Solar energy and human nutrition


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  • The World's #1 Renewable Energy Network for News & Information 2013
  • Solar energy and human nutrition

    1. 1. Solar energy and human nutrition Prepared by; Dr. Siham Gritly University of Bahri 1Dr Siham M.O. Gritly The aim of studying environment is to sustain life and our surroundings to better life quality for people and other species
    2. 2. • Introduction • OUR planet Dr Siham M.O. Gritly 2
    3. 3. The Solar System consists of the Sun and its planets and their moons Earth is the third planet in Solar System Dr Siham M.O. Gritly 3
    4. 4. Earth and its moon (satellite) Dr Siham M.O. Gritly 4
    5. 5. Our earth The planet earth is the larger ecosystem; it composed of 4 sphere; 5Dr Siham M.O. Gritly 1-atmosphere include all gases 2-biosphere; include all live found in our earth. integrating all living beings and their relationships, including their interaction with the elements of the lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere. 3-lithosphere or geosphere include soils, rocks, and fossil fuels. 4-hydrosphere; liquid water found in our planet, (under, and over the surface of the earth).
    6. 6. 4 spheres of the earth planet Dr Siham M.O. Gritly 6
    7. 7. The atmosphere; is the mass of the planets' air. Atmosphere has an innermost layer known as troposphere, the second layer is stratosphere, the mesosphere, The thermosphere and The exosphere Dr Siham M.O. Gritly 7
    8. 8. The atmosphere layers 1) The troposphere is the first layer above the surface and contains half of the Earth's atmosphere. Weather occurs in this layer. 2) The stratosphere the second layer after The troposphere Many jet aircrafts fly in because it is very stable. the ozone layer absorbs harmful rays from the Sun found in this layer. Dr Siham M.O. Gritly 8
    9. 9. • 3) the mesosphere is the layer directly above the stratosphere and directly below the thermosphere. 4) The thermosphere The outermost shell of the atmosphere, between the mesosphere and outer space, where temperatures increase steadily with altitude. 5) The exosphere atmosphere This is the upper limit of our atmosphere(space) Dr Siham M.O. Gritly 9
    10. 10. Gases of atmosphere The thin layer of gases that envelops the Earth is held in place by the planet's gravity Dr Siham M.O. Gritly 10
    11. 11. Solar energy and human nutrition • increasing agriculture productions lead to increase energy flow in an ecosystem by using the high quality energy (sun), • continuous flow of energy is provided for living organism as heat energy • Any Ecosystem depends on two natural fundamental process; Solar energy and cycling of matter Dr Siham M.O. Gritly 11
    12. 12. The Sun is Most Common Source of Energy in Every Ecosystem Dr Siham M.O. Gritly 12 The flow of energy in an ecosystem is an open system; the sun constantly gives the planet energy in the form of light while it is eventually used and lost in the form of heat throughout the trophic levels of a food web (high quality energy), which is the main source of energy to maintain life
    13. 13. • All types of ecosystems depend mainly on solar energy or sun • The Sun is the main source of energy that sustain life on our planet, supply energy light that used by green plant in the process of photosynthesis. Dr Siham M.O. Gritly 13
    14. 14. Photosynthesis; is the a process of how plant obtain its carbohydrates (stored chemical energy) by using carbon dioxide (CO2), sun light and green pigments (chlorophyll) for production of carbohydrate and oxygen. Dr Siham M.O. Gritly 14
    15. 15. energy flow in and between ecosystems (solar energy) Dr Siham M.O. Gritly 15 Energy flow is the amount of energy that moves through a food chain
    16. 16. According to the energy flow within ecosystems there are three types; • 1-solar powered ecosystem • This types of ecosystem mainly depend on the sun energy such as ocean, sea, grass land, deep lake ecosystems. • They characterized by their low productivities due to the low of energy flow Dr Siham M.O. Gritly 16
