Residential system in Perak : A Case Study

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Residential system in Perak : A Case Study

  1. 1. THE RESIDENTIAL SYSTEM (PERAK ) Masilah Binti Matusin
  2. 2. KEY POINTS IN THIS CHAPTER1. How the Residential System worked2. The Residents of Perak3. The advantages and disadvantages of the Residential System
  3. 3. LESSON OUTLINE• What was the Residential System• The resident’s position : in theory & in practice• Problem faced by the Resident• The role of the Resident• The Residential System in Perak :1. J.W.W. Birch2. J.G. Davidson3. H. Low• Compare J.W.W. Birch with H. Low• Advantages of the Residential System• Disadvantages of the Residential System
  4. 4. RECAPPEDPolicy of NON-INTERVENTION Policy of INTERVENTION
  5. 5. What was the RESIDENTIAL SYSTEM?• Resulted from PANGKOR AGREEMENT• The system of governing with assistance from a Resident NEGRI SEMBILAN SELANGOR MARTIN J.G LISTER PERAK DAVIDSON J.W.W PAHANG BIRCH J.P RODGER
  6. 6. The Resident advised the sultan on all matters exceptthose to do with Malay customs or religion STRUCTURE OF THE RESIDENTIAL SYSTEM
  7. 7. The Residents position• In Theory • In practice• The Resident was • The Resident only supposed to GOVERNED in the advise the sultan on name of the Sultan government matters
  8. 8. Problems faced by the Resident• No army or police • They had to bring force to assist them changes but must be beneficial for the• Depend on the locals support and power of the Sultan for their • To change BUT had advice to be acted to avoid offending the upon sultan and not to criticized local custom and practice
  9. 9. The role of RESIDENT1. Sultans should consult Residents on all matters except those to do with Malay customs or religion2. Advise on the collection and control of revenue3. Responsible for setting up systems for more efficient collection of the state’s revenue
  10. 10. 1. Encouraging economic growth in the state to create maximum wealth2. To restore and maintain peace in the state3. The Residents did not rule the state but only stay in office
  11. 11. The ResidentialSystem in PERAK
  12. 12. St J.W.W1 BIRCH • Perak’s 1st Resident in November 1874 • An efficient & able civil servant (Sri Lanka & Straits Settlement)
  13. 13. J.W.W. BIRCH He did not speak Malay He had a very poor opinion of the value of Malay custom and opinions He was intolerant and arrogant personal manner
  14. 14. ACTIVITY (Perak) Ask the students to do1. if there any changes after the introduction of the Residential System 2. Do mind-mapping on the policies implement by JWW Birch
  15. 15. What happened in PERAK ??? BEFORE (THE PANGKOR ENGAGEMENT or RESIDENTIAL SYSTEM) Sultan ABDULLAH allowed some of the chiefs to collect their own taxes Agreement by farming out revenue collection to the Chinese citizen of Singapore, TAN KIM CHENG ($15,000 a year collected by the Sultan)
  16. 16. AFTER (THE INTRODUCTION OF THE RESIDENTIAL SYSTEM)Birch introduced some CHANGES in Perak
  17. 17. Economic Changes• Declared Abdullah’s FARMING OUT OF REVENUE collection = ILLEGAL• Perak Chiefs NOT ALLOWED to collect taxes• Need Birch’s permission to collect revenue• Introduced new taxes & licence fees
  18. 18. RESULT• CHIEFS’ INCOME• Led to great RESENTMENT (dislike)
  19. 19. Administrative Changes• Announced a new Code of Civil & Criminal Law • Penghulu British resident local chiefs Sultan British Judge
  20. 20. RESULTEFFECTIVE control of the judiciary in British hands
  21. 21. Social Changes He put an END to DEBT SLAVERY RESULTThe Sultan & chiefs felt British SHOULD NOT have any say in the matter because debt slavery was a MALAY CUSTOM
  22. 22. Changed of GOVERNOR in Perak SIR ANDREW CLARKE (governor)SIR WILLIAM JERVOIS (NEW governor)
  23. 23. • Sir Jervois insisted Sultan Abdullah to accept J.W.W. Birch as a QUEEN COMMISSIONER (rule Perak in the name of the Sultan)• PENSIONS Sultan GIVEN Malay Chiefs (LOSS POWER)• Sultan Abdullah was FORCED to agree in OCTOBER 1875
  24. 24. The murder of Birch• Lets watch a video together……
  25. 25. ACTIVITYAnswer the questionsprepare by the teacher
  26. 26. What happened???• Birch was killed on NOVEMBER 1875, as he bathed at PASIR SALAK MAHARAJALELA• Killed by DATO SAGOR PANDAK INGUT
  27. 27. RESULT1. Jervois launched a series of attacks on Perak (Penang,Singapore,India & Hong Kong)2. July 1876 – those involved in the murder were captured & punished severely : a) Sultan Abdullah, Raja Ismail & other chiefs was deposed & sent into EXILE b) Maharajalela, Dato Sagor & Pandak Ingut were HANGED
  28. 28. • Raja Yusof became REGENT SULTAN of PERAK• William Jervios was REPRIMANDED by the British government (forcing Sultan Abdullah into accepting Birch as a Queen’s Commissioner)
  29. 29. ACTIVITY Do mind-mapping on :Reasons for Birch’s murders
  30. 30. PART 2
  31. 31. RECAPPED
  32. 32. 2n J.G DAVIDSON d • He was a Singapore lawyer • He was Resident of Selangor before came to Perak • He was appointed to replace Birch (1875)
