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Dissertation Submission
 

Dissertation Submission

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    Dissertation Submission Dissertation Submission Document Transcript

    • Planning Stages in Project Management: Development of the 100 - Bedded Hospital Construction Project in Hyderabad, India ABSTRACT This dissertation involving interviews with the 100 bedded hospital construction assesses the importance of Project Management in Hyderabad, India. Chapter 1 Introduces a general back ground of the construction literature by locality in building program. Chapter 2 Review the literature is related to (1) a brief section on the need for 100 beds hospital, (2) planning, (3) designing, (4) contracting, (5) construction. Chapter 3 Describes the research design and methodology used and the interview format. Chapter 4 Presents the results of data interpretation of the project under taken. Chapter 5 Presents the recommendations. Chapter 6 The final chapter discusses conclusions and offers suggestions for further research. Appendices present 1. The Interview Plan 2. The Interview questionnaire 3. Construction Map
    • Planning Stages in Project Management: Development of the 100 - Bedded Hospital Construction Project in Hyderabad, India A DISSERTATION Submitted to the Faculty of University of East London In partial fulfillments of the requirement for the degree of Masters in Project Management Business School By Chembolu Sridhar VV 2008 Dissertation Director: Dr. Brendan D’Cruz
    • Chembolu Sridhar V V University of East London 2008 University of East London – The Business School CERTIFICATE FOR APPROVING THE DISSERTATION We hereby approve the Dissertation Of Chembolu Sridhar V V Candidate for the Degree: Masters in Project Management University Register No: U0634537 Module Code: SMM 215 Module Name: Applied Dissertation / Project Dissertation Director: Dr. Brendan D’Cruz
    • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS First of all, I would like to thank my supervisor Dr Brendan De’Cruz for his continuous guidance and enthusiastic support of my work. I am also indebted to my advisors and my family who provided me with many valuable guidance and information for my research and for my life. All of you have given me great ideas and motivation to carry out the research and have made my work possible. I also would like to thank my previous organizations for giving me the possibility conducting interviews. During my work as a Masters education as student I have met many interesting and friendly individuals that contributed greatly to the quality of my work and that made it a very enjoyable experience. I realise that mentioning a few will leave out many Others, but I especially would like to thank Mahesh, Padma, for being such great and helpful people. I am grateful to my family and friends in India for their support and for encouraging me to do the best. Siri, Rohini, Babjee, Rama Krishna, Raj Kumar, Celine, Arun, Vardhan, Ravi Kumar, thank you for always being there for me. Finally, My parents (Smt. Krishna Veni Chembolu and Shri Narasimheswara Rao Chembolu) are wonderful, thank you for always supporting me and for all your sacrifices during my studies. You are truly the most important part of my life! 6th, May 2008 Chembolu Sridhar VV
    • ABSTRACT I TITLE SHEET II CERTIFICATION SHEET III TABLE OF CONTENTS IV ACKNOWLEDGMENTS V ABBERVIATIONS VI CHAPTER I 1 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 What is Project Management of a construction project? 2 1.2 Indian Construction Industry 3 1.3 Construction of a Hospital Building 5 1.4 Statement of the problem 5 1.5 Central Issue 7 CHAPTER II 8 2.0 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 8 2.1 Need for 100 Bedded Hospital 8 2.2.0 Planning 8 2.2.1 Determining the Safety Planning Process 10 2.3.0 Designing 12 2.3.1 Selecting an Architect 12 2.3.2 Selecting the Hospital Specification Writer 15 2.3.3 Developing Health care Specifications 16 2.3.4 Construction Options 18 2.3.5 Schematic Design Phase 19 2.3.6 Design Development Phase 20 2.3.7 Construction Documents 22 2.4.0 Contracting 23 2.4.1 Advertising and Bidding the project 23 2.4.2 Receiving Bids 24 2.4.3 Tabulating Bids 24 2.4.4 Analyzing Bids 24
    • 2.4.5 Awarding and Execution of Construction Contracts 25 2.5.0 Construction 26 2.5.1 Ground Breaking 26 2.5.2 Construction Administration 26 2.5.3 Change Orders 28 2.5.4 Payments 28 2.5.5 Building Activation 28 2.5.6 Punch list 29 CHAPTER-III 30 3.0 METHODOLOGY 30 3. 1 Statement of the Problem 30 3.2 Purpose of the Study 31 3.3 Hypothesis 31 3.4 Aims and Objectives of the Study 32 3.5 Research methodology 32 3.6 Sample composition 33 3.7 Area of the present study 33 3.8 Importance of the present study. 34 CHAPTER IV 35 4. 0 DATA INTERPRETATION AND ANALYSIS 35 4.1 STAGE-I 35 4.2 STAGE-II 40 4.3 STAGE-III 42 4.4 STAGE-IV 43 4.5 STAGE-V 46
    • CHAPTER V 48 5.0 KEY RECOMMENDATIONS 48 5.1 Architectural 48 5.2 Planning 48 5.3 Cost 48 5.4 Construction 49 5.5 Coordination 49 5.6 General 49 CHAPTER VI 51 6. 0 CONCLUSIONS 51 BIBLIOGRAPHY 53 APPENDIX 1 The Interview Plan 57 APPENDIX 2 The General Questionnaire 59 APPENDIX 3 Letter for the Interview 62 APPENDIX 4 Confirming Letter 63 APPENDIX 5 Construction map 64
    • ABBERVIATIONS APHMHDIC - Andhra Pradesh Health and Medical Housing and Infrastructure Development Corporation. MCH - Greater Municipal Corporation of Hyderabad BIM - Building Information Management NIDC - National Industrial Development Corporation
