Change processes involve interactions among multiple actors and factors
2. There is a limit to our influence Sphere of Control Sphere of Influence Sphere of Interest Inputs Activities Outputs Outcomes Impacts
3. Identify and focus on key agents of change Develop enthusiasm to address topic Learn in partnership Develop awareness and enthusiasm Challenge existing beliefs High General level of alignment Low Low High Interest in specific topic
Map actors on the matrix
Identify which are the most influential
Who do you work with directly?
4. Outcomes as progressive behaviour changes (Deep transformation) (Active engagement) (Early positive responses) Love to see Like to see Expect to see
...policy change examples
5. Use a broad range of strategies causal persuasive supportive Aimed at the actor Aimed at the actors environment
6. M&E on three levels Initiative Policy Actor outcomes (behaviour changes in the actors) implementation (interventions by the program) relevance & viability (actions of the program) Strategies
7. Can’t prove causation
But can make a plausible estimate based on:
Timing : Did the change happen after the activity?
Logic : Is it reasonable to expect that these inputs would contribute to the change?
Expert Judgment : Do knowledgeable people – including those involved – agree with the contribution claim?
Alternative Explanations : What other factors could explain the change?
8. Clarify intent from the outset
Need a systematic approach to choosing areas for influencing, setting objectives and defining outcomes
This will enable a systematic method for collecting monitoring information and evidence of change
RAPID Outcome Assessment
Most Significant Change
Tracks key changes in target actors and surrounding environment
Makes a judgement on the contribution of project activities on the changes
Recognises external events
Interviews with project team
Workshop with project team, key stakeholders, external experts
Key policy actors targeted
Desired changes in and around these actors
Collect evidence of...
Activities undertaken and outputs of strategies
Internal changes within the programme
Changes in behaviour of key actors
Other changes in the policy environment
Map the evidence and discuss linkages
Outcomes and Impact
Step 1: Describe the policy environment
Step 2: Identify key policy actors
Step 3: Describe the behaviour of the key actors
Step 4: Map the key changes in behaviour
Step 5: Map project changes and external influences
Step 6: Determine level of influence Influences: Direct Indirect External