The social brain

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Done by: Sabina Gómez and Alejandra Guerrero, IFD Paysandú, 4th form (night shift)

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The social brain

  1. 2. <ul><li>WHAT ABOUT OUR SOCIAL BRAIN? </li></ul><ul><li>-Evidence tells us that social experiences change the </li></ul><ul><li>human brain. </li></ul><ul><li>- Important social experiences occur in the classroom </li></ul><ul><li>and the school and the students brains will be altered </li></ul><ul><li>by those experiences. </li></ul><ul><li>We must take responsibility for the ways we are </li></ul><ul><li>shaping brains in the social environment of schools. </li></ul>
  2. 3. <ul><li>WE’LL FOCUS ON THREE MAJOR THEMES: </li></ul><ul><li>How social experiences affect the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>The complex nature of the ‘social brain’ </li></ul><ul><li>Ho w to enhance the social experience of </li></ul><ul><li>school. </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>HOW SOCIAL EXPERIENCE AFFECTS THE BRAIN. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a connection between school social climate and the people within the schools. </li></ul><ul><li>We have to consider that school are social places; as a result they change students’ brain. </li></ul><ul><li>According to Gardner social skills are one of the eight intelligences, but there are some exceptions: autism, William’s syndrome. </li></ul>
  4. 5. Autism: Autism is a brain disorder that often makes it hard to communicate with and relate to others. With autism, the different areas of the brain fail to work together. Most people with autism will always have some trouble relating to others. But early diagnosis and treatment have helped more and more people who have autism to reach their full potential.
  5. 7. Williams Syndrome <ul><li>It is a genetic condition that is present at birth and can affect anyone. </li></ul><ul><li>It is characterized by medical problems, including cardiovascular disease, developmental delays, and learning disabilities.  These occur side by side with striking verbal abilities, highly social personalities and an affinity for music. </li></ul><ul><li>Some common features of WS : </li></ul><ul><li>- Characteristic facial appearance  </li></ul><ul><li>Heart and blood vessel problems  </li></ul><ul><li>Feeding problems </li></ul><ul><li>Overly friendly (excessively social) personality   </li></ul>
  6. 8. Asperger's Syndrome: It is a type of pervasive development disorder (PDD) . PDDs are a group of conditions that involve delays in the development of many basic skills, most notably the ability to socialize with others, to communicate, and to use imagination. Although Asperger's syndrome is similar in some ways to autism but, there are some important differences. Children with Asperger's syndrome typically function better than do those with autism. In addition, children with Asperger's syndrome generally have normal intelligence and near-normal language development, although they may develop problems communicating as they get older.
  7. 9. Social contact influences • Stress levels • Heart rate • Chemical levels • Blood pressure These in turn can influence • Hormones • Immune system • Behaviours • Gene expression
  8. 10. <ul><li>WHAT CAN WE EXPECT OF OUR DEVELOPING SOCIAL BRAIN? </li></ul><ul><li>HOW DOES IT RESPOND TO SMALL OR LARGE SOCIAL GATHERING? </li></ul><ul><li>HOW IS OUR BEHAVIOUR WHEN WE ARE IN A SOCIAL SETTING DIFFERENT FROM OUR BEHAVIOUR WHEN WE ARE ALONE? </li></ul><ul><li>ARE THERE GENDER DIFFERENCES IN OUR SOCIAL BRAIN? </li></ul>LET’S EXPLORE....
  9. 11. <ul><li>WE HAVE TO CONSIDER: </li></ul><ul><li>COGNITION </li></ul><ul><li>SOCIAL STRESS </li></ul><ul><li>SOCIAL BONDING </li></ul><ul><li>SOCIAL BIAS </li></ul><ul><li>PEER PRESSURE </li></ul><ul><li>SOCIAL DIFFICULTIES </li></ul>
  10. 12. Corpus callosum (integrates left and right hemispheres) Hypothalamus and pituitary gland (responds to stress) Occipital cortex (responds to social cues) Raphe nuclei (produces a key social chemical, serotonin) Amygdala (responds to fear and uncertainty) Orbitofrontal area of the frontal lobe (integrates emotion and cognition) SOCIAL BRAIN REGULATORS
