4 endocrine response to exercise; diabetes mellitus and fitness


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4 endocrine response to exercise; diabetes mellitus and fitness

  1. 1. 4-Endocrine Response to Exercise; Diabetes Mellitus and Fitness Advanced Nutrition and Fitness Dr. Siham Gritly
  2. 2. objectives• At the end of the lecture student should be able to understand;• The major glands of the endocrine system• Hormones that important in physical exercise• Diabetes Mellitus and exercise Dr. Siham Gritly
  3. 3. The major endocrine glands:1 Pineal gland 2 Pituitary gland 3 Thyroid gland 4 Thymus 5Adrenal gland 6 Pancreas 7 Ovary (female) 8 Testes (male) Dr. Siham Gritly
  4. 4. Endocrine system• the endocrine system is a system of glands, (ductless) each of which secretes a type of hormone.• hormone is directly released into the bloodstream to regulate the body functions.• It derives from the Greek words "endo" meaning inside, within, and "crinis" for secrete.• field of study dealing with the endocrine system endocrinology Dr. Siham Gritly
  5. 5. • Hormones regulate various human functions, including;• metabolism,• growth and development,• body tissues (the physical and chemical processes of the body),• sexual development and function. Dr. Siham Gritly
  6. 6. • Most hormones are secreted from the glands that produce them under the influence of stimulating hormones from the hypothalamus.• The hypothalamus is a part of the brain involved in the control of involuntary activity in the body; contains many centers of neural control such as temperature, hunger, appetite and thirst• These hormones in turn are activated by releasing hormones from the pituitary gland. Dr. Siham Gritly
  7. 7. Exercise;• Look for the major endocrine glands Dr. Siham Gritly
  8. 8. The major glands of the endocrinesystem• are;• the hypothalamus, (link the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis)• pituitary, (secretes nine hormones that regulate homeostasis)• thyroid,• parathyroids, Dr. Siham Gritly
  9. 9. • adrenals,• pineal gland, (melatonin that helps to regulate sleep/wake)• the reproductive organs (ovaries and testes).• The pancreas; insulin and glucagon Dr. Siham Gritly
  10. 10. • Hormones can be classified ; – Steroid hormones are lipid, they are formed from cholesterol. – Non-steroid hormones are proteins, peptides, or amino acids. Dr. Siham Gritly
  11. 11. Reference; MedicineNet.Inc Dr. Siham Gritly
  12. 12. Endocrine Response to Exercise• Many hormones play a role in physical exercise; the endocrine response to exercise can improve organ function, physical fitness and overall psychological state.• without hormones, exercise would be limited.• Vigorous exercise, in particular, might improve endocrine function. Dr. Siham Gritly
  13. 13. Hormones important in physical exercise• Hormones important in physical exercise include;1-testosterone from the testes,2-norepinephrine or adrenalin and cortisol from the adrenal glands, Dr. Siham Gritly
  14. 14. 3- thyroxin from the thyroid gland4- human growth hormone -- also called HGH or somatotropin -- from the pituitary gland.5-insulin and glucagon from the pancreas, Dr. Siham Gritly
  15. 15. Male Reproductive system 1-Testosterone from the Testes• Testosterone sex hormone contributes to muscle mass and strength,• serum testosterone, increase is correlated with the duration, intensity and type of exercise.• Overexertion, however, was found to have the opposite effect on testosterone levels. Dr. Siham Gritly
  16. 16. The Adrenal Gland adapted from ScheerMed2-adrenalin and cortisol from the adrenal glands, Dr. Siham Gritly
  17. 17. norepinephrine and cortisol from the adrenalglands,• The adrenal glands involved in maintaining; *blood sugar levels, *moderating the immune system response, *providing the precursors for the production of sex hormones *responding to stressful situations through the release of adrenaline and cortisol. Dr. Siham Gritly
