurses have vital role in health care promotion• Nurses have responsibility to – Foster well-being, self-actualization, personal fulfillment – Promote positive health care attitudes, behaviors Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  • 25. Question• Tell whether the following statement is true or false:• The health promotion model identifies why some individuals choose to foster health and others refuse to participate. Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  • 26. Answer• True.• Rationale: The health promotion model is based on social learning theory and emphasizes the importance of motivational factors in acquiring and sustaining health promotion behaviors. Copyright © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins