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  • Ellie Whitney and Sharon RadyRolfes; Under standing Nutrition, Twelfth Edition. 2011, 2008 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning
  • Ellie Whitney and Sharon RadyRolfes; Under standing Nutrition, Twelfth Edition. 2011, 2008 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning
  • Ref. FAO and WHO, 2003
  • FAO and WHO, 2003
  • Ellie Whitney and Sharon RadyRolfes; Under standing Nutrition, Twelfth Edition. 2011, 2008 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning
  • ReferenceFAO and WHO, 2003
  • Assuring Food Safety and Quality: Guidelines for Strengthening National Food Control SystemsFAO and WHO, 2003
  • Assuring Food Safety and Quality: Guidelines for Strengthening National Food Control SystemsFAO and WHO, 2003
  • Ellie Whitney and Sharon RadyRolfes; Under standing Nutrition, Twelfth Edition. 2011, 2008 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning
  • Ref. Ellie Whitney and Sharon RadyRolfes; Under standing Nutrition, Twelfth Edition. 2011, 2008 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning
  • Ref. Ellie Whitney and Sharon RadyRolfes; Under standing Nutrition, Twelfth Edition. 2011, 2008 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning
  • Ellie Whitney and Sharon RadyRolfes; Under standing Nutrition, Twelfth Edition. 2011, 2008 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning
  • ref, Ellie Whitney and Sharon RadyRolfes; Under standing Nutrition, Twelfth Edition. 2011, 2008 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning
  • ref, Ellie Whitney and Sharon RadyRolfes; Under standing Nutrition, Twelfth Edition. 2011, 2008 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning
  • Ellie Whitney and Sharon RadyRolfes; Under standing Nutrition, Twelfth Edition. 2011, 2008 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning
  • Ellie Whitney and Sharon RadyRolfes; Under standing Nutrition, Twelfth Edition. 2011, 2008 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning
  • ref, Ellie Whitney and Sharon RadyRolfes; Under standing Nutrition, Twelfth Edition. 2011, 2008 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning
  • ref, Ellie Whitney and Sharon RadyRolfes; Under standing Nutrition, Twelfth Edition. 2011, 2008 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning

Lec 5 consumer nutrition 1 Lec 5 consumer nutrition 1 Presentation Transcript

  • Community and public healthnutrition5-Consumer awareness 1a)food quality and safetyb) food labeling1Prepared by; Dr.Siham Gritly"All things are poisons; nothing is without poison; onlythe dose determines whether there is a harmful effect“.Paracelsus (16th Century Philosopher)
  • glossary• hazard: a source of danger; used to refer to circumstances inwhich harm is possible under normal conditions of use.• toxicity: the ability of a substance to harm living organisms.All substances are toxic if high enough concentrations areused.• risk: a measure of the probability and severity of harm.• safety: the condition of being free from harm or danger.• foodborne illness: illness transmitted to human beingsthrough food and water, caused by either an infectious agent(foodborne infection) or a poisonous substance (foodintoxication); commonly known as food poisoning.• outbreaks: two or more cases of a similar illness resultingfrom the ingestion of a common foodDr. Siham Gritly 2
  • • Pathogens; a microorganism capable of producingdisease.• pasteurization: heat processing of food thatinactivates some, but not all, microorganisms in thefood; not a sterilization process. Bacteria that causespoilage are still present.• nutrient claims: statements that characterize thequantity of a nutrient in a food.• health claims: statements that characterize therelationship between a nutrient or other substance in afood and a disease or health-related condition.Dr. Siham Gritly 3
  • Consumer awarenessDiscipline regulation to improve the health,nutrition, and well-being of individuals and groupswithin communities’ membersDr. Siham Gritly 4Consumer protection and awareness should be aconcerned of community members as well as ministryof health, ministry education, organizations, andmedia for the adverse effect and the consequences offood hazards
  • Food control objectives is to ensure the quality, safetyand nutritional value of food and to protect theconsumers health. It prohibit the sale of food not ofthe nature, substance or quality demanded by thepurchaser. Food control is, therefore, a policing activity.Dr. Siham Gritly 5As food can be easily adulterated orcontaminated through environmentalpollution, safe practices need to beensured when food is handled,processed, stored and distributedEating raw seafood is a riskyproposition
  • Objectives of a national food control system1. Protecting public health by reducing the risk offood-borne illness2. Protecting consumers from unsanitary,unwholesome, mislabeled or adulterated food3. Contributing to economic development bymaintaining consumer confidence in the foodsystem and providing a sound regulatoryfoundation for domestic and international tradein foodDr. Siham Gritly 6
  • Elements of a national food control system• Food law and regulations• Food control management• Official control services (inspection services)• Food monitoring and epidemiological data• Information and communication andeducation, trainingDr. Siham Gritly 7
  • many varieties of fruits and vegetables are importedfrom other countries.Ref. Ellie Whitney and Sharon Rady Rolfes; Under standing Nutrition, Twelfth Edition. 2011,2008 Wadsworth, Cengage LearningDr. Siham Gritly 8Nutritional status and economicwell-being are affected by foodcarrying pathogenic organisms andtheir toxins or poisonous chemicals.Food is easily contaminated whenproduced in an unhealthy or uncleanenvironment.
