Transcription and   Translation
Central Dogma• One gene = One polypeptide• DNA  RNA  Protein• DNA  RNA is called transcription• RNA  Protein is called...
How are genes switched on and off? Cells only use some of their genes most of the time You do not want nerve cells making ...
The enzyme RNA polymerase attachesON                       itself to its binding site…                                    ...
If the                      … the repressorrepressor                   protein cannotbinding site                bind to t...
• Promoter:  TATA Box• Transcription  factors• RNA poly-  merase• Transcription  initiation  complex
Transcription•   Creation of pre-mRNA•   DNA is read from 3’ to 5’•   mRNA is made from 5’-3’•   3 phases    – Initiation ...
Elongation
Finishing the pre-mRNA• Introns-intruding, spliced out• Exons-kept, will be expressed
• snRNP’s identify  introns• Introns are cut  out at a  Spliceosome• Final mRNA has  only genes that  will be tran-  scrib...
Translation• The production of  polypeptides• On a Ribosome• tRNA, transfer RNA  carries in the amino  acids to the  ribos...
mRNA code• 21 different  AA’s• 64 codon  combinations• Note  redundancy
APE• Aminoacyl-  tRNA  synthetase• Peptidyl  tRNA  binding site• Exit
Termination of the   translation
The wrong proteinNothing formed
Transcription and translation
Transcription and translation
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Transcription and translation

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Transcription and translation

  1. 1. Transcription and Translation
  2. 2. Central Dogma• One gene = One polypeptide• DNA  RNA  Protein• DNA  RNA is called transcription• RNA  Protein is called translation• Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes process genetic information differently
  3. 3. How are genes switched on and off? Cells only use some of their genes most of the time You do not want nerve cells making liver cell proteins Most genes can be switched on or offExample Gene Operator region Structural regionLength of (code for protein) DNA Repressor RNA polymerase binding site binding site
  4. 4. The enzyme RNA polymerase attachesON itself to its binding site… … and moves down the strand of DNA decoding the RNA polymerase gene Repressor protein attaches itself to itsOFF binding site… RNA polymerase is blocked and cannot attach to DNA Repressor protein
  5. 5. If the … the repressorrepressor protein cannotbinding site bind to the DNAis lost… There is nothing to stop … so the gene is DNA polymerase binding… permanently ON Having a healthy copy of this gene will not switch the defective copy off, so… … the disease caused by the defective allele is… … dominant
  6. 6. • Promoter: TATA Box• Transcription factors• RNA poly- merase• Transcription initiation complex
  7. 7. Transcription• Creation of pre-mRNA• DNA is read from 3’ to 5’• mRNA is made from 5’-3’• 3 phases – Initiation – Elongation – Termination
  8. 8. Elongation
  9. 9. Finishing the pre-mRNA• Introns-intruding, spliced out• Exons-kept, will be expressed
  10. 10. • snRNP’s identify introns• Introns are cut out at a Spliceosome• Final mRNA has only genes that will be tran- scribed in cell• Introns used to be considered “junk” but may no longer be the case!
  11. 11. Translation• The production of polypeptides• On a Ribosome• tRNA, transfer RNA carries in the amino acids to the ribosome – (transfers the A.A) Read 5’ to 3’
  12. 12. mRNA code• 21 different AA’s• 64 codon combinations• Note redundancy
  13. 13. APE• Aminoacyl- tRNA synthetase• Peptidyl tRNA binding site• Exit
  14. 14. Termination of the translation
  15. 15. The wrong proteinNothing formed
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