    • CHAPTER I 1.0 INTRODUCTION The beauty of a civilization is seen in its construction and architecture. Behind the sweeping domes to high rises that disappear in the clouds we see the hands of genius. Some of the spectacular structures like the Australian museum have become symbolic of that country and its culture. The developments that have taken place in the present days allow architects and engineers to continuously push forward, combining classy designs that can stand both the test of time and memorability. Building construction and its management has become a very important aspect in today’s globalised world. It is the process of adding structure to real property. Infrastructure is basically the combination of architecture, engineering and construction to develop into a purposeful building. Construction is defined ‘‘the use of multi-disciplinary performance models of design- construction projects, including the product (i.e. facilities), organization of the design-construction-operation team, and work processes, to support explicit and public business objectives. ’’ (Martin Fischer, 2001). Likewise a project is defined to have a definite start date and a completion date. — This is undertaken to create a matchless construction or design, this also brings about valuable change or added value. A project is a carefully defined set of activities that use resources like the people, budget, material, communication and motivation to achieve the project goals and objectives for the successful execution of the project. Planning is essential for the effective project management. Multitasking is the real feat of large-scale project in the field of construction. The project manages is the key person to manage the job supervised by project architect, construction engineer, design engineer and the construction manager. Construction Management refers either to the ‘‘study and practice of the managerial and technological aspects of the construction industry (including construction, construction science, construction management, and construction technology), or to
    • a business model where one party to a construction contract serves as a construction consultant, providing both design and construction advice. ’’ (Wikipedia) Construction project managers are involved in both public and private construction projects. These managers study the technological aspects of the construction industry. The various components like time, cost, people, material, conflicts are part of the project. The project management is iterative process of coordinating and managing the entire project to the completion stage. This involves the selection of the required people for the project like the architects, construction project managers, civil engineers and the contractors. Architects are involved in the design of the project and the construction project managers in the execution of the construction considers various environmental factors like the job, costing , safety, logistics of the material , construction delay caused due to public inconvenience and preparing tender documents. 1.1 What is Project Management of a construction project? The process of understanding the design and construction requires knowledge of modern management and technical skills. Time bound need to have a set of specific objectives and constraints. The process would differ according to the institutional arrangements. The management is common to any project in other areas of other speciality and technology domains. Design and construction processes are the two important factors with knowledge of modern management are required for managing the construction of projects. Construction projects have a specific set of objectives and constraints such as a required time frame for completion of the project. The domains with technology in the different sectors such as aerospace, energy developments and pharmaceutical have in common management practice. The art of project management is not the same general management. The area of expertise is famous for mission-oriented nature for the quicker and smooth delivery of the project. At last, a project management team is terminated after the mission is accomplished. According to the Project Management Institute, the discipline of project management can be defined as follows:
    • ‘‘Project management is the art of directing and coordinating human and material resources throughout the life of a project by using modern management techniques to achieve predetermined objectives of scope, cost, time, quality and participation satisfaction.’’ (http://www.ce.cmu.edu) In particular, a set of controlled operations subject to constraints of resources. The potential clashes and differences are scope, quality, time and the financial resources for any project. For any alternatives in a project, all the conflicts should be resolved prior to construction. The most important functions of project management for construction include the following: 1. ‘‘ Specification of project objectives and plans including delineation of scope, budgeting, scheduling, setting performance requirements, and selecting project participants. 2. Maximization of efficient resource utilization through procurement of labour, materials and equipment according to the prescribed schedule and plan. 3. Implementation of various operations through proper coordination and control of planning, design, estimating, contracting and construction in the entire process. 4. Development of effective communications and mechanisms for resolving conflicts among the various participants. ’’ (http://www.andrew.cmu.edu) 1.2 INDIAN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY The construction industry is the second largest industry in India after agriculture. It accounts for about 11% of India’s GDP. In the Indian economy building construction is the major driver as an activity. It is comprised of residential and non-residential building. Covering as it does such a wide spectrum, construction becomes the basic input for socio-economic development. (http://www.planningcommission.nic.in) The development of construction industry in India is similar to any other countries founded by Government and the industry was gradually taken over by the enterprises.