    17. 17. • 2-subsidized solar powered ecosystem • In this ecosystem additional to solar energy it subsidized by other types of energy flow and thus lead to high productivities (increasing number of living organisms) • naturally subsidized solar powered ecosystem • Tropical rain forest Dr Siham M.O. Gritly 17
    18. 18. • 3-fuel powered ecosystem • This types of ecosystems include biomass and geothermal energy, • This types of ecosystem include cities and industrial places. • It characterized by their; • -very high energy flow due to high population and other animals (over populated), such energy needed for industrial and transportation purposes. • -very high productivities • -highly polluted ecosystem Dr Siham M.O. Gritly 18
    19. 19. energy flow and cycling of matters The interaction between matter and energy is the main important phenomena in ecology • An example of energy flow in an ecosystem would begin with the autotrophs that take energy from the sun. • Herbivores then feed on the autotrophs and change the energy from the plant into energy that they can use. • Carnivores subsequently feed on the herbivores and, finally, other carnivores prey on the carnivores. Dr Siham M.O. Gritly 19
    20. 20. Organisms' Role in the Flow of Energy • All ecosystems are made up of three types of nutritional groups; • -producers; green plant (phytoplankton) • Plants are a common example of producers in all populations. They are able to convert carbon dioxide into oxygen and glucose, a common sugar consumed by most organisms. • -consumers; herbivores, carnivores and omnivores • -decomposers; bacteria and fungi Dr Siham M.O. Gritly 20
    21. 21. Food chains and food webs are representations of the predator- prey relationships between species within an ecosystem or habitat. Every known food chain has a base made of autotrophs, organisms able to manufacture their own food Dr Siham M.O. Gritly 21
    22. 22. Food chains and Food web; • The position that organism occupies on a food chain is called its trophic level, this position depends on whether it is a plant or animal • -First trophic level (the producer, green plant). • -second trophic level or primary consumer (herbivores which eat plant) • -third trophic level, secondary consumers or carnivores which eat herbivores • -fourth trophic level, tertiary consumers carnivores eat small carnivores • -decomposers such as bacteria and fungi • A food web is a series of related food chains displaying the movement of energy and matter through an ecosystem. Dr Siham M.O. Gritly 22
    23. 23. A biogeochemical cycle cycling of matter; it is naturally process that recycle nutrients in different chemical forms from a biotic environment to living organisms and then back to non-living environment • 1-gaesous cycles; such as carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, in such cycles nutrients circulate among atmosphere, the hydrosphere and living organisms • 2-sedimentary cycles; nutrients circulate among the earth crust, the hydrosphere and living organisms • 3-water cycle or hydrologic cycle; is the continuous movement of water on, above, and below the surface of the Earth. Dr Siham M.O. Gritly 23
    24. 24. Nitrogen cycle *Nitrogen is the most abundant gas found in atmosphere, it constitute about 78%of the air. Dr Siham M.O. Gritly 24 *All living organisms required nitrogen in different forms to built or synthesized protein, nucleic acids (DNA, RNA) and other nitrogenous containing compounds. *Plant and animals cannot make use of nitrogen in the form of gases. Plant can only take nitrogen in the form of Nitrate "NO3" which they absorb from the soil. Animals can obtain nitrogen by eating plants or animals, which eat plants.
    25. 25. Carbon cycle The producer (plant) absorbs CO2 from the atmosphere and uses it for production of carbohydrates (process of photosynthesis). Dr Siham M.O. Gritly 25 Carbon is the basic building block of carbohydrates, fats, proteins and nucleic acids (DNA,RNA). The carbon cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which carbon exchanged among the biosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere of the Earth. Carbon cycle mainly based on carbon dioxide "CO2". It is estimated that carbon dioxide makes up about 0.03% by volume of the troposphere. It is also found in dissolved in water.