  • Ref. FAO/WHO• Microbiological contamination and spoilage offood should be prevented, and the use of;• pesticides,• fungicides,• food additives,• veterinary drugs• and numerous other chemicals that cancontaminate food should be controlled.Dr. Siham Gritly 9
  • Consumer awarenesshazard: a source of danger; used to refer to circumstances inwhich harm is possible under normal conditions of use.Invisible microbiological hazardous in foodDr. Siham Gritly 10
  • Invisible chemical hazardous in foodref. FAO and WHO, 2003Dr. Siham Gritly 11
  • Legislation and consumers rights• food laws national legislation protectsconsumers invisible microbiologicalas well as invisible chemical hazardous in food• AS suggested by FAO and WHO joined reportthat consumers are not aware of their rightsand this prevents them from obtain fulladvantage from these measures.Dr. Siham Gritly 12
  • Food legislation shouldFAO and WHO, 20031- Provide a high level of health protectionInclude clear definitions to increase consistency and legalsecurity2- Be based on high quality, transparent, and independentscientific advice following risk assessment, riskmanagement and risk communication3- Include provision for the use of precaution and theadoption of provisional measures where anunacceptable level of risk to health has beenidentified and where full risk assessment could not beperformedDr. Siham Gritly 13
  • 4- Include provisions for the right of consumers tohave access to accurate and sufficientinformation5- Provide for tracing of food products and fortheir recall in case of problems6- Include clear provisions indicating that primaryresponsibility for food safety and quality restswith producers and processorsDr. Siham Gritly 14
  • 7- Include obligation to ensure thatonly safe and fairly presented food is placed onthe market8- Recognize the country’s internationalobligations particularly in relation to trade9- Ensure transparency in the development offood law and access to informationDr. Siham Gritly 15
  • Food Safety from Farms to ConsumersBefore reaching consumers, food passes through a complexsystem involving production (crop cultivation, animalhusbandry, etc.), postharvest handling, processing, storage,transport, distribution and sale through large or small retailoutlets.Dr. Siham Gritly 16FarmWorkers must use safe methods of growing,harvesting, sorting, packing, and storing foodto minimize contamination hazardsPROCESSINGProcessors must follow FDA guidelinesconcerning contamination, cleanliness,and education and training of workers andmust monitor for safety at criticalcontrol points
  • Ref. Ellie Whitney and Sharon Rady Rolfes; Under standing Nutrition, TwelfthEdition. 2011, 2008 Wadsworth, Cengage LearningDr. Siham Gritly 17TRANSPORTATIONContainers and vehiclestransporting food must be clean.Cold food must be kept cold at alltimesRETAIL GROCERY STORES ANDRESTAURANTSEmployees must follow the FDA’s foodcode on how to prevent foodborneillnesses. Establishments must passlocal health inspections and train staff insanitation
  • With the benefits of a safe and abundant foodsupply comes the responsibility of consumerto select, prepare, and store foods safelyDr. Siham Gritly 18CONSUMERSConsumers must learn and usesound principles of food safety.Be aware that foodborne illness isa real possibility, and take steps toprevent it.
