8 measurement of energy expenditure in athletes


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8 measurement of energy expenditure in athletes

  1. 1. 6-Measurement of energy expenditure in athletesAdvanced; Nutrition and Fitness Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  2. 2. Terms to be learned• Basal metabolism is the minimum amount of energy needed by the body at rest in the fasting state• -basal energy expenditure (BEE) is the amount of energy used in 24 hours by person who is lying quietly, 12 hours after the last meal in comfortable temperature and environment or -resting energy expenditure (REE)-the amount of energy used by a person in 24 hours when at rest 3-4 hours after a meal Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  3. 3. • metabolic rate-MR an expression of the rate at which the body utilizes oxygen, -the basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the basal energy expenditure expressed as kcal/kg body weight• -total energy expenditure-the sum of the resting energy expenditure, energy expended in physical activity and the thermic effect of food• -obligatory thermo-genesis is a portion of the thermal effect of food, the energy required to digest, absorb and metabolize nutrients• . Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  4. 4. • Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2); is An important measure of sports fitness; aerobic capacity, where the amount of oxygen body can consume and turn into energy• -respiratory quotient (RQ) -is the ratio of carbon dioxide expired/moles of oxygen consumed or the ratio of oxygen used in metabolism (and therefore heat generated), to carbon dioxide eliminatedIt is known as respiratory exchange ratiorespiratory quotient of;Carbohydrate=1.0Fat=0.7Protein=0.82 Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  5. 5. Human energy• Energy is the ability to do work• Work is one form of energy, it is known as mechanical or kinetic energy.• Energy are found in different forms in human body Energy are of four types;- Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  6. 6. Types of energy in human body• 1-Chemical energy;– Storage form of energy• 2- electrical energy for nerve impulses• 3- Heat energy;– Product of metabolism energy to keep body temperature at 37degree C• 4- Mechanical energy;– Capacity to do metabolic work (muscle to be able to move) Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  7. 7. Measurement of Work, Physical Activity, and Energy ExpenditureWork and power=Work is the product of = force x distancepower; is how fast work is done it divided by timePower = work/timeMeasurement systems– English– Metric– International Unit System (SI) Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  8. 8. Energy measurement systems Terms in the English, Metric and International Systems (IS) sources; Melvin- Nutrition for Health, fitness & SportUnit English system Metric system International systemdistance Foot (ft) Meter (m) Meter (t)Time Second (s) Second (s) Second )s)Force Pound (Ib) Newton (N) Newton (N)Work Foot-pound (ft- Kilogram-meter Joule (J) Ib) (kgm)power Hourse-power Watt(W) Watt(W) (hp) Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  9. 9. Interrelationships between work measurement systems sources; Melvin- Nutrition for Health, fitness & Sport (1)Weight Distance Work Power1 kilogram=2.2 1 meter=3.28 1kgm=7.23 foot- 1 Watt=1pounds feet pounds joule/second1kilogram=1,000 1 meter=1.09 1 kgm=9.8 loules 1 watt=6.12grams yards kgm/minute454 grams=1 pound 1 foot=o.30 1 foot-pound=0.138 1 hourepower=550 meter kgm foot-pounds/second1 pound= 16 ounces 1,000 meters= 1 1 foot-pound=1.35 1hoursepower=33,0 kilometer joules 00 foot- pounds/minute1 ounce= 28.4 grams 1 1 newton=0.102 kg 1 kilometer=0.621 hoursepower=745.8 5 mile watts Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  10. 10. Interrelationships between work measurement systems sources; Melvin- Nutrition for Health, fitness & Sport (2)Weight Distance Work Power3.5 ounces=100 1 mile= 1.61 1 loule= 1 newton metergrams kilometers 1 kilojoule= 1,000 joulew 1 inch=2.54 1 megajoule= 1,000,000 centimeters joules 1 centimeter= 0.39 1 joule= 0.102 kgm inch 1 joule= 0.736 foot- pound 1 kilojoule= 102 kgm Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  11. 11. Measurement of work output and physical activity• Nutrition scientists are used two conditions and systems to measure work output and energy expenditure;-• 1-specific techniques in controlled laboratory research• 2-measurement of energy expenditure within normal daily activities including sport performance Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  12. 12. 1-specific techniques in controlled laboratoryresearch• 1-to measure work output under laboratory conditions, scientists used devices known as ergometers• An ergometer, such as cycle or arm ergometer is designed to provide accurate measurement of work, power and total work output over specific period of time Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  13. 13. Ergometers;- an ergometer a device which measuresthe amount of work performed. The indoor rower iscalibrated to measure the amount of energygenerating. different types can be used Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  14. 14. 2-to measure work output during normalphysical activity,• 2-to measure work output during normal physical activity, devices such as pedometers and accelerometers have been used• Pedometers and accelerometers devise for measuring daily physical activity. They are attached to the body to detect motion throughout the day, providing an estimate of total daily activities• not for measuring energy expenditure Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  15. 15. • Those devices are not measure or predict the energy expenditure, but use to measure the pattern of physical activity and in weight control Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  16. 16. pedometers (sports and physical fitness)• Often worn on the belt and kept on all day, it can record how many steps the wearer has walked that day, and thus the kilometres or miles (distance = number of steps step length).