    26. 26. Oxygen cycle Oxygen cycle connected with the carbon cycle. Dr Siham M.O. Gritly 26 consumer take oxygen and release carbon dioxide. Producers use carbon dioxide and release oxygen during daytime (photosynthesis). Oxygen also found dissolved in water for aquatic life. Decay by the action of bacteria and fungi release back all elements from organic bodies again to the atmosphere where it recycles again and again
    27. 27. Phosphorous cycle *Phosphorous is an essential nutrient for both plants and animals. It enter in the formation of nucleic acids molecules (DNA, RNA) that carry the genetic characteristics and information of living cells Dr Siham M.O. Gritly 27 *It is also part of the chemical compounds (ATP, ADP) adenosine tri- phosphate adenosine mono-phosphate. These chemical compounds responsible for energy storage or known as the currency energy of the body. Chemical energy is stored for use by organisms during cellular respiration and to be use later for other activities that required energy. *phosphorous also important elements for formation of bones and teeth in animals with the presence of calcium and vitamin D.*in the sedimentary phosphorus cycle, various forms of phosphorous are cycled through water, earth crust and living organisms. Found mainly in the forms of phosphate ions PO4 and HPO3
    28. 28. Sulfur cycle *sulfur is an important nutrient for living organisms. It is part of formation of some amino acids. Amino acids are building block for tissues. Dr Siham M.O. Gritly 28 *during this sedimentary sulfur cycle, sulfur transformed into different compounds and circulates through hydrosphere, earth crust, atmosphere and living organism. *sulfur found in large amount in nature (in oceans, sedimentary rocks and as ions in soil and water). *most sulfur compounds present in the atmosphere in the form of sulfur dioxide (SO2) *sulfur found in living tissues. *it enter atmosphere from natural sources as gases; -sulfur dioxide (SO2) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S from active volcanoes -hydrogen sulfide (H2S) that form by the decay of organic matter (oxidation of organic matter) by the action of anaerobic decomposers
    29. 29. • Basic building block for all matter are • hydrogen, • oxygen, • carbon, • phosphorus, • sulfur, • chlorine, • fluorine, • sodium, • calcium etc. found in nature as molecules Dr Siham M.O. Gritly 29
    30. 30. six major elements that occur in similar proportions in all life-forms • The cells of all organisms are made up primarily of six major elements • These elements; carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, phosphorous and sulfur • Nutrients are elements found in food • Three types of nutrients that provide energy • Carbohydrates, proteins and lipids • energy: the capacity to do work. The energy in food is chemical energy. The body can convert this chemical energy to mechanical, electrical, or heat energy Dr Siham M.O. Gritly 30
    31. 31. • Carbon is used to make carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, the major sources of food energy. • These compounds are oxidized to release carbon dioxide, which can be captured by plants to make organic compounds. • The chemical reaction is powered by the light energy of the sun Dr Siham M.O. Gritly 31
    32. 32. Carbohydrates the main source of energy (glucose) Dr Siham M.O. Gritly 32 Carbohydrates are organic compound consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. ratio of hydrogen to oxygen is 2:1. Carbohydrates range from simple monosaccharide (glucose, fructose, galactose) to complex polysaccharides (starch).
    33. 33. Proteins are complex organic compound found in animal and plant tissues. Dr Siham M.O. Gritly 33 The protein molecules are nitrogen- containing amino acids, in addition to carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. Amino acids are the building block of protein Amino acids contain Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, and sometimes Sulfur Amino acids have two function groups (both of which are typically in the ionized form) 1- NH2 Amino functional group 2-COOH Carboxyl functional group
    34. 34. Lipids are long hydrocarbon molecules storage of energy Dr Siham M.O. Gritly 34 Lipids are chemical compound naturally occurring substance; consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, widely found in plant and animal kingdoms. A molecule of dietary fat consists of several fatty acids (containing long chains of carbon and hydrogen atoms), bonded to a glycerol. They are typically found as triglycerides (three fatty acids attached to one glycerol backbone).
    35. 35. ATP (adenosine triphophate) ATP or adenosine tri-phosphate has the ability to enter all cells. it is known as energy currency of the cells • Main sources of energy is obtained from cellular respiration (oxidation of carbohydrate, lipids & proteins); Glucose the final end product of nutrients metabolism is oxidized • 1-glycolysis (aerobic – anaerobic) • 2-Kerb’cycle (citric acid cycle) • 3-Electron Transport Chain Dr Siham M.O. Gritly 35
    36. 36. ATP is a source of high-energy phosphate Dr Siham M.O. Gritly 36 ATP is present everywhere in the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm of all cells and essentially for all the physiological mechanisms that required energy. *within the cells the nutrients amino acids, fatty acids and glucose react with oxygen (oxidation) to form carbon dioxide, water and energy. Energy produced used to form adenosine tri-phosphate
    37. 37. Glycolysis Phase one –energy requiring Dr Siham M.O. Gritly 37 Glycolysis; splitting of glucose molecule to form 2 molecules of pyruvic acid (pyruvate). This process occurs by 10 steps of chemical reactions, each reaction is catalysed by one specific protein enzyme it has 2 phases
    38. 38. Glycolysis Phase two–energy yeilding Dr Siham M.O. Gritly 38 Glucose--oxidation---- 2lactic acid (the end product of glycolysis under anaerobic condition) or pyruvate (under aerobic condition) + 2ATP (net formation of glucose oxidation).
