Chap12 Developing Business It SolutionsPresentation Transcript
Developing Business/IT Solutions Chapter 12
What is the Systems Approach?
A problem solving technique that uses a systems orientation to define problems and opportunities and develop solutions.
What is Systems Thinking?
Seeing the forest and the trees in any situation by:
Seeing interrelationships among systems rather than linear cause-and-effect chains whenever events occur
Seeing processes of change among systems rather than discrete snapshots of change, whenever changes occur
Systems Development Lifecycle (SDLC)
Systems Investigation Stage
Do we have business opportunities?
What are our business priorities?
How can information technologies provide information systems solutions that address our business priorities?
A preliminary study where the information needs of prospective users and the resource requirements, costs, benefits, and feasibility of a proposed project are determined
Organizational – how well a proposed system supports the strategic business priorities of the organization
Economic – whether expected cost savings, increased revenue, increased profits, reductions in required investment, and other types of benefits will exceed the costs of developing and operating a proposed system
Technical – determine if reliable hardware and software capable of meeting the needs of a proposed system can be acquired or developed by the business in the required time
Operational – willingness and ability of the management, employees, customers, suppliers, and others to operate, use, and support a proposed system
Tangible – costs or benefits that can be quantified
Intangible – costs or benefits that can not be quantified
An in-depth study of end user information needs that produces functional requirements that are used as the basis for the design of a new information system
What does Systems Analysis Study?
The information needs of a company and end users.
The activities, resources, and products of one or more of the present information systems being used.
The information system capabilities required to meet information needs of users, and those of other business stakeholders that may use the system.
Study of the organization including:
Current Information Systems
Design activities that produce system specifications satisfying the functional requirements that were developed in the systems analysis process
System Design Categories
Hardware, software, network, data, and personnel specifications for a proposed system that formalize the design of an application’s user interface methods and products, database structures, and processing and control procedures
End User Development
IS professional plays a consulting role, while end user does his/her own application development
End User Development
Encouraging End User Web Development
Look for tools that make sense
Set some limits
Give managers responsibility
Make users comfortable
Hardware and software acquisition
Testing of programs and procedures
Conversion of data resources
Education and training of end users and specialists who will operate a new system
IT and business unit managers enforce a project plan which includes job responsibilities, time lines for major stages of development, and financial budgets
Hardware Evaluation Factors
Software Evaluation Factors
Developing a company website
IS Services Evaluation Factors
Testing and debugging software
Testing website performance
Testing new hardware
Review of prototypes of displays, reports and other output
Converting data elements affected by new application
Correcting incorrect data
Filtering out unwanted data
Consolidating data from several databases
Organizing data into new data subsets
Importance of Data Conversion
Improperly organized and formatted data is frequently reported to be one of the major causes of failures in implementing new systems.
Importance of Documentation
Documentation serves as a method of communication among the people responsible for developing, implementing, and maintaining a computer-based system.
Documentation is extremely important in diagnosing errors and making changes, especially if the end users or systems analysts who developed a system are no longer with the organization.
All aspects of the proper use of a new system
Educate managers and end users in how the new technology impacts the company’s business operations and management
Parallel – both old and new systems are operating until the project development team and end user management agree to switch completely to the new system
Plunge – no overlap of old and new system
Phased – only parts of a new application or only a few departments at time are converted
Pilot – One department serves as a test site
Monitoring, evaluating, and modifying of operational business systems to make desirable or necessary improvements
Personnel who operate and use the system will make mistakes simply because they are not familiar with it; though such errors usually diminish as experience is gained with a new system
Periodic review or audit of a system to ensure that it is operating properly and meeting its objectives