  • Food-borne IllnessesFood-borne Infections• Food-borne infections are caused by eatingfoods contaminated by infectious microbes.Among foodborne infections, Salmonella is themajor cause of illness and Listeria is the majorcause of death.• These pathogens enter the GI tract incontaminated foods such as undercooked poultryand unpasteurized milk.• Symptoms generally include abdominal cramps,fever, vomiting, and diarrhea.Dr. Siham Gritly 19
  • Foodborne IllnessesFood-borne InfectionsRef. Ellie Whitney and Sharon Rady Rolfes; Under standing Nutrition, Twelfth Edition. 2011,2008 Wadsworth, Cengage LearningFoodborneInfectionsMost Frequent FoodSourcesOnset and GeneralSymptomsPrevention MethodsCampylobacteriosisCampylobacterbacteriumRaw and undercookedpoultry, unpasturizedmilk, contaminatedwaterOnset: 2 to 5 days.Diarrhea, vomiting,abdominal cramps,fever; sometimesbloody stools; lasts2 to 10 daysCook foods thoroughly;use pasteurized milk;use sanitary food-handlingmethods.CryptosporidiosisCrytosporidiumparvum parasiteContaminatedswimming or drinkingwater, even fromtreated sources; highlychlorine-resistant;contaminated rawproduce andunpasteurized juicesand cidersOnset: 2 to 10 days.Diarrhea, stomachcramps, upsetstomach, slightfever; symptomsmay come and gofor weeks ormonthsWash all rawvegetables and fruitsbefore peeling; usepasteurized milk andjuice; do not swallowdrops of water whileusing pools, hot tubs,ponds, lakes, rivers, orstreams for recreation.Dr. Siham Gritly 20
  • Food-borne IllnessesFood-borne InfectionsCyclosporiasisCyclosporacayetanensis parasiteContaminated water,contaminatedfresh produceOnset: 1 to 14 days.Diarrhea, loss ofappetite, weight loss,stomach cramps,nausea, vomiting,fatigue; symptomsmay come and go forweeks or months.Use treated, boiled,or bottledwater; cook foodsthoroughly; peelfruitsE. coliinfectionEscherichiacolibacteriumUndercooked groundbeef, unpasteurizedmilk and juices, rawfruits and vegetables,contaminated water,and person-to personcontactOnset: 1 to 8 days.Severe bloodydiarrhea, abdominalcramps, vomiting;lasts 5 to 10 daysCook ground beefthoroughly;use pasteurized milk;use sanitaryfood-handlingmethods; usetreated, boiled, orbottled waterDr. Siham Gritly 21
  • Foodborne IllnessesFoodborne InfectionsGastroenteritiscNorwalkvirusPerson-to-personcontact; rawfoods, salads,sandwichesOnset: 1 to 2 days.Vomiting; lasts1 to 2 days.Use sanitary food-handling methodsGiardiasisGiardiaintestinalisparasiteContaminatedwater;uncookedfoodsOnset: 7 to 14 days.Diarrhea (butOccasionallynstipation),abdominalpain, gas.Use sanitary food-handling methods;avoid raw fruits andvegetables whereparasites are endemic;dispose of sewageproperlyHepatitisHepatitis AvirusUndercookedor rawshellfishOnset: 15 to 50 days (28days average).Diarrhea,dark urine, fever, headache,nausea, abdominal pain,jaundice lasts 2 to 12weeks.Cook foodsthoroughlyDr. Siham Gritly 22
  • Foodborne IllnessesFood-borne InfectionsListeriosisListeriamonocytogenes bacteriumUnpasteurizedmilk; fresh softcheeses;luncheon meats,hot dogsOnset: 1 to 21 days.Fever, muscle aches;nausea, vomiting, bloodpoisoning, complicationsin pregnancy,a ndmeningitis (stiff neck,severe headache, andfever).Use sanitary food-handling methods;cook foodsthoroughly; usepasteurized milkPerfringensfoodpoisoningClostridiumperfringensbacteriumMeats and meatproducts stored atbetween 120 Fand 130 FOnset: 8 to 16 hours.Abdominal pain, diarrhea,nausea; lasts 1 to 2 daysUse sanitary food-handling methods;use pasteurizedmilk; cook foodsthoroughly;refrigerate foodspromptly andproperlyDr. Siham Gritly 23
  • Foodborne IllnessesFoodborne InfectionsFoodborneInfectionsMost Frequent FoodSourcesOnset andGeneralSymptomsPrevention MethodsSalmonellosisSalmonellabacteria(>2300 typesRaw or undercookedeggs, meats, poultry, rawmilk and other dairyproducts, shrimp, froglegs, yeast, coconut,pasta, and chocolateOnset: 1 to 3days. Fever,vomiting,abdominalcramps,diarrhea;lasts 4 to 7 days;can be fatal.Use sanitary food-handling methods;use pasteurized milk;cook foodsthoroughly;refrigerate foodspromptly andproperly.ShigellosisShigellabacteria (>30types)Person-to-personcontact, raw foods,salads, sandwiches, andcontaminated waterOnset: 1 to 2days. Bloodydiarrhea,cramps, fever;lasts 4 to 7 days.Use sanitary food-handling methods;cook foodsthoroughly; useproper refrigeration.Dr. Siham Gritly 24
