Conservation of bee pollinator for pollination of crops why & how
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Conservation of bee pollinator for pollination of crops why & how Presentation Transcript

  • 1. CONSERVATION OF BEE POLLINATORS FOR POLLINATION OF CROPS - WHY & HOW ? Dr R C Sihag, Ex-Dean College of Basic Sciences & Humanities CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar
  • 2. Structure of a typical flower
  • 3. Process of fertilization
  • 4. Selfing vs. Out Crossing
  • 5. Floral and Pollinator Evolution Actinomorphy Cantharophily Zygomorphy Melittophily
  • 6. SP NO REPRODUCTIVE BARRIERS IN PLANTS 1. Self-incompatibility CP YES SEED SET
  • 7. NO seeds 2. PROTARDRY / PROTOGYNY MATURE Not Mature/Not receptive NOT MATURE RECEPTIVE NO seeds SP SP ♀ ♂ ♂ ♀
  • 8.
    • 3 . Unisexuality
    • FLOWERES ARE UNISEXUAL
    • e.g. CUCURBITS
    • ii) PLANTS ARE UNISEXUAL
    • e.g. PAPAYA
    • 4. Hetrostyly :
    • Male and Female parts at different heights
  • 9. POLLINATION TWO COMPONENTS POLLINATOR PLANT POLLINATOR LEVEL PLANT LEVEL ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS Dynamic component (Actor) Stationary Component (Stage)
  • 10. POLLINATING AGENTS Abiotic Biotic Gravity Water movement Air movement Insects Birds Mammals(Bats) ( Geophily) (Hydrophily) (Anemophily) (Entomophily) (Ornithophily) (Chiropterophily)
  • 11. EFFECTIVITY OF WATER MOVEMENT & GRAVITY Very Low and Limited
  • 12. EFFECTIVITY OF ANEMOPHILY P e = m x a s / a f where P e = Pollen effectivity m = total pollen mass a s = stigmatic surface area a f = total filtration area for 1 sq mm of stigmatic surface area = 1 million pollen grains in 1 sq meter area required
  • 13. Effectivity of Zoophily Very high
  • 14.
    • Bees as Pollinators (Melittophily)
    • Dependence on flowers for brood food (nectar and pollen)
    • Morphological and Anatomical adaptations
  • 15.
    • OILSEED CROPS
    • 1. Toria SI , CP
    • 2. Brown Sarson SI, CP
    • 3. Taramira SI, CP
    • 4. Sunflower SI, CP
    • 5. Safflower SC, CP
    • 6. Castor SC, CP
    • VEGETABLE CROPS
    • 1. Radish SI, CP
    • 2. Turnip SI, CP
    • 3. Cauliflower SI, CP
    • 4. Carrot PT, CP
    • 5. Cucurbits US, CP
    • 6. Tomato SC, CP
    • 7. Brinjal SC, CP
    • 8. Bhindi SC, CP
  • 16. 3. HORTICULTURAL CROPS 1. APPLE SI, CP 2. PEACH SI, CP 3. PEAR SI, CP 4. PLUM SI, CP 5. GAUVA Partial SI, CP 6. GRAPES Partial SI, PT, CP 7. CITRUS SI,SC,CP 8.JUJUBE PT, CP 4. CONDIMENTS/SPICES ETC. 1. CORIANDER PT,CP 2. CARDAMOM SC, RP 3. CUMIN PT, CP 4. FENNEL PT, CP 5. TEA SI, CP 6. COFFE SI, CP
  • 17. 5. PULSES SELF-POLLINATED ; CROSS POLLINATION INCREASES SEED YIELD. 6. FIBER CROPS 1. COTTON SC, CP 2. HEMP SC, CP 7. FORAGE CROPS 1. ALFALFA SC, CP 2. BERSEEM SI, CP STATUS SI = > 50 % PT/PG = > 15 % US = 5 % HS = FEW
  • 18. Importance of Bees to Crops Increase
    • The quality of seeds/fruits
    • The quantity of seeds/fruits
  • 19. BEES, THEIR FEEDING AND NESTING HABITS Leaf cutter Alfalfa Megachile rotundata ii) Alkaline soil Alfalfa Nomia melanderi i) Other Non- Apis bees 4. Deserted nests of voles/rats Polylectic Bumble bees 3. Cavity dweller Polylectic Stingless Honeybees 2. Semi-dark Polylectic A. florea iv) Open Polylectic A. dorsata iii) Cavity dweller Polylectic A. cerana ii) Cavity dweller Polylectic Apis mellifera i) Honeybees 1. Nesting Habits Feeding Habits Name of bee S.No
  • 20. Wood/Hollow pithy stem Polylectic Xylocopa spp . xiii) Wood Red clover O. coerulescens xii) Wood Oligolectic O. cornifrons xi) Wood Almond O. cornuta x) Wood Apple Osmia lignaria propinqua ix) Leaf cutter Alfalfa C. mucorea viii) Leaf cutter Sunflower leaf cutter Eumegachile pugnata vii) Leaf cutter Pigeonpea M. bicolor vi) Leaf mud Pigeonpea C. lanata v) Wet mud Alfalfa Chalicodoma rubripes iv) Leaf cutter Alfalfa M. nana iii) Nesting Habits Feeding Habits Name of bee S.No
  • 21. A bumble bee pollinating a composit flower
  • 22. Apis florea pollinating Brassica flowers
  • 23. Honeybees pollinating Onion flowers
  • 24. Apis florea pollinating Carrot flowers
  • 25. Apis mellifera pollinating Eruca sativa flowers
  • 26. Pollinators of Fennel
  • 27. Female and Male flowers of Cucurbits (Cucumber, Wanga & Tinda)
  • 28. Apis mellifera pollinating a Cucurbit flower
  • 29. Megachilid bee and nest cells
  • 30. Nesting devices for Solitary bees
  • 31. Megachilid artificial nests
  • 32. Nests of Chalicodoma lanata
  • 33. Nests of Chalicodoma rubripes
  • 34. Nests of Chalicodoma cephalotes
  • 35. Nests of Megachile nana
  • 36. Hutment for culturing solitary bees
  • 37. Xylocopa hive
  • 38. A nest of Stingless honeybee
  • 39. A hive of Stingless honeybee
  • 40. Apis florea kept in a hive
  • 41. Apis florea colony being hived
  • 42. Apis dorsata colonies
  • 43. Conservation of Apis dorsata
  • 44. Apis mellifera being utilized for pollination of Taramira crop
  • 45. Crops attacked by disease and Pests Need Pesticides Cause Poisoning of the Environment
  • 46. Method of application is important Order of hazard is : Aerial application > Mechanical application > Hand application
  • 47. Formulation Hazards Dust > Liquid
  • 48. Poisoning occurs due to 1. Direct exposures 2. Drift of pesticides 3.Contamination of pollen & nectar
  • 49. Poisoning causes Large scale bee kills
  • 50. Immediate effect of bee kills 1. Crop failures 2. Low honey yield
  • 51. Safety of bees in agro- environment 1. Use of Repellents 2. Use of safer pesticides 3. Safe application time of pesticides 4. Safe time lag for re-entry of the bees
  • 52. CONCLUSION Bees Plants Interdependent Conservation of bees Higher Crop Yield Means
  • 53. Thanks!