Conservation of animal resources

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  • 1. Conservation of Animal Resources for Sustainable Productivity
    • R. C. Sihag
    • Department of Zoology & Aquaculture
    • CCS Haryana Agricultural University
    • Hisar-125004
  • 2. Productivity
    • Rate of weight
    • produced by a population
    • or
    • Maximum yield
    • that can be harvested
    • from a population repeatedly
  • 3. Important
    • 1. Ecosystem stability depends upon the complexity of ‘Food webs’ which in turn depend upon the number of ‘Food chains’ in that system.
    • 2. Animal productivity is secondary productivity
    • 3. Productivity along the food chain follows the second law of thermodynamics
  • 4. American Bison
  • 5. Keribou
  • 6. Wilder beast
  • 7. Zebra
  • 8. Deer
  • 9. Giraffe
  • 10. Blue whale
  • 11. School fishes
  • 12. Sea Lion
  • 13. Fur Seal
  • 14. Otter
  • 15. Catla
  • 16. Sepia
  • 17. Turtle
  • 18. Python
  • 19. Production Efficiency of Earth vs Support to Human population
    • ∞ IE (Incident solar energy/unit area/yr)
    • ∞ ALW (crop area, land and water)
    • ∞ % RE (Radian energy that is transformed in to chemical energy
    • ∞ _____________ 1 __________________ EM (Energy required by average man)
  • 20. Energy Requirement of Human beings
    • 70 kg man = 1700 kcal/d
    • Asian man = 2070 kcal/d
    • Generous International estimate
    • = 3000 kcal/d
    • or 10 6 kcal/yr
  • 21. Conversion Efficiency of Various Crops and the Capacity of Earth to Support Human beings Current world population =6.5 B 1.5x 10 9 (15B) 30000 0.002 Eggs 1.1x 10 10 (110 B) 4000 0.015 Pork 3.0x 10 10 (300B) 1500 0.04 Milk 3.0x 10 10 (300B) 1500 0.04 Prunes 3.8x10 10 (380 B) 1200 0.05 Grain 7.6x10 10 (760 B) 600 0.10 Potatoes 9.1x10 12 (910 B) 5 12,5 Algae World population that can be supported by earth Area required to support one man / yr (sq m) Crop
  • 22. World Production of Major Foods ____ 46_________ = 4.56 x 10 9 ha Sea food________ *Total arable land 20 Eggs 130 Meat 650 Milk 400 Rice 500 Wheat Production (metric tons)* Commodity
  • 23. Relative Importance of Animal and Vegetable Proteins in Different Parts of the World (per person) *Mainly vegetarian and suffer from malnutrition 8* 61 For East including China 5. 7* 52 South Asia 4. 20 68 Mexico 3. 39 25 Western Europe 2. 66 93 North America 1. Animal protein (g/d) Total protein (g/d) Region Sr. No.
  • 24. Conversion Efficiency of Marine Foods 255 kcal Tuna (canned) 5. 120 kcal Shrimps (dry canned) 4. 266 kcal Sardines (canned oil) 3. 92 kcal Salmon 2. 70 kcal Cod 1. Energy/100 g Source Sr.No.
  • 25.
    • World Potential of Animal Resources
    • a) Safe estimate of CE = 100 kcal/100 g
    • b) World catch of marine food = 46X10 9 kg
    • = 46X10 12 kcals
    • This will support = 4.6x10 7 persons/yr
    • = 46 million persons/yr
    • Total marine potential = 1 billion persons/yr
    • (20 times)
    • e) Total terrestrial potential = 1 billion persons/yr
    • f) Total potential for = 2 billion persons/yr
  • 26. Exploitation of Animal Bioresource What is Important ?