  • Foodborne IllnessesFood-borne InfectionsVibrioinfectionVibrio vulnificusdbacteriumRaw orundercookedseafood,contaminatedwaterOnset: 1 to 7 days.Diarrhea,abdominalcramps, nausea,vomiting; lasts 2 to 5days; can be fatalUse sanitaryfood-handlingmethods;cookfoods thoroughlyYersiniosisYersiniaenterocoliticabacteriumRaw andundercooked pork,unpasteurized milkOnset: 1 to 2 days.Diarrhea, vomiting,fever, abdominal pain;lasts 1 to 3 weeks.Cook foodsthoroughly; usepasteurizedmilk; use treated,boiled, or bottledwaterDr. Siham Gritly 25
  • Food Intoxications• Food intoxications are caused by eatingfoods containing natural toxins or,microbes that produce toxins. The mostcommon food toxin is produced by;• Staphylococcus aureus• Clostridium botulinumDr. Siham Gritly 26
  • • Staphylococcus aureus food poisoning• Staphylococcal toxin (produced byStaphylococcus aureus bacterium• Toxin produced in improperly refrigeratedmeats; egg, tuna, potato, and macaroni salads;cream-filled pastriesDr. Siham Gritly 27
  • • Clostridium botulinum, an organism thatproduces a deadly toxin in anaerobic conditionssuch as improperly canned (especially home-canned) foods and homemade garlic or herb-flavored oils stored at room temperature.• Symptoms; the toxin paralyzes muscles, aperson with botulism has difficulty seeing,speaking, swallowing, and breathing.• death can occur within 24 hours of onset,botulism demands immediate medicalattention.Dr. Siham Gritly 28
  • Foodborne IllnessesFood IntoxicationsFoodborneInfectionsMost Frequent FoodSourcesOnset and GeneralSymptomsPrevention MethodsBotulismBotulinum toxinproduced byClostridiumbotulinumbacterium,which growswithoutoxygen, in low-acid foods, andattemperaturesbetween 40°Fand 120°F;Anaerobic environmentof low acidity (cannedcorn, peppers, greenbeans, soups, beets,asparagus, mushrooms,ripe olives, spinach,tuna, chicken, chickenliver, liver,luncheonmeats, ham, sausage,stuffed eggplant,lobster, and smokedand saltedfish)Onset: 4 to 36 hours.Nervous systemsymptoms, includingdouble vision, inabilityto swallow, speechdifficulty, andprogressive aralysisof the respiratorysystem; oftenfatal; leaves prolongedsymptomsin survivors.Use proper canningmethods forlow-acid foods;commerciallyprepared foods withleaky seals or withbent, bulging,or broken cans.Do not give infantshoney becauseit may contain sporesof Clostridiumbotulinum, which is acommons ource ofinfection for infants.Dr. Siham Gritly 29
  • Foodborne IllnessesFood IntoxicationsFoodborneInfectionsMost Frequent FoodSourcesOnset and GeneralSymptomsPrevention MethodsStaphylococcal(food poisoningStaphylococcaltoxin (producedbyStaphylococcus aureusbacterium)Toxin produced inimproperlyrefrigeratedmeats; egg, tuna,potato, andmacaroni saladsOnset: 1 to 6hours. Diarrhea,nausea, vomiting,abdominalcramps, fever;lasts 1 to 2 daysUse sanitaryfood-handlingmethods;cook foodthoroughly;refrigeratefoods promptlyand properly;use proper home-canning methods.Dr. Siham Gritly 30
  • to avoid food hazardous• In the grocery store, consumers should buyitems before the “sell by” date• inspect the safety seals (A broken seal,bulging can lid)• inspect the wrappers of packages.• Look for fresh commoditiesDr. Siham Gritly 31
  • Consumer AwarenessTo avoid microbial food-borne illness• Clean hands, food contact surfaces, and fruits andvegetables.• Separate raw, cooked, and ready-to-eat foods whileshopping, preparing, or storing foods.• Cook foods to a safe temperature to kill microorganisms.• Chill (refrigerate) perishable foods promptly and defrostfoods properly.• Meat and poultry should not be washed or rinsed.• Avoid raw (unpasteurized) milk or any products made fromunpasteurized milk, raw or• partially cooked eggs or foods containing raw eggs, raw orundercooked meat and poultry,• unpasteurized juices, and raw sproutsDr. Siham Gritly 32