• A total of 10,000 steps per day, equivalent to 5 miles (8.0 km), is recommended by some to be the standard for an active lifestyle, Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  17. 17. A pedometer is a device, usually portable and electronic orelectromechanical, that counts each step a person takes bydetecting the motion of the persons hips. Because thedistance of each persons step varies, an informal calibration,performed by the user, is required if presentation of thedistance covered in a unit of length (such as in kilometres ormiles or miles) is desired Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  18. 18. Components of Energy Expenditure• There are three major ways individual can burn calories during the day which account for the total energy expenditure :• 1-Resting metabolic rate (RMR),• 2-The thermic effect of food (TEF),• 3-Physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE). Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  19. 19. 1-Resting metabolic rate RMR or Basal Metabolic rate• is the number of calories we burn to maintain our vital body processes in a resting state.• It is usually determined by measuring the body’s oxygen utilization while the person lay or sit quietly in the early morning before breakfast after a restful night’s sleep.• RMR typically accounts for about 65-75 percent of the total daily calorie expenditure. Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  20. 20. • Basal energy expenditure BEE or basal metabolic rate BMR is determined largely by body size, body composition, Gender and age.• Lower in females compared to males• BMR is typically measured by indirect calorimetry under fasted conditions while subjects lie quietly at rest in the early morning for 30–40 min. Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  21. 21. • The Harris-Benedict equation is a mathematical formula used to calculate BEE:• Adult males:• BEE (kcal/day) = 66 + (13.7 x wt in kg) + (5 x ht in cm) - (6.8 x age).• Adult females:• BEE (kcal/kcal) = 655 + (9.6 x wt in kg) + (1.7 x ht in cm) - (4.7 x age). Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  22. 22. 2-The thermic effect of food (TEF)• results or estimation from eating food, and is the increase in energy expended above your RMR or BMR that results from digestion, absorption, and storage of the food.• also called the specific dynamic effect (SDE) of food• or the specific dynamic activity (SDA) of food. Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  23. 23. • The sum of the TEF and any increase in the metabolic rate due to overeating is known as diet-induced thermogenesis• It accounts for about 5-10 percent of the total calories human body burn in a day. Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  24. 24. • effect of foods:• Carbohydrate: 5–10%• Fat: 0–5% is very easy to process and has very little thermic effect• Protein: 20–30% is hard to process and has a much larger thermic effect• Alcohol: 15–20%• The percentages are calculated by dividing the energy expended during digestion and absorption (above basal) by the energy content of the Food. Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  25. 25. • basic formula for determining TEF is to multiply the total calories you eat by 10%. So, if you eat 2000 calories a day, youll burn about 200 calories digesting that food• Factors that affect the thermic effect of food; The thermic effect of food is increased by both aerobic training and anaerobic• duration• intensity Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  26. 26. 3-Physical activity energy expenditure PAEE,• accounts for the remainder of the daily energy expenditure,• PAEE is the energy expended in exercise, the activities of daily living,• PAEE can vary considerably depending on how much you move throughout the day. For example, your PAEE would be high on a day that you participate in several hours of vigorous sports competition or exercise, Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  27. 27. Total Energy expenditure• Energy expenditure is the total of resting or basal metabolic rate, thermal effect of food and physical activityTotal Energy expenditure or Calories expended = RMR + TEF + PA Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  28. 28. laboratory techniques for Measurement of energy expenditure• Measurement of work is not the same as measurement of energy expenditure• Most common devices to measure energy expenditure in human are calorimetries• measures energy expenditure by;• 1- Direct calorimetry• 2- Indirect calorimetry• 3- Doubly labeled water technique• 4-Computerized Instrumentation Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  29. 29. 1-Direct calorimeter• Direct calorimetry is a devise used to measure energy expenditure in human• A person lives or works in the chamber for an extended period of time.• Changes in water temperature relate directly to an individual’s energy metabolism. Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  30. 30. 2-Indirect calorimeter• Indirect calorimeter used to measure metabolism by determining the amount of oxygen consumed and the carbon dioxide produced under laboratory conditions (The Respiratory Quotient (RQ)• It is also used to measure VO2max, and cardiovascular and respiratory function• Indirect calorimetry measures energy expenditure (EE) by calculating the metabolic rate through measurements of oxygen consumption (VO2) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2). Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  31. 31. • Indirect calorimetry is used much more often than direct calorimetry in terms of determining energy expenditure for individuals because it is much cheaper and easier to administer• There are different types of indirect calorimetry, Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  32. 32. Indirect calorimeter measures oxygen intake andcarbon dioxide output to determine energyexpended during daily activities Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  33. 33. The Respiratory Quotient (RQ)• The Respiratory Exchange Ratio• The ratio of carbon dioxide produced to oxygen consumed• The RQ provides information about the nutrient mixture catabolized for energy.• The RQ equals 1.00 for carbohydrate, 0.70 for fat, and 0.82 for protein. Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  34. 