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First language acquisition
 

First language acquisition

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    First language acquisition First language acquisition Presentation Transcript

    • First Language Acquisition
    • Native language
      L1
      Mothertongue
      Arterial language
    • What are they?
      • The language(s) a person has learned from birth or speaks the best.
      It is often the basis for sociolinguistic identity.
      • Sometimes, there can be more than one mother tongue.Those children are usually called bilingual.
      • By contrast, a second language is any language that one speaks other than one's first language.
    • Language acquisition
      • The process by whichhumans acquire the capacity to perceive, produce and use words to understand and communicate.
      • This capacityinvolves the picking up of diversecapacitiesincludingsyntax, phonetics, and an extensive vocabulary.
      • It is a keyaspect that distinguisheshumansfromotherorganisms.
      • A range of theorieshas been created to explain this: innatism, opposed to the othertheories in whichlanguage is simplylearned.
    • The basic capacity to learn language is innate, while the particular form/meaning connections of individual languages are acquired through prolonged exposure to a specific speech community.   
    •    Three theoretical approaches
      • Cognitive theory.Jean Piaget (1896-1980).
      A child first becomes aware of a concept, such as relative size, and only afterward do they acquire the words and patterns to convey that concept. 
      • Imitation and positive reinforcement.
      Children learn by imitating and repeating what they hear. 
      • Innateness of certain linguistic features.
      Connected with Noam Chomsky. Children are born with an innate capacity for learning human language. 
    • Stages in child language acquisition:
      Pre-speech:
      • Infants learn to pay attention to speech,  intonation and the rhythm of speech long before they begin to speak.
      •  Respond to speech more keenly than to other sounds. 
      •  Children learn to recognize the distinctive sounds, the phonemes of the language they hear from birth long before they are able to pronounce them. 
      Babbling stage:
      • Begins at several months of age. 
      • Many native speech sounds may be absent.  Very few consonant clusters and repeated syllables are common.
    • One word (holophrastic) stage:
      • Infants may utter their first word as early as nine months: usually mama, dada  (these words resemble babbling). 
      Combining words:
      • 18 months - 2 years.  By two and a half years most children speak in sentences of several words,but their grammar is far from complete.
      • By six the child's grammar approximates that of adults. 
    • Universallyacceptedfacts
      •   Child Language acquisition is a natural consequence of human society. 
      •   The outcome of first language acquisition will be the same regardless of individual differences in intelligence. 
      •   Although the basic ability to acquire language is innate to the child, no specific structural property of language has yet been proven to be innate. 
    • Second Language Acquisition
      • L2 acquisition proceedsaccording to predictablestages.
      • Children acquire language best in low-anxietyenvironments.
      • Culture is closelyrelated and essential.
      • Focus on meaning rather than on grammar.
      • Involvemanysenses.
      • Meaning is stablished through visual cues.
      • Meaningful context is essential.
      • Learner-centered instructionfacilitates L2 acquisition.
    • Krashen’s Theory
      • The acquisition Vs. Learning Hypothesis.
      Acquisition: the product of a subconscious process that occurs in a natural environment out of the learner’s need to communicate.
      Learning: the product of formal instruction and it comprises a conscious process whichresults in conscious knowledge.
      • The Natural OrderHypothesis.
      Ssgo through a series of stages.
      Particular grammaticalstructures are acquired in stages, certainstructures will be acquired early and others late.
      • The Monitor Hypothesis.
      Acquisition, not learning is responsible for ourfluency in L2 performance.
      The monitor has a planning, editing and correctingfunction.
      • The Input Hypothesis.
      The learner improves and progressesalong the “natural order” when he/shereceives a sufficientamount of “comprehensible input”.
      • The AffectiveFilterHypothesis.
      It is a “mental block”.
      Learners with highmotivation, self- confidence, a good self- image and a lowlevel of anxiety are betterequipped for success in L2 acquisition.
    • THE NATURAL APPROACH
      • One of the most widely methods of learning a second language.
      • Developed by Krashen and Terrell (1983)
      • It puts into practice Krashen’sTheory of Second Language Acquisition.
      • Behind this method there is a communicative view of language:
      “Language as a set of messages that can be understood”
    • OBJECTIVES: * It is designed to help beginners to become intermediates.
      Students: * will understand the speaker of the target language.
      * will be able to express their requests and ideas.
      * Do not need to know every word in a particular semantic domain but
      their production need to be understood.
      * should be able to make the meaning clear but not necessarily
      accurate in all details of grammar.
    • ACCORDING TO THE NATURAL APPROACH, L2 LEARNERS NEED:
      VISUALS, PICTURES
      REALIA
      GESTURES, BODY LANGUAGE
      MANIPULATIVES
      LISTENING ACTIVITIES
      PRACTICE WITH STRUCTURES
      MODIFIED TEACHER TALK
      COMPREHENSION CHECKS
    • THE STAGES
      • PRE – PRODUCTION – FIRST STAGE
      • EARLY PRODUCTION – ABOUT A MONTH LATER.
      • SPEECH EMERGENCE – A BIT LATER
      • INTERMEDIATE FLUENCY – LATER STILL
    • What happens in the brainwhile learning language?
    • References- bibliography
      • Brown, Douglas. “Principles of language and learning teaching.”
      • Curtain- Pescola. “Languages and children: making the match.”
      • Krashen, Terrell. “The Natural approach: Language acquisition in the classroom.”
      • Krashen. “Second language acquisition and second language learning.”
    • Thanks for your attention!
      Cristina and Natalia