    • Knowledge of Knowledge of
    • Population Resource
    • Ecology Exploitation
    • Theory
  • 27. Causal Pathways to Regulate Animal Productivity
    • - Natality
    • - Mortality
    • - Individual growth rate
    • - Population dispersal
    • These are different in
    • different animals
  • 28. Population Growth in an Unlimited Environment dn --------- = r n dt This is a case of Exponential Growth Form
  • 29. Population Growth in a Limited Environment
    • dn
    • ---- = r N (K-N) with a limit at K
    • dt
    • This is a case of Sigmoid Growth Form
    • When N = K
    • dn
    • ---- = o
    • dt
    • Human population does not follow these patterns
  • 30. Effect of Age on Reproductive Rate of Bison 8 74 Aged 28 192 Adult 40 95 Young adult 37 120 4 52 92 3 36 160 2 % pregnant N Age (yrs)
  • 31. Effect of Age on Reproductive Rate of Herring 27931 8 25580 7 23102 6 20482 5 17679 4 14620 3 Mean Fecundity Age (yrs)
  • 32. Effect of Age on Growth Rate of Plaice -4.2 19 -3.0 17 5.5 15 8.1 13 2.7 11 11.4 9 12.7 7 13.6 5 22.1 3 15.4 2 Annual increase in wt (%) Age (yr)
  • 33. Effect of Age on Dispersal of South Bay Small Mouth Bass 0.142 7 0.105 6 0.088 5 0.075 4 0.050 3 0.014 2 Av. Distance Traveled / day (miles) ________________________ Age ________
  • 34. Effect of Population Density on Survival of Swiss Starling 0.0 28 10 0.0 28 9 0.8 120 8 1.5 651 7 1.7 3156 6 2.1 6175 5 2.1 3956 4 2.0 1278 3 1.8 328 2 % recovered after 3 months of flying No. of young ringed Clutch size
  • 35. Catastrophic Over- harvesting of Pelagic Fur Seal 0.64x10 3 24321 38 1997 0.51x10 3 43917 87 1996 0.93x10 3 56291 59 1995 1.53x10 3 55686 37 1994 Catch/ship Catch No. of vessels Year
  • 36. Effect of Over- exploitation on Adult Ratio of Guppy 0.86 0.24 0.19 75 151-172 0.84 0.27 0.20 50 121-148 0.85 0.56 0.54 10 79-118 0.84 0.49 0.46 25 40-76 Control Populations A B Exploitation rate (%) Period (weeks)
  • 37. No. of Bisons killed in America* *In 1883 Yellowstone park was established 3,000,000 1874 6,000,000 1873 7,000,000 1872 6,000,000 1871 5,000,000 1870 2,500,000 1869 1,500,000 1868 No. of bison Year
  • 38. No. of whales caught by different countries (1960-61)* 16000 *Total world quota 442 USA 515 Portugal 1083 Brazil 1262 Falk land Islands 1937 Australia 2212 Netherlands 3352 South Africa 3602 Peru 4551 UK 11184 USSR 12829 Norway 19891 Japan Whales caught Country
  • 39. Effect of Diseases on Abundance of Herron Larvae in the Western Gulf of St.Lawrence 1.5 1989 9.1 1988 32.5 1987 31.6 1986 407.8 1985 127.4 1984 855.9 1983 1897.8 1982 Catch/sampling Year
  • 40. Animal Bioresource A Renewable Crop
    • Scientific Non-scientific
    • Exploitation Exploitation
    • Sustainable Not sustainable
  • 41. Scientific Exploitation
    • Breeding stock Surplus stock
    • To conserve To exploit
  • 42. Surplus Stock
    • Depends on
    • 3 factors
    • 1.Protection of 2.Proper 3. Provide
    • Breeding Regulation of Biological
    • Stock Animal Harvest Needs
  • 43. Breeding Stock
    • 3 Enemies
    • Man Natural predators Diseases
    • Entertainment Take good amount , All types, have
    • Food Physical control on variable effects,
    • Fiber biological basis sometimes very
    • Enemies of severe, keep
    • agriculture watch & remedy
    • Put restrictions through legislations
  • 44.
    • Annual Harvest
    • Unregulated Regulated
    • Uneconomical on Profitable and
    • long term basis sustainable
  • 45.
    • Sustainable Harvest
    • 3 Factors
    • Exploitation Exploitation Exploitation Time Duration Extent
    • (out of ( short ) (Based on breeding population season ) build up characteristics)
  • 46.