    • The Indian government laid foundation after the independence to make developments in the sectors like the industrial, infrastructural in the architectural, construction and in the engineering services. The development was high during the period 1950 to mid 60’s playing an active role in the development of construction by the state owned enterprises and supported by other government departments for the benefit of the country. Fifty percent of the total capital outlay was allotted to the civil works in the construction industry in the first five-year plan. National Industrial Development Corporation (NIDC) was the first professional consultancy company, was set up in the public sector in 1954 and at a later date in the public sector by Indian Railways Construction Limited, Engineers India Limited and in private sector Hindustan Construction Company and M N Dastur and Co. The objective and motive behind international consultancy in construction was to develop local design with the imported technology and skills set was encouraged by the government. That was first issued by government in the late 1960’s. The industry is extremely diverse, with employment in firms ranging from a few people in family owned enterprises to thousands in major firms. The construction and engineering industries have been among the most significant contributors to the growth in the Indian economy in recent years through employment, export and import. These sectors have undergone a massive transformation and have played a huge part in transforming India into an advanced nation at the cutting-edge of technological, engineering and manufacturing developments and change. With government investment pouring in to improve India’s infrastructure, the construction industry is also performing steadily despite a recent slow down according to (http://industry.gov.au). In the past 50 years the Indian construction industry has accounted for around 40 percent of the development investment. The livelihood of about 16 percent depends on the construction industry. Three crores of people are employed and assets worth over 20,000 crores of rupees were created in the Indian construction industry. Construction in India contributes more than 5 per cent to the nation’s GDP and capital formation of 87 percent. Total capital expenditure of state and central govt. will be touching Rs
    • 8,00,000 crores in 2011-12 from Rs. 1,43,587 crores(1999- 2000). (www. en.wikipedia.org) 1.3 CONSTRUCTION OF A HOSPITAL BUILDING Construction involves buildings meant for different purposes such as residential buildings, offices etc. One such purpose built construction is construction of a hospital. Hospitals are among the largest and most complex of all modern institutions. Unlike other organizations, which may be built in various ways, hospital building has lesser choices. The hospitals have complexity in design and of the functional relationships when compared to the other facilities. The category of zoning creates plans for the emerging issues to the requirements and to the latest trends for designing, planning, constructing and along with complexity in building the facility. 1.4 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The projects in construction are disreputable for headaches for all parties involved in the projects. Rarely the projects come in 'under budget' or 'on schedule' due to some serious thinking behind the scenario. Some other exception challenges come into picture when the construction project relates to a hospital. The issues like budget, financial constraints, the process of construction and the public view scrutinized by the board members and the political aspects of the hospital are quite severe. The hospitals have to face challenges which comply with regulations, standards and the myriad of statues. Unfortunately, the people following the trade like architects, construction managers and contractors are unfamiliar with legal requirements. The failure to comply could result in failure and incurring hefty fines. Even worse, a hospital’s failure to meet the terms in construction project may halt indefinitely or in with the substantial change orders issued to bring the project ‘up to code’.(Hospital Construction, 2004)