    39. 39. kerb's cycle Dr Siham M.O. Gritly 39 kerb's cycle is a series of reactions in the Mitochondria that bring about the catabolism of acetyl residues, liberating hydrogen equivalent (2H) which on oxidation lead to the release of most of the free energy of tissue fuels. the acetyl residues are in the form of acetyl Co-enzyme A (active acetate).
    40. 40. Electron transport chain The electron transport chain is third and final common pathway in aerobic cellular respiration to generate ATP. Dr Siham M.O. Gritly 40
    41. 41. • During various steps in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle, the oxidation of certain intermediate precursor molecules causes the reduction of NAD+ to NADH + H+ and FAD to FADH2. • NADH and FADH2 then transfer protons and electrons to the electron transport chain to produce additional ATPs from oxidative phosphorylation (is when phosphorylation is coupled with biological oxidation) Dr Siham M.O. Gritly 41
    42. 42. Other types of energy Biomass is all biologically-produced matter based in carbon, hydrogen and oxygen Dr Siham M.O. Gritly 42 Wood is a typical source of biomass Biomass is a renewable energy source of biological material derived from living, or recently living organisms. In the context of biomass for energy this is often used to mean plant based material, but biomass can equally apply to both animal and vegetable derived material biomass is the only source of fuel for domestic use in many developing countries.
    43. 43. Fossil fuels Fossil fuels such as coal, oil and gas are also derived from biological material, however material that absorbed CO2 from the atmosphere many millions of years ago. Dr Siham M.O. Gritly 43 Coal, oil and gas are called "fossil fuels" because they have been formed from the organic remains of prehistoric plants and animals As fuels they offer high energy density use of that energy involves burning the fuel, with the oxidation of the carbon to carbon dioxide and the hydrogen to water (vapour). these combustion products are usually released to the atmosphere, returning carbon that trapped in it for millions of years back to atmosphere and thus contributing to increased atmospheric concentrations C2O
    44. 44. Geothermal energy; heat contained in under ground rocks and fluids. Dr Siham M.O. Gritly 44 Geothermal energy is the heat from the Earth. It's clean and sustainable. Resources of geothermal energy range from the shallow ground to hot water and hot rock found a few miles beneath the Earth's surface, and down even deeper to the extremely high temperatures of molten rock called magma
    45. 45. Ref. • Johnson, D.L., S.H. Ambrose, T.J. Bassett, M.L. Bowen, D.E. Crummey, J.S. Isaacson, D.N. Johnson, P. Lamb, M. Saul, and A.E. Winter-Nelson. 1997. Meanings of environmental terms. Journal of Environmental Quality 26: 581-589. • Skinner, B.J. & Porter, S.C.: Physical Geology, page 17, chapt. The Earth: Inside and Out, 1987, John Wiley & Sons, • Kennish, Michael J. (2001). Practical handbook of marine science. Marine science series (3rd ed.). CRC Press. p. 35. • Jules Pretty and Andy Ball Introduction to Environment and Society • Barange M, Field JG, Harris RP, Eileen E, Hofmann EE, Perry RI and Werner F (2010) Marine Ecosystems and Global Change Oxford University Press. • Campbell, Neil A. (2009), Biology Concepts & Connections Sixth Edition page 2, 3 and G-9. • Odum, EP (1971) Fundamentals of ecology, third edition, Saunders New York • United Nations Environment Programme. Convention on Biological Diversity. June 1992. UNEP Document no. Na.92-78 • Earth's Spheres. 1997-2000. Wheeling Jesuit University/NASA Classroom of the Future. Retrieved November 11, 2007. • Beckett B.S (1986), Biology, A modern introduction. Oxford university press • The World's #1 Renewable Energy Network for News & Information 2013 •,15049&_dad=portal • Dr Siham M.O. Gritly 45