  33. 33. rd3H.LOW • February 1877- he was appointed as the new PERAK Resident • He was 53 year old that time • 30 years experiences as administrator in South East Asia • He was fluent in Malay • He had GREAT respect for Malay customs & traditions • He was tolerant & understand the Malays
  34. 34. H.LOW BELIEVES……….• Develop a trusting & friendly relationship between the Resident & the Malay chiefs
  35. 35. H.LOW made PERAK…. Hostile & bankrupt Most prosperous
  36. 36. H.LOW’S WORK
  37. 37. POLITICAL
  38. 38.  The members were State Council appointed by the sultan after advice from the Resident ADVISORY Membership included representative from JUDICIAL POWER• Malay• British• Chinese EXECUTIVE POWER
  39. 39. • By 1899 – member = 12 BUTThe control of revenue in thehand of RESIDENT
  40. 40. STATE COUNCIL
  41. 41. ECONOMIC
  42. 42. • Resident controlled • Improved the revenue communication• 1884 – abolished debt • Improvement in slavery agriculture• Laws for regulating land usage & introduced registered land titles
  43. 43. RESULT Stable PERAKAttracted investors BANKRUPTCY
  44. 44. ADMINISTRATION
  45. 45. • Divided Perak into districts controlled by officers Courts of Justice European Malay
  46. 46. ACTIVITYAsk students to do mind-mapping on policies implement by H.Low
  47. 47. RECAPPED
  48. 48. ACTIVITYWHY J.W.W. BIRCH FAILEDBUT H.LOW SUCCESSES ?
  49. 49. JWW BIRCH vs H.LOW J.W.W BIRCH H. LOW• Did not speak Malay • Fluent in Malay• Poor opinion of the value • Great respect for Malay of Malay customs and customs & traditions opinion • Tolerant & understanding• Intolerant & sometime approach to the Malays arrogant personal manner• “it concerns us little what • Developing a trusting & were the old customs of friendly relationship the country…I consider between the Resident that they are not worthy and the Malay chiefs of any consideration”
  50. 50. ACTIVITYWHY J.W.W. BIRCH FAILEDBUT H.LOW SUCCESSES ? (Pre-activity)
  51. 51. ACTIVITYDo a table of Hugh Low’s achievement as the British Resident in Perak ? (Pre-activity)
  52. 52. ACTIVITYADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES (Pre-Activity)
  53. 53. ADVANTAGES :1. Political stability & enforcement of law and order2. More effective government3. Substantial economic growth4. Greater revenue & higher standard of living5. Malaya became a more Multi-Cultural society6. Increase in Malaya’s population
  54. 54. DISADVANTAGES :1. No uniformity of government2. Resident become increasingly powerful at the expense of the local sultans and chiefs3. There were varying amounts of economic growth within the 4 states
  55. 55. Summary
  56. 56. • Resulted from PANGKOR AGREEMENT• The system of governing with assistance from a Resident• Perak – J.W.W. BIRCH• Selangor – J.G. DAVIDSON• Pahang – J.P. RODGER• Negri Sembilan – MARTIN LISTER
  57. 57. • The Resident advised the sultan on all matters except those to do with Malay customs or religion STRUCTURE OF THE RESIDENTIAL SYSTEM
  58. 58. British residents in PerakSt1 it concerns us little what were the old customs of the country…I consider that they are not worthy of any consideration” 2n Developing a trusting & 3rd friendly relationship d between the Resident and the Malay chiefs I resigned
  59. 59. J W W BIRCH He did not speak Malay He had a very poor opinion of the value of Malay custom and opinions He was intolerant and arrogant personal manner
  60. 60. H.LOW• 30 years experiences as administrator in South East Asia• He was fluent in Malay• He had GREAT respect for Malay customs & traditions• He was tolerant & understand the Malays
  61. 61. Birch introduced some CHANGES in Perak
  62. 62. J W W BIRCH VS H.LOW J W W BIRCH H. LOW• Did not speak Malay • Fluent in Malay• Poor opinion of the value • Great respect for Malay of Malay customs and customs & traditions opinion • Tolerant & understanding• Intolerant & sometime approach to the Malays arrogant personal manner• “it concerns us little what • Developing a trusting & were the old customs of the country…I consider friendly relationship that they are not worthy between the Resident of any consideration and the Malay chiefs
  63. 63. ADVANTAGES
  64. 64. 1. Political stability & enforcement of law and order2. More effective government3. Substantial economic growth4. Greater revenue & higher standard of living5. Malaya became a more Multi-Cultural society6. Increase in Malaya’s population
  65. 65. DISADVANTAGES
  66. 66. 1. No uniformity of government2. Resident become increasingly powerful at the expense of the local sultans and chiefs3. There were varying amounts of economic growth within the 4 states
  67. 67. ACTIVITY ON SUMMARYAsk the students to do group work on mind-mapping1. Residential System2. JWW Birch3. H.Low4. Advantages of the Residential System5. Disadvantages of the Residential System
  68. 68. QUESTIONS Homework
  69. 69. Hope you enjoythe lesson

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