6 -water soluble vitamins and exercises

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6 -water soluble vitamins and exercises

  1. 1. 6--Water soluble vitamins and exercise, Nutrition and Fitness Dr. Siham Gritly
  2. 2. Vitamins• vitamins are organic compound needed in small quantities for normal body metabolism• *Vitamins are essential nutrients your body needs in small amounts for various roles in the human body.• *Vitamins are divided into two groups: water- soluble (B-complex and C) and fat-soluble (A, D, E and K). Dr. Siham Gritly
  3. 3. • *they can not be manufactured in human body so they should be provided through intake of food.• *vitamins do not provide energy but some are necessary for production of energy• *some are important for vital metabolism and building of structural units Dr. Siham Gritly
  4. 4. Water soluble vitamins• -soluble in water, consist of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen nitrogen, sulfur, cobalt,• -deficiency usually occur more than fat soluble vitamins• -Water-soluble vitamins that body cannot store in the body Dr. Siham Gritly
  5. 5. • -enter in energy production and in essential enzyme system• -activate chemical reaction inside the body• -excretion in urine through urination• -the most important water soluble vitamins are B complex and vitamin C Dr. Siham Gritly
  6. 6. Role of vitamin in exercises• The vitamin relationship with exercise involves;• their role as coenzymes in the oxidative process of cells• in the production and protection of red blood cells. Dr. Siham Gritly
  7. 7. B vitamins and Exercises (energy releasing)• During exercise or during physical activities the need of B complex is required for good performances.• Exercise may increase the requirements for riboflavin and vitamin B-6,• The B-vitamins (thiamin, riboflavin, and vitamin B-6) are necessary in the energy-producing pathways of the body and have direct role in energy metabolism and cell regeneration, Dr. Siham Gritly
  8. 8. • folate and vitamin B-12 are required for the synthesis of new cells, such as the red blood cells, and for the repair of damaged cells.• Researchers suggested that athletes who have poor diets, especially those restricting energy intakes or eliminating food groups from the diet, should consider supplementing with a multivitamin/mineral supplement Dr. Siham Gritly
  9. 9. Thiamine or vitamin B1• -sulfur containing water soluble vitamin of B complex, exist in tissues in the form of Thiamine Pyrophosphate (TPP)• - Thiamine Pyrophosphate (TPP) is essential co-enzyme involve in energy extraction and cellular process in catabolism of sugar and amino acid• -human and other animal obtain it through diet Dr. Siham Gritly
  10. 10. Absorption• Thiamine is released by the action of phosphatase and pyrophosphatase in the upper small intestine.• The majority of thiamine present in the intestine is in the pyrophosphorylated form, but when thiamine arrives on the side of the intestine it is often in the free form.• The majority of thiamine in serum is bound to proteins, mainly albumin. Approximately 90% of total thiamine in blood is in erythrocytes (red blood cell). Dr. Siham Gritly
  11. 11. • A specific binding protein called thiamine- binding protein (TBP) has a hormone- regulated carrier protein important for tissue distribution of thiamine.• Uptake of thiamine by cells of the blood and other tissues occurs via active transport and passive diffusion.• The brain requires a much greater amount of thiamine than in other cells of the body. Dr. Siham Gritly
  12. 12. Thiamin and exercises• -the main function of thiamine is its role in metabolic reaction acting as co-enzyme for energy and carbohydrate metabolism• -its deficiency in tissues affect energy metabolism and thus affect nerve and cardiac functions Dr. Siham Gritly
  13. 13. • -involve of oxidative reaction by which pyruvate of glycolysis change to acetyl-C0- enzyme A (decarboxylase enzyme)• -thiamine involved in decarboxylation of alph ketoglutrate to succinate in krebs cycle• -deficiency of thiamine lead to accumulation of pyruvate in the blood Dr. Siham Gritly
  14. 14. Deficiency of thiamin• -thiamin deficiency affect peripheral nervous system and heart if high carbohydrates consume due to the absence of thiamin enezymes• -two different diseases may result as deficiency of thiamin• 1-Beri Beri (wet and dry beri beri) Usually beri beri diseases result due to long term deficiency and high intake of carbohydrates• -Korsakoff syndrome (psychosis) Dr. Siham Gritly
  15. 15. • - Wet beriberi is associated with mental confusion, muscular atrophy, edema, tachycardia, caridomegaly and congestive heart failure in addition to peripheral neuropathy• - Dry beriberi is characterized principally by peripheral neuropathy. Muscle become waste and week, difficult walking, patient become bedridden and may die. Dr. Siham Gritly
  16. 16. • - Wernicke Korsakoff syndrome result among alcoholics and narcotic addicts. In this case deficiency lead to damage the central nervous system Dr. Siham Gritly