    • The objective of this study is to create a reliable technique for categorize adequate project management stages for construction project of a hospital in the construction industry. The construction projects have both a good phase and bad phase due to a number of problems and the situations. The significant part of the project is that the projects are getting into a bad shape due to the pressure and with out proper project management tools being implemented at the right time. Indian project in the construction are usually late, over budget and poor workmanship during the test of quality standards. Conflicts in the projects increase resulting in litigation and negotiation with no stability during the course of the project. Due to no proper control over the project the projects are delayed and these issues props up in the media like the speed of light. The Project management professionals are required to master the latest tools and techniques in the construction industry. The hypothesis of this learning is that the construction industry could advance its performance on all of the grounds talk about to the specifics of the project, if project management systems are created with proper project management which deals with cost, function, time, quality and conflict. If the construction industry does not improve, then it will be unsuccessful to take its place in the Indian market as a most important force in the coming years. Latest methods are essential which will allow the project team members, to identify objectives, and to choose priorities for control management and proper feedback. To accomplish this hard task, it is wished-for to establish a technique for modeling the relationships between project environments, control management, objectives and feedback in the construction project through out the life cycle of the project. The purpose is to confine and advice to clients of the construction industry, and their advice-giver, the project objectives are to be set. The project members should involve in the priorities of the activities with the help of the management procedures and the project management plan. The wide- ranging construction environment responds to cost-effective, physical and cultural issues. These projects are not a wit of the local consultants who are involved in design, planning, project viability, physical, materialistic and yet social. All the local people need to consider the various factors and also to have the basic understating of these requirements for any construction projects. Nevertheless, working in different countries and different regions of the country, the understanding of these above aspects become the success factors of the project. There is a lot of chance for the failure for all the
    • project members on the board who don't understand these issues without indulging into the project prior to proper planning. 1.5 CENTRAL ISSUE In the construction industry it is quite evident that the way the academics and the practitioners approach towards the management level of planning of the construction towards the minutest details in any stage of the project. Project management is the means to define the leader in the construction industry for the time, cost and quality. These are well defined and accepted to define the project constraints. These are the starting aspects in the project management of any project. According to the characteristics of the project the crucial success of the project is a project management plan. This research considers the fundamental concepts in the construction of a project the outfit this viewpoint. Based on the concept, the planned and evaluation of a project were examined during the project management stages. (Wikipedia.org)
    • CHAPTER II 2.0 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE This chapter examines the literature that addresses the present study on 100 Bedded hospital project planning and construction addresses the following areas: (1) A brief section on the need for 100 beds hospital, (2) planning, (3) designing, (4) contracting and (5) construction. 2.1 NEED FOR 100 BEDDED HOSPITAL The Infrastructure report India reported that construction works reached an all -time high over the past five years. Strong policies have been proposed and introduced by the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. To promote the growth in basic health care facilities projects and positively change the living conditions through construction of new hospitals. Recent initiatives include permission for 100% foreign-equity participation in the construction industry. The State Government of Andhra Pradesh has come up with an open advertisement in the news papers for the construction of hospital for the local community, (Cherukuri, 2002). This healthcare facilities project was proposed fifty miles quite away from the city Hyderabad. So, the need for construction of 100 Bedded hospital in the capital of Andhra Pradesh was important. Planning is the first and foremost thing for the construction of the project. 2.2.0 Planning Performing Community and 100 Bedded Hospital / Program Analysis According to the Guide for APHMHDIC and GMCH (2006), developing a community analysis is the first step in planning the 100 Beds Hospital. A systematic community analysis includes a documentation of its history, and assessment of its present status, and a projection of its future characteristics. In preparing the community analysis, an effort should be made to determine what citizens expect from the State Government of Andhra Pradesh and what health care facilities exist. The following are examples of community characteristics that may require examination.
