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POLLINATING AGENTS Abiotic Biotic Gravity Water movement Air movement Insects Birds Mammals(Bats) ( Geophily) (Hydrophily) (Anemophily) (Entomophily) (Ornithophily) (Chiropterophily)
EFFECTIVITY OF WATER MOVEMENT & GRAVITY Very Low and Limited
EFFECTIVITY OF ANEMOPHILY P e = m x a s / a f where P e = Pollen effectivity m = total pollen mass a s = stigmatic surface area a f = total filtration area for 1 sq mm of stigmatic surface area = 1 million pollen grains in 1 sq meter area required
Effectivity of Zoophily Very high
Bees as Pollinators (Melittophily)
Dependence on flowers for brood food (nectar and pollen)