  18. 18. Adrenal Gland Hormones & Exercise Effects• The adrenal glands produce numerous hormones include adrenalin, cortisol, epinephrine;• * adrenalin or norepinephrine, is released in greater amounts during exercise, providing body system with increased energy in the form of glucose and free fatty acids Dr. Siham Gritly
  19. 19. • *cortisol, facilitates the breakdown and release of amino acids from muscle tissue to provide substrate to liver for gluconeogenesis Dr. Siham Gritly
  20. 20. • Epinephrine, (The adrenal medulla) during exercise intensities epinephrine increase at higher level• Epinephrine stimulate the liver to release glucose and accelerates the use of glycogen in the muscle Dr. Siham Gritly
  21. 21. The Thyroid gland Adapted medicineNet.inc3- thyroxin from the thyroid gland Dr. Siham Gritly
  22. 22. • Thyroid gland secrete hormone thyroxin• Function during exercise• Thyroxin secretions during exercise lead to;- *increase the amount of blood in the body by about 30 percent,• *increase the metabolism within the human body Dr. Siham Gritly
  23. 23. The Pituitary gland4- human growth hormone from pituitary gland Adapted medicineNet.inc Dr. Siham Gritly
  24. 24. • Exercise, particularly heavy weightlifting (strength exercise), stimulates the release of luteinizing hormone from the anterior pituitary gland,• luteinizing hormone activate testosterone production.• Intense Exercise stimulates the release of thyroxine from the thyroid gland. Dr. Siham Gritly
  25. 25. The pancreas adapted from MedicineNet.Inc5-insulin and glucagon from the pancreas, Adapted medicineNet.inc Dr. Siham Gritly
  26. 26. The pancreasThe pancreas has 2 functions;1-digestive function; the exocrine pancreas, secretes digestive enzymes2-hormonal functions; the endocrine pancreas, secretes hormones called insulin and glucagon.• These hormones regulate the level of glucose in the blood. Dr. Siham Gritly
  27. 27. • Insulin and glucagon are both synthesized in the pancreas,• These hormones have competing functions;• -insulin stimulates glucose uptake by body tissues,• - glucagon increase the rate of gluconeogenesis in the liver and help to increase blood glucose levels Dr. Siham Gritly
  28. 28. • During exercise, Glucagon levels rise and insulin levels fall so as to increase glucose release into the bloodstream.• When exercise end, insulin rises and glucagon drops so that ingested foods are rapidly used to replenish glycogen, Dr. Siham Gritly
  29. 29. • Endocrine response to exercise; Diabetes Mellitus and fitness Dr. Siham Gritly
  30. 30. Diabetes Mellitus• Diabetes Mellitus; a disorder of carbohydrate metabolism due to disturbances in production or utilization of insulin, results in high blood glucose levels and loss of sugar in urine• . Dr. Siham Gritly
  31. 31. • diabetes mellitus are of two types either;• 1- Type 1 DM; people cannot produce insulin. it results from the bodys failure to produce insulin, and presently requires the person to inject insulin.• 2- Type 2 DM; the insulin they produce is ineffective in stimulating the uptake of blood sugar (glucose) into the bodys cells. Dr. Siham Gritly
  32. 32. • If diabetes is untreated, blood sugar rises to high levels that can eventually cause blindness, nerve damage, and other complications. Dr. Siham Gritly
  33. 33. • Both Type 1 and 2 DM are diagnosed by detection of a fasting (>8 h) plasma glucose level that exceeds 126 mg/dl• If a plasma glucose concentration greater than 200 mg/dl at 2 h after an oral glucose of 75 g of glucose individual known to be diabetic Dr. Siham Gritly
  34. 34. Response of hypothalamus to blood glucoselevel• If the sugar levels in the blood fall far below their usual range, the brain (hypothalamus) responds by stimulating;• *the adrenal glands to release, 1-adrenaline or norepinephrine, 2-epinephrine and 3- cortisol,• 1-adrenalin or norepinephrine, is released in greater amounts during exercise increased energy in the form of glucose and free fatty acids Dr. Siham Gritly
