Perception What enables you to recognize these people?
• Perception of the world relies on more than just the information arriving at sensory receptors• Ability to transform and interpret sensory information helps in recognition.• Something more is needed to make a stimulus meaningful and interesting.
Perception• The process by which we become aware of objects and events in the external world.• The process of making sense of the world around us.• Usually we spend more energy Where does the defending our own position than triangle begin? understanding others.
Sensation and Perception• Sensation is the immediate response of our sensory receptors to basic stimuli.• Perception is the process by which sensations are selected, organized, and interpreted.
Perceptual Process We receive external stimuli through our five senses
Influences on Perception • Physiological (biological, neurological) Influences • Senses, age, health, fatigue, hunger, biological cycles • Social Influences • Cultural Differences • Nonverbal behaviors, odors, speech, silence, space • Social Roles • Sex roles, gender roles, occupational roles • Self-Concept • Self-esteem, locus of control, attribution (attaching meaning to behavior)
Perceptual ProcessStage 1: Selection• Life is a process of selecting information/data• We are confronted with millions of pieces of stimuli each day• Sensation provides a first-pass representation of the basic facts of the visual field.
Stage 2: Perceptual Organization• To eliminate the chaos of life and help make sense of the world, we simplify and reduce our world• We put our ―selected‖ data in cognitive ―folders‖• An internal representation of an object is formed and a percept of the external stimulus is developed.• Estimates are based on mental computations that integrate your past knowledge with the present evidence received from your senses and with the stimulus within its perceptual context awareness.
Stage 3Interpretation/Comprehension• Next, we have to Evaluate the data in our folders. Identification and recognition assigns meaning to percepts.• What does the object look like?‘ changes to a question of identification — ‗‗What is this object?‘‘• — and to a question of recognition—‗‗What is the object‘s function?‘‘
The Proximal and Distal Stimulus• Retinal image is two-dimensional, whereas the environment is three- dimensional• Perception can be thought of as the process of determining the distal stimulus from information contained in the proximal stimulus. Interpreting retinal images. A. Physical object (distal stimulus) B. Optical image (proximal stimulus)
Reality, Ambiguity, and Illusions• Single image at the sensory level can result in multiple interpretations at the perceptual and identification levels.• Ambiguous figures have perceptual instability.• When your perceptual systems actually deceive you into experiencing a stimulus pattern in a manner that is demonstrably incorrect, you are experiencing an illusion.
Ambiguity in the perceptual organization stage Ambiguity in the recognition stage
Perception Theories• Helmholtz‘s Classical Theory -• By using prior knowledge of the environment, an observer makes hypotheses, or inferences, about the way things really are.• The Gestalt Approach -• Psychological phenomena could be understood only when viewed as organized, structured wholes and not when broken down into primitive perceptual elements.
• Gibson‘s Ecological Optics -• Instead of trying to understand perception as a result of an organism‘s structure, Gibson suggested that it could be better understood through an analysis of the immediately surrounding environment
Attention• Attention is the extent to which processing activity is devoted to a particular stimulus• Focus of attention determine the types o information most readily available to perceptual processes• Selective Attention• Goal directed selection – Choices that we make as a function of our own goals.• Stimulus Driven capture - When features of the stimuli capture attention, independent of goals of perceiver.