  17. 17. Riboflavin, vitamin B2 and exercises• Active form of riboflavin is Riboflavin Phosphate• It is the central component of the cofactor FAD and FMN, and is therefore required for energy metabolism• vitamin B2 is required for a wide variety of cellular processes transferring oxygen from plasma to the tissues.• It plays a key role in energy metabolism, and for the metabolism of fats, ketone bodies, carbohydrates and proteins. Dr. Siham Gritly
  18. 18. Deficiency of Riboflavin• Riboflavin is continuously excreted in the urine of healthy individuals, making deficiency relatively common when dietary intake is insufficient.• riboflavin deficiency is always accompanied by deficiency of other vitamins Dr. Siham Gritly
  19. 19. • In humans, signs and symptoms of riboflavin deficiency• -include cracked and red lips, inflammation of the lining of mouth and tongue, mouth ulcers, cracks at the corners of the mouth (Angular cheilitis), and a sore throat.• -A deficiency may also cause dry and scaling skin, fluid in the mucous membranes, and iron- deficiency anemia. The eyes may also become bloodshot, itchy, watery and sensitive to bright light. Dr. Siham Gritly
  20. 20. • milk, yogurt, meat, egg, fish green beans, green leafy vegetable, liver, kidneys main sources , Dr. Siham Gritly
  21. 21. Niacin and exercises nicotinic acid, nicotinamide, niacinamide• Niacin known as Pellagra preventing the main leading causes of mental illness• nicotinic acid, nicotinamide, niacinamide Are names given to niacin• Niacinamid occur in animal tissues and more soluble in water Dr. Siham Gritly
  22. 22. Niacin is the main components of important two Co- enzymes1-nicotin-amide Dinucleotide (NAD)2-nicotin-amide Adenin DinucleotideAct as co-enzyme for reactions involved dehydrogenase enzymesMain function act as electron transport and hydrogen carrier involved in fats, carbohydrates and protein metabolism Dr. Siham Gritly
  23. 23. Functions1-reaction of transport hydrogen atom from one part to another, occur in mitochondria and cytoplasm of the cells –oxidative reactions of NAD------NADH*glycolysis -------glyceraldehyde 3P to 1,3 diphosphglycerate*oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to lactate Dr. Siham Gritly
  24. 24. *oxydation of acetyl Co A in TCA cycle-malate to oxaloacetate-glutamate to α ketoglutrate*β oxidation of fatty acid2-NAD----dehydrogenase for catabolism of vitamin B6 pyridoxal to its excretory product (pyridoxin acid) Dr. Siham Gritly
  25. 25. 3-NADPH (reduced form) involved in;Fatty acid synthesisCholesterol synthesisDeoxy-ribonucleotide molecules (DNA)4-NADPH--- convert folate to dihydrofolate (DHF) and dihydrofolate and synthesis of 5 methyl- tetrahydrofolate the active form of folic acid Dr. Siham Gritly
  26. 26. Deficiency of niacin• Severe deficiency of niacin in the diet causes the disease pellagra characterized by three Ds;Diarrhea, loss of fluidsDermatitis, hyperpigmentation, thickening of the skin, inflammation of the mouth and tongue, digestive disturbances,Dementia, (mental symptoms) such as irritability, poor concentration, anxiety, fatigue, restlessness, apathy, and depressionCould lead to death Dr. Siham Gritly
  27. 27. pellagra Dr. Siham Gritly
  28. 28. digestion of niacin• Glycohydrolase enzyme in intestinal tract free niacin to nicotinamide and nicotinic acid which absorbed and enter plasma blood• Niacin is found in variety of foods, including liver, chicken, beef, fish, cereal, peanuts and legumes, Dr. Siham Gritly
  29. 29. Pantothenic acid and exercises• Pantothenic acid is used in the synthesis of co- enzyme A (CoA).• Coenzyme A may act as an acyl group carrier to form acetyl-CoA and other related compounds; this is a way to transport carbon atoms within the cell.• Dr. Siham Gritly
  30. 30. • CoA is also important in the biosynthesis of many important compounds such as fatty acids, cholesterol.• CoA is important in energy metabolism for pyruvate to enter theKerbs cycleor tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle) as acetyl- CoA, and for α-ketoglutarate to be transformed to succinyl-CoA in the cycle. Dr. Siham Gritly
  31. 31. • The major food source of pantothenic acid is in meats,• Whole grains are another good source of the vitamin, but milling often removes much of the pantothenic acid, as it is found in the outer layers of whole grains.• Vegetables, such as broccoli and avocados also have an abundance of the acid. Dr. Siham Gritly
  32. 32. Pyridoxine vitamin B6• Active form of pyridoxine is pyridoxal phosphate• Act as co-enzyme in different metabolic reactions• Found naturally in three related compounds1-pyridoxal; animal origin2-pyridoxine found only in plant origin3-pyridoxamine; animal origin Dr. Siham Gritly
  33. 33. • The three forms equal vital activities in their active forms• -pyridoxal phosphate• -pyridoxine phosphate• -pyridoxamine phosphate• All forms of B6 absorbed from intestinal tract inter the blood as pyridoxal phosphate Dr. Siham Gritly