  • • Consumer Awareness• Food labelDr. Siham Gritly 33
  • The food labelNutrition labeling can help you make food choicesthat meet Dietary Guidelines and promote a lifetimeof good healthDr. Siham Gritly 34Consumers read foodlabels to learn aboutthe nutrient contentsof a food or tocompare similarfoods.
  • • According to the Nutrition Labeling andEducation Act, all food labels must contain thefollowing information:• Common name of the product• Name and address of the product’s manufacturer• Net contents in terms of weight, measure orcount,• Ingredient List – Lists the ingredients indescending order of predominance and weightDr. Siham Gritly 35
  • 1-list of ingredients;• must list all ingredients—including• additives used to preserve or enhance foods,such as vitamins and minerals added to enrichor fortify products.• Listed in descending order by weightDr. Siham Gritly 36
  • 2-serving size;• Each package must identify the size of aserving.• The nutritional information given on the labelis based on one serving of the food they mustidentify the size of the serving.• The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) hasestablished specific serving sizes for variousfoods and requires that all labels for a givenproduct use the same serving size.Dr. Siham Gritly 37
  • • Amount per serving for the following;• Total calories• Calories from fat• Total fat, saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol• Sodium• Total carbohydrate• Dietary fiber• Sugar• Protein• Vitamins A,C, Calcium, ironDr. Siham Gritly 38
  • • each package must identify the quantities ofspecified nutrients and food constituents for oneserving.• The most important thing to remember is this:• 1 gr. fat = 9 calories• 1 gr. protein = 4 calories• 1 gr. carbohydrate = 4 calories• 1 gr. alcohol = 7 calories• Therefore, we can tell the percentages of eachnutrient in a packageDr. Siham Gritly 39
  • Household and Metric Measuresref, Ellie Whitney and Sharon Rady Rolfes; Under standing Nutrition,Twelfth Edition. 2011, 2008 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning1 teaspoon ( tsp) = = 5 milliliters (mL)1 tablespoon (tbs) = 15 mL1 cup (c) = 240 mL1 fluid ounce (fl oz) 30 mL1 ounce (oz) = 28 grams (g)Dr. Siham Gritly 40For example, the standard serving size for allice creams is ½ cup and for all beverages, 8fluid ounces
  • 3-Nutrition Facts• designed to provide information on thenutrients that are of major concern forconsumers• the Nutrition Facts panel on food labelspresent nutrient information in two ways• in quantities (such as grams)• and as percentages of standards called theDaily Values.Dr. Siham Gritly 41
  • • The Nutrition Facts panel must provide thenutrient amount, percent Daily Value, or bothfor the following• Total food energy (kcalories)• Food energy from fat (kcalories)• Total fat (grams and percent Daily Value)• Saturated fat (grams and percent Daily Value)• Trans fat (grams)Dr. Siham Gritly 42
  • • Cholesterol (milligrams and percent Daily Value)• Sodium (milligrams and percent Daily Value)• Total carbohydrate, which includes starch,sugar, and fiber (grams and percent Daily Value)• Dietary fiber (grams and percent Daily Value)• Sugars, which includes both those naturallypresent in and those added to• the food (grams)• Protein (gramsDr. Siham Gritly 43
  • • The labels must also present nutrient contentinformation as a percent Daily Value• for the following vitamins and minerals:• Vitamin A• Vitamin C• Iron• CalciumDr. Siham Gritly 44
  • Nutrition FactsDr. Siham Gritly 45
  • Dr. Siham Gritly 46Serving Size Volume weight(English) AND mass (metric)Alsoestimated serving per packageCalories per serving – not necessarily theentire container. Calculated calories fromfat (9 Cal/g of fat)Under fat optional listingof: Monounsaturated fatPolyunsaturated fat Optionlisting of potassium aftersodium Option undercarbohydrate:Soluble and insoluble fiber,Sugar alcohols,Other carbohydrateThis is the minimum set of nutrientsrequired. B vitamins and othervitamins and mineral can be listed.This is more of a marketing tool.