  11. 13. <ul><li>COGNITION: </li></ul><ul><li>Is influenced by social conditions such as peer pressure, </li></ul><ul><li>acceptance, disapproval and reinforcement and the role of </li></ul><ul><li>emotions in decision making. </li></ul><ul><li>Working cooperatively enhance learning. </li></ul><ul><li>The most important elements in a cooperative learning are: </li></ul><ul><li>Face-to-face interaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Positive interdependence. </li></ul><ul><li>Both group and individual accountability. </li></ul><ul><li>Small group and interpersonal skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Metaprocessing skills </li></ul>
  12. 14. <ul><li>TAKE INTO ACCOUNT : </li></ul><ul><li>THE BRAIN MATURES SLOWLY AND OFTEN DOES NOT COMPLETE MATURITY UNTIL WE ARE IN OUR TEENS AND 20s. </li></ul><ul><li>TO DEVELOP SOCIAL COGNITIVE SKILLS STUDENTS HAVE TO SPEND </li></ul><ul><li>SOME PART OF THEIR LEARNING TIME IN GROUPS. </li></ul><ul><li>SMALLER GROUPS (3 OR 4) PERFORM BETTER THAN LARGER OR SMALLER ONES. </li></ul><ul><li>OPTIONS FOR GROUPING: PAIR-SHARE, COMPETITIONS, SIMULATIONS, COOPERATIVE GROUPS AND STRUCTURE SOCIAL TIME </li></ul><ul><li>FOR DISCUSSION. </li></ul><ul><li>SOCIAL GROUPING: MOST STS DO BETTER WHEN THEY ARE IN GROUP WITH OTHERS WHO SHARE THE SAME ACADEMIC LEVEL. </li></ul><ul><li>ALTHOUGH: </li></ul><ul><li>LOW-ABILITY STS GAIN MORE FROM BEING IN GROUPS OF HIGHER ABILITY </li></ul><ul><li>-MEDIUM –ABILITY STS GAIN THE MOST IN A MEDIUM-ABILITY GROUP </li></ul><ul><li>-HIGH-ABILITY GROUPS GAIN A SMALL AMOUNT IN A HIGH-ABILIY GROUP. </li></ul><ul><li>SOCIAL PLAY HAS AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN THE CLASSROOM: REGULATE THE STRESS,IMPROVE CREATIVITY, FORGE SOCIAL BONS , DECISION MAKING AND INTRODUCE CODES OF CONDUCT. </li></ul>
  13. 15. SOCIAL STRESS Adolescents form groups for social comfort, camaraderie or protection. At school we can see examples of the social brain acting under stress depending on the gender: females report more sources of social support than males. The lack of social support can put males at greater risk for suicide. SOCIAL BONDING Sts spend time grooming, posing, applying make-up, all in preparation for social contact and bonding. The absence of a valued social companion is a risk factor for depression.
  14. 16. SOCIAL BIAS Racial differences can be a serious social issue. Racism is learned but wariness about ‘different’ others is built in. The amygdala is the brain’s ‘uncertainty activator’. It activates as a fear or a stress response.
  15. 17. PEER PRESSURE Adolescents and teen sts are more interested in peer approval, autonomy and discovery. Social influence is a significant factor in an adolescent decision.
  16. 18. SOCIAL DIFFICULTIES Sometimes is a result of an emotionally poor upbringing, characterized by neglect, abuse or a lack of proper emotional modeling. Sometimes it has genetic causes: fetal alcohol syndrome. They show compromised function in the orbitofrontal lobes, the area linked to self-expression, problem solving, willpower and planning. In the case of autism and Asperger’s syndrome there is no clear biological origin.
  17. 19. Phineas Gage was renown among his colleagues to be a warm and friendly guy, after the accident he became a rude and irresponsible man who hardly displayed emotional affection. THE CASE OF PHINEAS GAGE
  18. 20. ENHANCING THE SOCIAL EXPERIENCE OF SCHOOL. Students spend so many hours of their lives in school. We must consider what we are doing to their brains during that time.
  19. 21. <ul><li>PRACTICAL SUGGESTIONS: </li></ul><ul><li>Information gathering. </li></ul><ul><li>Quick social grouping </li></ul><ul><li>A balance of social and individual events </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperative learning </li></ul><ul><li>Social skills instruction </li></ul>
  20. 22. Thank you !!! Alejandra and Sabina

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