    • 1. Population characteristics and density patterns. 2. Population changes due to in and out migration patterns and fluctuations in the birth rate. 3. Changes in land usage (residential, commercial and industrial) 4. Major highway and street networks and their probable future development 5. Changes in locality boundaries. 6. Identity of the clients. What are their potentials needs? The following steps were delineated for the planning process in construction. (Sunil, 2002) ‘‘1. Patient focused Hospital Architecture 2. Design Strategies to Assist Healing The architecture plan should offer humanistic patient services and a setting for efficient, technologically advanced facilities. 3. Physical Comfort such as Appropriate Lighting 4. Sound 5. Light/Color ’’ (http://www.indmedica.com) Guidelines for the Hospital and healthcare facilities state that the minimum guidelines set are the requirements of the program for the construction, space requirements, for clinical and support areas of hospitals, nursing homes, facilities, outpatient, and long-term care facilities. The guidelines to design a hospital project also requires minimum engineering design and services designs criteria for plumbing, medical gas, electrical, heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems. In addition to the information needed according to the hospital construction, Nick (Bontis, 2007) identified the need for collection of two additional pieces of information necessary to collect during the planning stage. ‘‘1. Administrative: What are the administration organization, practice and procedures currently employed? What are the training requirements and improvements to be carried over? 2. Financial: what is the financial condition? What funds are available to support needed programs and the construction of hospital? ’’
    • (Henry Sanoff, 1999) added community goals to the list. He suggested that local and regional planning agencies are excellent sources of information. ‘‘Identify the individuals or groups who should be involved in the participation activity being planned. ’’ Higher officials in the similar fields are of much help for better solutions for the planning. Chan APC et al (2004) added to the list of the questionnaire: ‘‘Through a postal questionnaire survey geared towards project participants with hands-on partnering experience, the opinions of various parties--clients, consultants, and contractors were sought and evaluated in relation to partnering success factors. ’’ 2.2.1 Determining the Safety Planning Process Reiling J (2006) wrote that: ‘‘The physical environment has a significant impact on health and safety; however, hospitals have not been designed with the explicit goal of enhancing patient safety through facility design. ’’ (http://www.newstjosephs.com) Considerable time and effort must be spent on the design and planning process. The health care leaders in the industry will make important contributions to the patient safety and to the community. ‘‘A bad location of the site selection could be harmful to their care’’, stated Cherukuri, (2004). Lack of adequate long range planning in the past has resulted in many poorly located hospital construction projects because of pressured site selection. Site selection of the future must consider all environmental issues. Cherukuri further emphasized that the construction of hospital that does not meet the hospital philosophy of the community or the demands of a changing environment leads to continuous attention to physical needs. A well conceived hospital building program will strengthen long- range financial planning and enable a community to attain the maximum financial return from the community.
    • Hospital Planning and Design (Brown, 2004): Described planning as a team process involving the board of hospital, hospital representatives, architects, engineers, special consultants, construction managers, project managers and contractors. Primary and secondary roles change throughout the project, allowing the professional with greatest expertise to lead specific phases of the project. The additions, deletions, and modifications should be an integral part of determining the hospital facility needs .According to Cook (2001), ‘‘Strategic planning is not just a ‘model’. That word can make a dynamic process nothing more than a dull uninspiring scheme which can be superimposed on any existing organization or circumstance. Strategic planning is an effective combination of both process and discipline which, if faithfully adhered to, produces a plan characterized by originality, vision and realism. The discipline includes the vital ingredients of the plan itself; the process is the organizational dynamics through which the vital ingredients are derived. Both the discipline and the process are aimed at total concentration of the organisation’s resources on mutually predetermined measurable outcomes. ’’ (p 86-93) The essence of a strategic plan is the identification of specific desired results to which all the effort and activity of the organization will be dedicated. And the success of any plan is to determine only by the results it produced. According to Cook (2001): ‘‘Strategic planning is not an edict, but a consensus plan derived through the application of the basic principles of the participative management. Specifically, (1) That those closet to the job know the job better than anyone else, (2) That strategic information flows downward and operational information flows upward, (3) The decisions should be made at the lowest appropriate level. ’’ (p 94-95). The components of the planning process are: 1. Selection of a facilitator 2. Setting the climate 3. Selection of the planning team 4. The actual planning session 5. Communication of the plan
    • 6. Board Approval 7. Implementation (p 99-172) The potential mass involvement of community members and hospital personnel in the various stages of strategic planning is designed to create a community/hospital based consensus on what is needed, how the additional revenue will be generated. The plan has board approval and a built-in renewal process that, if properly implemented, will guide a hospital through a construction and beyond. Once the planning process is established by the board, planned variations were noted .Space allotment and design, economical operation, and community support are the important features for the hospital project. The team will need to develop questions that can determine how input occurred that resulted in establishing the needs, wants, and desires of the ‘‘users’’ of the hospitals. 2.3.0 Designing Cherukuri (2002) presented concepts, features, and details contained in exemplary hospital design. 1. The Designers at exemplary hospitals have typically developed a very strong design of hospital plan with definite goals and objectives. 2. User friendly environment – creates a space where community people can feel at home and welcome. The use of natural material and colors and attention to the minutest details are all the hall marks of this type of hospital design. 3. Building serves as a source for learning about the structural mechanical and electrical systems used in the construction of the building. 4. Space to provide a variety of hospital settings, thus providing a variety of experiences. (p 33-34) 2.3.1 Selecting an Architect The employment of an architect by a board of health care is one of the most important responsibilities the board exercises in the development of hospital planning. Steps to be followed in selecting an architect, according to the publication. Tamus (2007) are: ‘‘1. Facilities planning and Construction will develop a Request for Qualification