  34. 34. • Act as co-enzyme needed in amino acid metabolism such as conversion of essential amino acid tryptophan to vitamin niacin• Vitamin B6 is involved in over 100 metabolic reactions in the body, including the production of energy and hemoglobin, a protein in red blood cells. Intakes below the DRI can hurt performance. Dr. Siham Gritly
  35. 35. vitamin B6 and exercises• including the role that vitamin B6 plays in gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis and changes in vitamin B6 metabolism during exercise.• Most studies report that male athletes have adequate dietary intakes of vitamin B6, whereas some females, especially those with low energy intakes, appear to have low vitamin B6 intakes. Dr. Siham Gritly
  36. 36. • Pyridoxine assists in the balancing of sodium and potassium.• promoting red blood cell production.• Pyridoxine may help balance hormonal changes in women and aid the immune system• Lack of pyridoxine may cause anemia, nerve damage, seizures, skin problems, and sores in the mouth. Dr. Siham Gritly
  37. 37. Folic acid and exercises• The human body needs folate to synthesize DNA, as well as to act as a cofactor in biological reactions.• It is especially important in aiding rapid cell division and growth, such as in infancy and pregnancy.• production of red blood cells and thus prevent anemia. Dr. Siham Gritly
  38. 38. Deficiency of folic acid• Folate deficiency may lead to glossitis, diarrhea, depression, confusion, anemia, and fetal neural tube defects and brain defects• found mainly in green leafy vegetables, in Legumes such as dried or fresh beans, peas and lentils, Egg yolks, cereals, yeast Dr. Siham Gritly
  39. 39. vitamin B12, cobalamin and exercises• vitamin B12, or cobalamin, is a water soluble vitamin main function normal functioning of the brain and nervous system, and for the formation of blood• It is normally involved in the metabolism of every cell of the human body, involved in DNA synthesis and regulation,• Involve in fatty acid synthesis and energy production. Dr. Siham Gritly
  40. 40. • Because of its role in red blood cell formation, B12 is vital for getting oxygen to tissues.• B12 is only found in animal products, putting vegan and vegetarian athletes at risk for anemia. Dr. Siham Gritly
  41. 41. • Vitamin B12 deficiency can cause severe and irreversible damage, especially to the brain and nervous system.• At levels only slightly at lower level than normal, a range of symptoms such as fatigue, depression and poor memory may be result Dr. Siham Gritly
  42. 42. Vitamin C and exercises• Ascorbic acid or vitamin C is involved in a number of biochemical pathways that are important to exercise metabolism and the health of exercising individuals• protecting the body from infection and damage to body cells,• helping produce collagen (the connective tissue that holds bones and muscles together),• helping in the absorption of iron and folate. Dr. Siham Gritly
  43. 43. • Exercise increases the generation of oxygen free radicals and lipid peroxidation.• Strenuous exercise in a person who is untrained or unaccustomed to exercise will induce oxidative damage and result in muscle injury.• aerobic exercise training strengthens the antioxidant defense system by increasing superoxide dismutase. Dr. Siham Gritly
  44. 44. • Exercise generally causes a transient increase in circulating ascorbic acid in the hours following exercise, but a decline below pre- exercise levels occurs in the days after prolonged exercise.• Vitamin C and, especially, vitamin E are shown to decrease the exercise-induced increase in the rate of lipid peroxidation (free radicals). Dr. Siham Gritly
  45. 45. references• Sareen S. Gropper, Jack L.Smithh and James L. Groff; 2007. advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism, fifth ed. Wadsworth CENGAGE learning• Melvin H Williams 2010; Nutrition for Health, Fitness and Sport. 9th ed, McGraw Hill• WoolfK, Manore MM B-vitamins and exercise: does exercise alter requirements? Dept of Nutrition, Arizona State University, Mesa 85212, USA. [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]• William J Evans Vitamin E, vitamin C, and exercise1,2,3 Dr. Siham Gritly
  46. 46. ReferencesManore MM; Vitamin B6 and exercise. Department of Family Resources and Human Development, Arizona State University, Tempe 85287-2502. [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Lieberman, S, Bruning, N (1990). The Real Vitamin & Mineral Book. NY: Avery Group, 3, ISBN 0895297698 Maton, Anthea; Jean Hopkins, Charles William McLaughlin, Susan Johnson, Maryanna Quon Warner, David LaHart, Jill D. Wright (1993). Human Biology and Health. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA: Prentice Hall. Davidson, Michael W. (2004) Anthranilic Acid (Vitamin L) Florida State University• Dr. Siham Gritly

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