  35. 35. • 2-Epinephrine stimulate the liver to release glucose and accelerates the use of glycogen in the muscle• 3-cortisol, release of amino acids from muscle tissue to provide substrate to liver for gluconeogenesis Dr. Siham Gritly
  36. 36. • *-the pancreas to release glucagon and insulin, Insulin is a hormone produced in the pancreases which enables body cells to absorb glucose, for energy production, glucagon increase the rate of gluconeogenesis in the liver and help to increase blood glucose levels• *- the pituitary gland to release growth hormone, all of which cause the liver to regulate glucose into the blood. Dr. Siham Gritly
  37. 37. Hypoglycemia.• Normal blood glucose level in the blood usually range from 80-100 mg of glucose/ 100ml of blood• Below this range athletes could enter into hypoglycemic condition• Hypoglycemia is characterized by low blood sugar level (glucose) Dr. Siham Gritly
  38. 38. • Hypoglycemia lead to impairment of central nervous system• Sweating, beating heart, shaking, hunger, confusion, drowsiness, difficulty with speech, nausea, and headache are the main symptoms . Dr. Siham Gritly
  39. 39. Diabetes Mellitus and exerciseMetabolic Responses to Exercise• Regular exercise is highly recommended for many people who have either Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM).• During exercise, skeletal muscle is the most important tissue in the body for glucose uptake. the contracting muscles produce their own insulin-like effect, causing the rapid uptake of glucose from the blood. Dr. Siham Gritly
  40. 40. Other hormones such as epinephrine(adrenaline), glucagon and cortisol assess tomaintain and increase blood glucose levelsduring exercise Dr. Siham Gritly
  41. 41. • Avoiding hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia can also be achieved by increasing or decreasing, respectively, the amount of carbohydrate ingested before planned exercise. Dr. Siham Gritly
  42. 42. Functions of Insulin during and after exercise1- Stimulation of glucose uptake into most cells of the body,2- Inhibition of glucose release from the liver,3- Inhibition of the release of fatty acids from storage tissue,4-Facilitation of protein synthesis in the bodys cells,5- Stimulation of the re-synthesis of muscle glycogen after exercise Dr. Siham Gritly
  43. 43. REFERENCES• American Diabetes Association (2002). Clinical Practice Recommendations:2002. Diabetes Care 25 (suppl. 1):S64-S68.• Sareen Gropper, Jack Smith and James Groff, Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism, fifth ed. WADSWORTH• Melvin H Williams 2010; Nutrition for Health, Fitness and Sport. 9th ed, McGraw Hill• Heymsfield, SB.; Baumgartner N.; Richard and Sheau-Fang P. 1999. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease; Shils E Maurice, Olson A. James, Shike Moshe and Ross A. Catharine eds. 9th edition• Guyton, C. Arthur. 1985. Textbook of Medical Physiology. 6th edition, W.B. Company Dr. Siham Gritly
  44. 44. • Christopher D. Jensen, PhD, MPH, RD ;Nutrition & Epidemiology Researcher Part 1: Sports Nutrition for Athletes with Type 1 Diabetes: Interplay of Diet, Insulin Therapy, and Exercise• American Diabetes Association (2002). Clinical Practice Recommendations:2002. Diabetes Care 25 (suppl. 1):S64-S68.• By Kevin Beck2011. Endocrine Response to Exercise• medicineNet.inc• Hayashi et al., 1997; Holloszy, 2003; Nesher et al., 1985; Ploug et al., 1984 Dr. Siham Gritly
  45. 45. • http://www.livestrong.com/article/405612-effects-of- exercise-on-endocrine-system/#ixzz1gILKH9MT• Virtual Medical Centre: Endocrine System "Adaptive Medicine"; Exercise and Testosterone; Te-Chi Liu, et al.; August 31, 2009• "Journal of Applied Physiology"; Hypothalamic-Pituitary- Adrenal Responses to Short Dr. Siham Gritly
  46. 46. References; Dr. Siham Gritly