    • (RFQ) which will describe the project, requirements for a response to the RFQ and evaluation criteria. The RFQ will be advertised on the Electronic State Business Daily. 2. Each team response to the RFQ will be required to present its qualifications and design approach for evaluation by the Selection Committee. 3. The Selection Committee members’ rankings are submitted to the Managing Director of Facilities planning and Construction for tabulation and determination of the Selection Committee’s recommended order of ranking. 4. The Managing Director then submits the ranked order along with an evaluation of the top three to five respondents and a description of the project to the Chancellor for approval and to the Board of Regents giving a seven (7) day notice to the Board to give exception to the ranked order. ’’ According to A Project Planning Guide for Planning Healthcare Facility owner (2007), the four processes for selecting an architect are design competition, direct appointment, comparative selection, and competitive bidding. Design competitions are time consuming, expensive, and rarely used for selecting an architect for healthcare facilities. Direct appointment is the simplest of the process. It most often occurs when prior knowledge of the architect’s work is known to the board and /or superintendent through previous projects. Comparative selection involves choosing from a group of candidates who have submitted to the owner information and materials concerning their qualification. A Project Planning Guide for Planning Healthcare Facility owners (2007) states that, when an architect is invited to express interest and submit qualifications, he should be given all pertinent information about the owner and the project. The minimum information to be supplied to prospective architects includes: 1. Project brief and the times schedule for the proposed project. 2. Description of the space planning of the healthcare facility. 3. Description of the financial resources available for the project, fee structure, and extent of services required.
    • Providing the architect with this information serves several functions and the planning process, it permits the architects to judge the nature of the project and provides the basic information on which architects may build data during the interview. Architects invited to submit their qualifications for consideration should be asked to provide the following information: 1. Name and address 2. Brief history of the firm, including date established type of work undertaken. 3. List of projects completed in the recent years showing type, size, cost, location and dates completed. 4. A portfolio of works 5. Statement policy in handling of the projects, engineering services, and other specialized services. Competitive bidding is often used to obtain work and products in other phases of the construction business. It is not an appropriate way to obtain professional services for construction. (You and Your Architect, 2005) published by the American Institutes of Architects, pointed out that different projects require different combinations of architectural services. Most projects require a set of basic services: preliminary (schematic) design, design development, preparation of construction documents (drawings, specifications, construction contract agreements) and administration of arguments between the user and the contractor. Additional services that the owner may wish to consider are: ‘‘1. Development of hospital facilities 2. Budgeting 3. Site utilization and utilities study 4. Planning and zoning specifications 5. Models and / or presentations 6. Landscaping and development. ’’ (p-20) In addition to the services provided, the architect’s contract needs to include adequate construction contract administration services (observing the construction work for conformance to drawings and specifications, and produce samples, review the results of construction tests and inspections, evaluating contractor’s requests for
    • payment, handling request for design changes during construction, and administrating the initiation of the project to the closure of the project to the owner). (http://www.aialongisland.com) The contract needs to spell out how disputes between the owner and architect will be settled (arbitration / mediation). Also include a post – construction evaluation of the building six months to a year after completion of the project is desirable. Duff (1999 ) stated that the architect’s role should include: 1. Ability to function as part of a complex design team . 2. Acting as a advisory member on all planning committees, as well as the preparation of the schematic design to the final drawings . 3. Responsibility also includes provisions of bid specifications, review the proposal , contract award recommendations , supervision at the site and administration of all contracts , approvals of all the contractors request and payouts and finally provision of a limited warranty after the occupancy . No design should begin without first being analyzed for its fitness into construction master plan. (Cherukuri, 2006) was convinced with the design of the building. Also provide guidelines to be followed during in the interview process. Included in the statement: ‘‘don’t ask the prospective architect to make sketches, predictions, or estimates. It’s premature at this point.’’ Duff (1999) also recommends employment of the architect in the early planning stages of the construction project. The community needs and desires of the user are to be considered to gain the best opportunity to provide the services. 2.3.2 Selecting the Hospital Specification Writer The healthcare specification writer’s role in the overall picture is more advisory than the role of either the architect or the user. Bogers (2008) described that this position is the excellent position for converting the hospital concepts into hospitals facilities on a proposed building for construction. The consultant can be of assistance to healthcare officials (user) in a number of ways: 1. To advise on the selection of the architect and assist in selecting the site.