34. • The ratio of the volume of carbon dioxide released to the volume of oxygen consumed by a body tissue or an organism in a given period.• The respiratory quotient (RQ) obtained from indirect calorimetry, defined by the ratio carbon dioxide production (VCO2)/oxygen consumption (VO2), is affected by extremes of substrate use by the body Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  35. 35. 3-Doubly Labeled Water Technique• Provides a useful way to estimate total daily energy expenditure in human• Expensive and should be used in an laboratory• Doubly labeled water is water in which both the hydrogen and the oxygen have been partly or completely replaced for tracing purposes (i.e., labeled) with an uncommon isotope of these elements. Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  36. 36. • In this method isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water are ingested• Analysis of urine and blood samples provide data on hydrogen and oxygen excretion• The labeled oxygen is eliminated from the body as water and carbon dioxide• The hydrogen is eliminated only as water• Subtracting the hydrogen losses from the oxygen losses provide a measure of carbon dioxide, which can converted to energy expenditure Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  37. 37. IsotopesAtoms with the same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons.Atoms of the same element (same atomic number) with different mass numbersC-12 vs. C-14 Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  38. 38. • The method is safe, requires periodic sampling of body fluids (plasma, urine, saliva),• is ideally suited for measurement of energy expenditure in free-living or hospitalized patients Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  39. 39. 4-Computerized Instrumentation• A computer interfaces with at least three instruments:• A system that continuously samples the subject’s expired air• A flow-measuring device that records air volume breathed• Oxygen and carbon dioxide analyzers that measure the composition of the expired gas mixture Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  40. 40. Bomb calorimeters• Bomb calorimeters measure calorie content by igniting and burning a dried portion of food. The burning food raises the temperature of the water surrounding the chamber holding the food. The increase in water temperature indicates the number of kilocalories in the food because 1 kilocalorie equals the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1kg of water by 1 c Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  41. 41. Bomb calorimeters; use to measure the energy content of a given substance Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  42. 42. Measurement Unites for energy expenditure• energy expenditure of exercise metabolism expressed either joules or calories.• A joule (J) can be defined as the energy used when 1 kilogram (kg) is moved 1 metre (m) by the force of 1 Newton (N).• A calorie (cal) can be defined as the energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water from 14.5 to 15.50C. Or is measure of heat Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  43. 43. • One calorie is equivalent to 4.184 joules.• People use large amounts of energy so nutritionists use larger units, called• kilojoules• 1 kilojoule (kJ) = 1,000 joules• 1 megajoule (MJ) = 1,000,000 joules• 1 kilocalorie (kcal) = 1,000 calories or 1 Calorie (Cal)• To convert from one unit to another:• 1 kcal = 4.184 kJ• 1 MJ = 239 kcal Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  44. 44. • Calories in food represent a form of potential energy to be used by the body to produce heat and work• CHO and fats are primary energy nutrients. A caloric value of each food stuff have been identified;• 1 gram of CHO 4 C• 1gram of fat 9C• 1 gram of protein 4 C Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  45. 45. Energy Sources used During Exercise1-ATP-PCr energy system• – Adenosine-triphosphate• – Phospho-Creatine2- Lactic acid energy system• –anaerobic glycolysis Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  46. 46. 3- Oxygen energy system• – Muscle glycogen and blood glucose (carbohydrate)– Muscle triglycerides and blood FFA (fat)– Protein (amino acids); minor source of energy• Training increases ability to use both fat and carbohydrate Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  47. 47. Fuels Used for Activities of Different Intensities and Durations sources; Melvin- Nutrition for Health, fitness & SportActivity Activity Preferred Fuel Source Oxygen ActivityIntensity Duration Needed? ExampleExtreme 8 to 10 sec ATP-CP No (anaerobic) 100-yard dash, (immediate shot put availability)Very high 20 sec to 3 min ATP from No (anaerobic) ¼-mile run at carbohydrate maximal speed (lactate)High 3 min to 20 ATP from Yes (aerobic) Cycling, min carbohydrate swimming, or runningModerate More than 20 ATP from fat Yes (aerobic) Hiking min Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  48. 48. • Extreme activities All levels of activity intensity use the ATP-CP system initially; extremely intense short-term activities rely only on the ATP-CP system. Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  49. 49. References• Ellie Whitney and Sharon Rady Rolfes; Under standing Nutrition, Twelfth Edition. 2011, 2008 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning• WHO. 1985. Energy and protein requirements: Report of a joint FAO/WHO/UNU expert consultation. WHO Technical Report Series No. 724. Geneva.• WHO. 1995. Physical status: The use and interpretation of anthropometry. Report of a WHO expert committee. WHO Technical Report Series No. 854. Geneva.• Sareen Gropper, Jack Smith and James Groff, Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism, fifth ed. WADSWORTH• Melvin H Williams 2010; Nutrition for Health, Fitness and Sport. 9 th ed, McGraw Hill• Heymsfield, SB.; Baumgartner N.; Richard and Sheau-Fang P. 1999. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease; Shils E Maurice, Olson A. James, Shike Moshe and Ross A. Catharine eds. 9th• edition• Guyton, C. Arthur. 1985. Textbook of Medical Physiology. 6th edition, W.B. Company Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly