Conservation of bee pollinator for pollination of crops why & how

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Conservation of bee pollinator for pollination of crops why & how

  1. 1. CONSERVATION OF BEE POLLINATORS FOR POLLINATION OF CROPS - WHY & HOW ? Dr R C Sihag, Ex-Dean College of Basic Sciences & Humanities CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar
  2. 2. Structure of a typical flower
  3. 3. Process of fertilization
  4. 4. Selfing vs. Out Crossing
  5. 5. Floral and Pollinator Evolution Actinomorphy Cantharophily Zygomorphy Melittophily
  6. 6. SP NO REPRODUCTIVE BARRIERS IN PLANTS 1. Self-incompatibility CP YES SEED SET
  7. 7. NO seeds 2. PROTARDRY / PROTOGYNY MATURE Not Mature/Not receptive NOT MATURE RECEPTIVE NO seeds SP SP ♀ ♂ ♂ ♀
  8. 8. <ul><li>3 . Unisexuality </li></ul><ul><li>FLOWERES ARE UNISEXUAL </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. CUCURBITS </li></ul><ul><li>ii) PLANTS ARE UNISEXUAL </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. PAPAYA </li></ul><ul><li>4. Hetrostyly : </li></ul><ul><li>Male and Female parts at different heights </li></ul>
  9. 9. POLLINATION TWO COMPONENTS POLLINATOR PLANT POLLINATOR LEVEL PLANT LEVEL ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS Dynamic component (Actor) Stationary Component (Stage)
  10. 10. POLLINATING AGENTS Abiotic Biotic Gravity Water movement Air movement Insects Birds Mammals(Bats) ( Geophily) (Hydrophily) (Anemophily) (Entomophily) (Ornithophily) (Chiropterophily)
  11. 11. EFFECTIVITY OF WATER MOVEMENT & GRAVITY Very Low and Limited
  12. 12. EFFECTIVITY OF ANEMOPHILY P e = m x a s / a f where P e = Pollen effectivity m = total pollen mass a s = stigmatic surface area a f = total filtration area for 1 sq mm of stigmatic surface area = 1 million pollen grains in 1 sq meter area required
  13. 13. Effectivity of Zoophily Very high
  14. 14. <ul><li>Bees as Pollinators (Melittophily) </li></ul><ul><li>Dependence on flowers for brood food (nectar and pollen) </li></ul><ul><li>Morphological and Anatomical adaptations </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>OILSEED CROPS </li></ul><ul><li>1. Toria SI , CP </li></ul><ul><li>2. Brown Sarson SI, CP </li></ul><ul><li>3. Taramira SI, CP </li></ul><ul><li>4. Sunflower SI, CP </li></ul><ul><li>5. Safflower SC, CP </li></ul><ul><li>6. Castor SC, CP </li></ul><ul><li>VEGETABLE CROPS </li></ul><ul><li>1. Radish SI, CP </li></ul><ul><li>2. Turnip SI, CP </li></ul><ul><li>3. Cauliflower SI, CP </li></ul><ul><li>4. Carrot PT, CP </li></ul><ul><li>5. Cucurbits US, CP </li></ul><ul><li>6. Tomato SC, CP </li></ul><ul><li>7. Brinjal SC, CP </li></ul><ul><li> 8. Bhindi SC, CP </li></ul>
  16. 16. 3. HORTICULTURAL CROPS 1. APPLE SI, CP 2. PEACH SI, CP 3. PEAR SI, CP 4. PLUM SI, CP 5. GAUVA Partial SI, CP 6. GRAPES Partial SI, PT, CP 7. CITRUS SI,SC,CP 8.JUJUBE PT, CP 4. CONDIMENTS/SPICES ETC. 1. CORIANDER PT,CP 2. CARDAMOM SC, RP 3. CUMIN PT, CP 4. FENNEL PT, CP 5. TEA SI, CP 6. COFFE SI, CP
  17. 17. 5. PULSES SELF-POLLINATED ; CROSS POLLINATION INCREASES SEED YIELD. 6. FIBER CROPS 1. COTTON SC, CP 2. HEMP SC, CP 7. FORAGE CROPS 1. ALFALFA SC, CP 2. BERSEEM SI, CP STATUS SI = > 50 % PT/PG = > 15 % US = 5 % HS = FEW
  18. 18. Importance of Bees to Crops Increase <ul><li>The quality of seeds/fruits </li></ul><ul><li>The quantity of seeds/fruits </li></ul>
  19. 19. BEES, THEIR FEEDING AND NESTING HABITS Leaf cutter Alfalfa Megachile rotundata ii) Alkaline soil Alfalfa Nomia melanderi i) Other Non- Apis bees 4. Deserted nests of voles/rats Polylectic Bumble bees 3. Cavity dweller Polylectic Stingless Honeybees 2. Semi-dark Polylectic A. florea iv) Open Polylectic A. dorsata iii) Cavity dweller Polylectic A. cerana ii) Cavity dweller Polylectic Apis mellifera i) Honeybees 1. Nesting Habits Feeding Habits Name of bee S.No
  20. 20. Wood/Hollow pithy stem Polylectic Xylocopa spp . xiii) Wood Red clover O. coerulescens xii) Wood Oligolectic O. cornifrons xi) Wood Almond O. cornuta x) Wood Apple Osmia lignaria propinqua ix) Leaf cutter Alfalfa C. mucorea viii) Leaf cutter Sunflower leaf cutter Eumegachile pugnata vii) Leaf cutter Pigeonpea M. bicolor vi) Leaf mud Pigeonpea C. lanata v) Wet mud Alfalfa Chalicodoma rubripes iv) Leaf cutter Alfalfa M. nana iii) Nesting Habits Feeding Habits Name of bee S.No
  21. 21. A bumble bee pollinating a composit flower
  22. 22. Apis florea pollinating Brassica flowers
  23. 23. Honeybees pollinating Onion flowers
  24. 24. Apis florea pollinating Carrot flowers
  25. 25. Apis mellifera pollinating Eruca sativa flowers
  26. 26. Pollinators of Fennel
  27. 27. Female and Male flowers of Cucurbits (Cucumber, Wanga & Tinda)
  28. 28. Apis mellifera pollinating a Cucurbit flower
  29. 29. Megachilid bee and nest cells
  30. 30. Nesting devices for Solitary bees
  31. 31. Megachilid artificial nests
  32. 32. Nests of Chalicodoma lanata
  33. 33. Nests of Chalicodoma rubripes
  34. 34. Nests of Chalicodoma cephalotes
  35. 35. Nests of Megachile nana
  36. 36. Hutment for culturing solitary bees
  37. 37. Xylocopa hive
  38. 38. A nest of Stingless honeybee
  39. 39. A hive of Stingless honeybee
  40. 40. Apis florea kept in a hive
  41. 41. Apis florea colony being hived
  42. 42. Apis dorsata colonies
  43. 43. Conservation of Apis dorsata
  44. 44. Apis mellifera being utilized for pollination of Taramira crop
  45. 45. Crops attacked by disease and Pests Need Pesticides Cause Poisoning of the Environment
  46. 46. Method of application is important Order of hazard is : Aerial application > Mechanical application > Hand application
  47. 47. Formulation Hazards Dust > Liquid
  48. 48. Poisoning occurs due to 1. Direct exposures 2. Drift of pesticides 3.Contamination of pollen & nectar
  49. 49. Poisoning causes Large scale bee kills
  50. 50. Immediate effect of bee kills 1. Crop failures 2. Low honey yield
  51. 51. Safety of bees in agro- environment 1. Use of Repellents 2. Use of safer pesticides 3. Safe application time of pesticides 4. Safe time lag for re-entry of the bees
  52. 52. CONCLUSION Bees Plants Interdependent Conservation of bees Higher Crop Yield Means
  53. 53. Thanks!

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