  • Daily Values (DV):• Daily Values (DV): reference valuesdeveloped by the FDA specifically for use onfood labels. reflect dietary recommendationsfor nutrients and dietary components thathave important relationships with health.• Daily Values for both a 2000-kcalorie and a2500-kcalorie dietDr. Siham Gritly 47
  • Dr. Siham Gritly 48
  • Daily Values for Food LabelsFood labels must present the “% Daily Value” for thesenutrients.Food Component Daily Value Calculation FactorsFat 65 g 30% of kcaloriesSaturated fat 20 g 10% of kcaloriesCholesterol 300 mgCarbohydrate (total) 300 g 60% of kcaloriesFiber 25 g 11.5 g per 1000 kcaloriesProtein 50 g 10% of kcaloriesSodium 2400 mgDr. Siham Gritly49
  • Daily Values for Food LabelsFood Component Daily Value Calculation FactorsPotassium 3500 mgVitamin C 60 mgVitamin A 1500 μg —Calcium 1000 mgIron 18 mgDr. Siham Gritly 50
  • Percent Daily Value (%DV):• the percentage of a Daily Value recommendationfound in a specified serving of food for key nutrientsbased on a 2000-kcalorie diet.• The “% Daily Value” estimate of how individualfoods contribute to the total diet.• A 2000-kcalorie diet is considered about right forsedentary younger women, active older women, andsedentary older men.Dr. Siham Gritly 51
  • How to Calculate Personal Daily Values• The Daily Values on food labels are designedfor a 2000-kcalorie intake, but you cancalculate a personal set of Daily Values basedon your energy allowance. Consider a 1500-kcalorie intake, for example. To calculate adaily goal for fat, multiply energy intake by 30percent:• 1500 kcal × 0.30 kcal from fat• = 450 kcal from fatDr. Siham Gritly 52
  • • The “kcalories from fat” are listed on foodlabels, so you can add all the “kcalories fromfat” values for a day, using 450 as an upperlimit. A person who prefers to count grams offat can divide this 450 kcalories from fat by 9kcalories per gram• to determine the goal in grams:• 450 kcal from fat ÷ 9 kcal/g• = 50 g fatDr. Siham Gritly 53
  • • Alternatively, a person can calculate that 1500kcalories is 75 percent of the 2000-kcalorieintake used for Daily Values:• 1500 kcal ÷ 2000 kcal = 0.75• 0.75 × 100 = 75%Dr. Siham Gritly 54
  • • Then, instead of trying to achieve 100 percentof the Daily Value, a person consuming 1500kcalories will aim for 75 percent.• Similarly, a person consuming 2800 kcalorieswould aim for 140 percent:• 2800 kcal ÷ 2000 kcal = 1.40 or 140%Dr. Siham Gritly 55
  • guideline for consumers to judge the productthey are purchasing• The Percent Daily Value is what is used tocalculate the nutritional values.• Note that fats, cholesterol and sodium should belimited. Fats should make up less than 30% ofyou total calories, and saturated fats should makeup less than 10% of your calories.• The amount of specific nutrient you should beconsuming is dependant upon age, sex, if you arerecovering from injury, pregnant, lactating, andother factors.Dr. Siham Gritly 56
  • 5-Nutrient Claims:• statements that characterize the quantity of anutrient in a food.• phrases such as “good source of fiber” or “richin calcium”Dr. Siham Gritly 57
  • 5-Health Claims• health claims: statements that characterizethe relationship between a nutrient or othersubstance in a food and a disease or health-related condition• Consumers reading “Diets low in sodium mayreduce the risk of high blood pressure,”• for example, knew that the FDA had examinedenough scientific evidence to establish a clearlink between diet and health.Dr. Siham Gritly 58