    • Biological Needs
    • Food Shelter/Habitat Mate
    • For migratory Don’t disturb habitat Guarantee a population animals e.g. Bovine-Gregarious- e.g. over critical level birds, mammals Open habitat 5 pairs of Antilop
    • Don’t disturb Feline- solitary- 40 acres for Ruffed food chain Close habitat Grouse
  • 47. Illogical introduction of exotic species
    • 1. Lamprey in Great lakes
    • 2. Rabbits in Australia / France
    • 3. Tilapia in Udaipur lake
  • 48. Equilibrium Harvest and Sustainable Productivity
    • i) Follow ecological principles
    • ii) Aquatic ecosystem
    • Ce = KF - F 2
    • r
    • iii) Terrestrial ecosystem
    • dn
    • ---- = r N (K-N) with a limit at K
    • dt
  • 49. Climate Change
    • Long term significant change in expected pattern of
    • average weather of
    • a specific region
    • over a specified
    • period of time
  • 50. The diminishing Glaciers
  • 51. Polar Bear
  • 52. Mama! Is this our last laugh?
  • 53. Is this my food?
  • 54. Are you sure, this is the last snow fall?Japanees Macaque
  • 55. Is any place on earth left for new inhabitation?
  • 56. For how long Water will fall?
  • 57. The diminishing picturesque of Mountain terrains
  • 58. Will you stop destroying my bamboo forests ?
  • 59. Mama! Ground is not safe?
  • 60. Where are my salmons?
  • 61. Will the dawn bring some hope?
  • 62. Is there any deer left?
  • 63. Will mama bring food, don’t know?
  • 64. You don’t allow me even to dwell in water. Wait, I will teach you a lesson
  • 65. Can Termites alone fill my belly?
  • 66. Papa! How safe is our habitat?
  • 67. Do you hear my claps? Don’t spoil my habitat
  • 68. No coral reef, where to feed and breed?
  • 69. Man is coming, I need shelter
  • 70. Mr.! I had warned you that this is my food
  • 71. Chick proposes, Man disposes
  • 72. Hurray! This time I could save my life
  • 73. Still you are stronger
  • 74. Reasons of Climate Change
    • - Deforestation
    • - Burning fossil fuels
    • - Coal mines
    • - Methane production
    • - NO 2 production
    • - SO 2 production
    • All these lead directly or indirectly
    • to
    • “ Green House Effect”
  • 75. Effects on Terrestrial Ecosystems
    • - Increase in temperature 2.5 - 10 o F by 2100
    • - Erratic rains
    • - Increase of temperature by 3 o C will increase sea level by 1 m
    • - Terrestrial area will decrease.
    • - Ramifications many
    • - Erratic rains ---- more floods and more draughts--- less agricultural production .
  • 76. Consequences
    • - Decrease in Agricultural and natural plant production
    • - Temperature 3 o C increase means 15% decline in wheat and rice production alone
    • - More defoliation of forests
    • - Less quantity and quality of feed available to the animals
  • 77. Effect on Animal Health
    • - Poor nutrition
    • - Decreased immunity
    • - Effect on ecological distribution of vectors and diseases
    • - Appearance of new heat related diseases e.g. Anthrax, cholera, blue tongue virus, Tests fly, helminthes, snails, other foot and moth diseases etc.
    • - Their movement towards polar region .
  • 78. Effect on Animal Productivity
    • High temperature/high humidity
    • - Hyper- thermia in animals/heat stroke especially in bovids and aquatic animals
    • - Altered hormonal levels
    • - Low sperm production in males and low spawn motility
    • - Reduced conceptions
    • - High embryonic deaths
    • - Less feed intake
    • - Decreased milk production
    • - Decreased egg production
  • 79. Effects on Aquatic Ecosystems
    • - Increase in aquatic temperature
    • - Increase in aquatic pH
    • - Increase in aquatic eurtrophication
    • - Decrease in aquatic dissolved oxygen
    • - Decrease in aquatic faunal productivity
  • 80. Consequences
    • - Decreased Zooplankton survival
    • - Increased coral weathering
    • - Increased loss of land
    • - Decreased animal productivity
  • 81. Corrective Measures Against Climate Change
    • 1. Lower down CO 2 production
    • 2. Lower down methane production
    • 3. Lower down NO 2 / SO 2 production
  • 82. Lord Shiva will leave the mountains and cobra snake will be left alone?
  • 83. Barbeque doll will stand in the wilderness
  • 84. Man will plough the deserts with the help of dogs
  • 85.  
  • 86. Dogs will force you to mend your ways
  • 87. Thank You