Chap12 Developing Business It Solutions[1]
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Chap12 Developing Business It Solutions[1]






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Chap12 Developing Business It Solutions[1] Chap12 Developing Business It Solutions[1] Presentation Transcript

  • Developing Business/IT Solutions Chapter 12
  • What is the Systems Approach?
    • A problem solving technique that uses a systems orientation to define problems and opportunities and develop solutions.
  • What is Systems Thinking?
    • Seeing the forest and the trees in any situation by:
      • Seeing interrelationships among systems rather than linear cause-and-effect chains whenever events occur
      • Seeing processes of change among systems rather than discrete snapshots of change, whenever changes occur
  • Systems Development Lifecycle (SDLC)
  • Systems Investigation Stage
    • Do we have business opportunities?
    • What are our business priorities?
    • How can information technologies provide information systems solutions that address our business priorities?
  • Feasibility Study
    • Definition:
    • A preliminary study where the information needs of prospective users and the resource requirements, costs, benefits, and feasibility of a proposed project are determined
  • Feasibility Categories
    • Organizational – how well a proposed system supports the strategic business priorities of the organization
    • Economic – whether expected cost savings, increased revenue, increased profits, reductions in required investment, and other types of benefits will exceed the costs of developing and operating a proposed system
  • Feasibility Categories
    • Technical – determine if reliable hardware and software capable of meeting the needs of a proposed system can be acquired or developed by the business in the required time
    • Operational – willingness and ability of the management, employees, customers, suppliers, and others to operate, use, and support a proposed system
  • Feasibility
  • Cost/Benefit Analysis
    • Tangible – costs or benefits that can be quantified
    • Intangible – costs or benefits that can not be quantified
  • Systems Analysis
    • Definition:
    • An in-depth study of end user information needs that produces functional requirements that are used as the basis for the design of a new information system
  • What does Systems Analysis Study?
    • The information needs of a company and end users.
    • The activities, resources, and products of one or more of the present information systems being used.
    • The information system capabilities required to meet information needs of users, and those of other business stakeholders that may use the system.
  • Organizational Analysis
    • Study of the organization including:
      • Management Structure
      • People
      • Business Activities
      • Environmental Systems
      • Current Information Systems
  • Systems Design
    • Definition:
    • Design activities that produce system specifications satisfying the functional requirements that were developed in the systems analysis process
  • System Design Categories
  • System Specifications
    • Definition:
    • Hardware, software, network, data, and personnel specifications for a proposed system that formalize the design of an application’s user interface methods and products, database structures, and processing and control procedures
  • End User Development
    • Definition:
    • IS professional plays a consulting role, while end user does his/her own application development
  • End User Development
  • Encouraging End User Web Development
    • Look for tools that make sense
    • encourage creativity
    • Set some limits
    • Give managers responsibility
    • Make users comfortable
  • Systems Implementation
    • Hardware and software acquisition
    • Software development
    • Testing of programs and procedures
    • Conversion of data resources
    • Conversion alternatives
    • Education and training of end users and specialists who will operate a new system
  • Project Management
    • Definition:
    • IT and business unit managers enforce a project plan which includes job responsibilities, time lines for major stages of development, and financial budgets
  • Hardware Evaluation Factors
    • Performance
    • Cost
    • Reliability
    • Compatibility
    • Technology
    • Ergonomics
    • Connectivity
    • Scalability
    • Software
    • Support
  • Software Evaluation Factors
    • Quality
    • Efficiency
    • Flexibility
    • Security
    • Connectivity
    • Maintenance
    • Documentation
    • Hardware
  • IS Services
    • Developing a company website
    • Installation
    • Conversion
    • Employee training
    • Hardware maintenance
    • System design
    • Contract programming
    • Consulting services
    • System integration
  • IS Services Evaluation Factors
    • Performance
    • Systems development
    • Maintenance
    • Conversion
    • Training
    • Backup
    • Accessibility
    • Business Position
    • Hardware
    • Software
  • System Testing
    • Testing and debugging software
    • Testing website performance
    • Testing new hardware
    • Review of prototypes of displays, reports and other output
  • Data Conversion
    • Converting data elements affected by new application
    • Correcting incorrect data
    • Filtering out unwanted data
    • Consolidating data from several databases
    • Organizing data into new data subsets
  • Importance of Data Conversion
    • Improperly organized and formatted data is frequently reported to be one of the major causes of failures in implementing new systems.
  • Importance of Documentation
    • Documentation serves as a method of communication among the people responsible for developing, implementing, and maintaining a computer-based system.
    • Documentation is extremely important in diagnosing errors and making changes, especially if the end users or systems analysts who developed a system are no longer with the organization.
  • Training
    • Data entry
    • All aspects of the proper use of a new system
    • Educate managers and end users in how the new technology impacts the company’s business operations and management
  • Conversion Methods
    • Parallel – both old and new systems are operating until the project development team and end user management agree to switch completely to the new system
    • Plunge – no overlap of old and new system
  • Conversion Methods
    • Phased – only parts of a new application or only a few departments at time are converted
    • Pilot – One department serves as a test site
  • Systems Maintenance
    • Definition:
    • Monitoring, evaluating, and modifying of operational business systems to make desirable or necessary improvements
  • Learning Curve
    • Definition:
    • Personnel who operate and use the system will make mistakes simply because they are not familiar with it; though such errors usually diminish as experience is gained with a new system
  • Postimplementation Review
    • Definition:
    • Periodic review or audit of a system to ensure that it is operating properly and meeting its objectives
  • End of Chapter Chapter 12