  • Reliable Health Claims on Food Labels• Diets adequate in calcium may reduce the riskof osteoporosis.• Diets low in sodium may reduce the risk ofhigh blood pressure.• Diets low in saturated fat and cholesterol, andas low as possible in trans fat, may reduce therisk of heart disease.• Diets low in total fat may reduce the risk ofsome cancers.Dr. Siham Gritly 59
  • The FDA also provides guidelines about the claims anddescriptions manufacturers may use in food labeling to promotetheir products:ClaimRequirements that must be met before using theclaim in food labelingFat-FreeLess than 0.5 grams of fat per serving, with noadded fat or oilLow fat3 grams or less of fat per servingLess fat25% or less fat than the comparison foodSaturated Fat FreeLess than 0.5 grams of saturated fat and 0.5 gramsof trans-fatty acids per servingCholesterol-FreeLess than 2 mg cholesterol per serving, and 2 gramsor less saturated fat per serving60Dr. Siham Gritly
  • Low Cholesterol20 mg or less cholesterol per serving and 2grams or less saturated fat per servingReduced CalorieAt least 25% fewer calories per serving thanthe comparison foodLow Calorie40 calories or less per servingExtra LeanLess than 5 grams of fat, 2 grams of saturatedfat, and 95 mg of cholesterol per (100 gram)serving of meat, poultry or seafoodLeanLess than 10 grams of fat, 4.5 g of saturatedfat, and 95 mg of cholesterol per (100 gram)serving of meat, poultry or seafoodLight (fat)50% or less of the fat than in the comparisonfood (ex: 50% less fat than our regular cheese)61Dr. Siham Gritly
  • Light (calories)1/3 fewer calories than the comparison foodHigh-Fiber5 grams or more fiber per servingSugar-FreeLess than 0.5 grams of sugar per servingSodium-Free or Salt-FreeLess than 5 mg of sodium per servingLow Sodium140 mg or less per serving of sodiumVery Low Sodium35 mg or less per serving of sodiumHealthyA food low in fat, saturated fat, cholesterol andsodium, and contains at least 10% of the Daily Valuesfor vitamin A, vitamin C, iron, calcium, protein orfiber."High", "Rich in" or "ExcellentSource"20% or more of the Daily Value for a given nutrient perserving62Dr. Siham Gritly
  • "Less", "Fewer" or"Reduced"At least 25% less of a given nutrient orcalories than the comparison food"Low", "Little", "Few", or "LowSource of"An amount that would allow frequentconsumption of the food without exceedingthe Daily Value for the nutrient – but can onlymake the claim as it applies to all similarfoods"Good Source Of", "More", or"Added"The food provides 10% more of the DailyValue for a given nutrient than thecomparison food63Dr. Siham Gritly
  • References• 1997-2012 HealthCheck Systems• Sareen Gropper, Jack Smith and James Groff, Advanced Nutrition andHuman Metabolism, fifth ed. WADSWORTH• Melvin H Williams 2010; Nutrition for Health, Fitness and Sport. 9th ed,McGraw Hill•• Heymsfield, SB.; Baumgartner N.; Richard and Sheau-Fang P. 1999.Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease; Shils E Maurice, Olson A.James, Shike Moshe and Ross A. Catharine eds. 9th edition• Guyton, C. Arthur. 1985. Textbook of Medical Physiology. 6th edition,W.B. Company• FAO/WHO/UNU expert consultation (WHO, 1985) report• Ellie Whitney and Sharon Rady Rolfes; Under standing Nutrition, TwelfthEdition. 2011, 2008 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning64Dr. Siham Gritly