    • 2. Review any hospital plans and make recommendations in light of development. 3. Review architectural plans and judge them in terms of their ability to satisfy hospital needs. (p 109 -116) According to A Project Planning Guide for Planning Healthcare Facility owners (2007), often the planner serves the planning team as a catalyst and, at times, a referee. Unlike many of the other planning professionals, the hospital planner path to the profession is less clearly defined by an academic background. Their backgrounds are diverse and include such fields as architecture, engineering or business administration. Colleges and universities employ planners, but also ask them to teach or perform other administrative services. According to (Duff ,1999), the planner needs to be articulate in verbal and written skills in order to communicate clearly to boards and committees the status of all phases in the planning and decision process. The two primary areas of planner’s responsibility are: 1. Determining the general requirements for the healthcare. 2. Determining the time schedules for the project. 2.3.3 Developing Health care Specifications According to Bogers (2008) ‘‘Healthcare specifications serve as the link between the construction and healthcare facilities”. The purpose of healthcare specifications is to describe clearly and concisely the various learning activities, their spatial requirements and special features of the hospital activities to be housed in the hospital. In A Project Planning Guide for Planning Healthcare Facility owners (2007) the hospital specifications document is described as a vehicle of communication between the hospital user and the architect. The planner identifies the basic needs; the architect bases his facility design on this information. The architect acts as a consultant to the professionals, board members, and healthcare consultants. The following is a summary of elements to be covered in the healthcare specifications. 1. How many people are to be served in the area? 2. What types of healthcare facilities are to take place in the space?
    • 3. Where should the space be located in relationship to the other facilities and purposes? 4. What are the electrical, plumbing, heating, ventilization, acoustical, and other specialized needs of the spaces? 5. What other specialized considerations need to be met to house the planned activities? (p-150) After answering these five questions , healthcare planners must look at the future planning needs in the areas of flexibility and functionality, aesthetics, economy,confort, health , and safety needs. Guidelines for Design and Construction of Health care facilities owners ( 2006) the general rules for hospital administrators to follow when determining the size of the site. 1. For hospitals, it is suggested that a minimum site of 25 acres to be provided . 2. After site has been selected , the board members must aquire site , if it is not already owned . Guidelines for Design and Construction of Health care facilities owners ( 2006) , there are five legally accepted methods . 1. Purchase from the owner – this is usually the most satisfactory method . 2. Accepting property as donation—acquisition of property by this method is desirable only if there are no reversion clauses ,and the site has a clear and unconditional title. 3. Condemnation of private property (with purchase at fair market value) 4. Receipt of surplus government property , or 5. Lease of government owned property. (p - 112) After the site has been selected , Guidelines for Design and Construction of Health care facilities owners ( 2006) indicates that a comprehensive survey needs to be conducted . The survey should provide at least the following information.: 1. Title of the survey , property location , certification and date . 2. Scale and compass orientation . 3. Names of abbuting property owners 4. Bench mark with assumed elevations 5. Names and locations of all existing road right-of-ways (p - 115)
    • Vince Galloro,(2005) recommended in addition to previouly mentioned concepts, ‘the biggest difference in how the competition to build in the high-growth areas will take shape’ for the construction of the hospitals . 2.3.4 Construction Options The design selected and the funds available will influence the architect as to the type of basic construction necessary to accomplish the goals set forth in the healthcare specifications. May (2006) reports, ‘‘at various times, attempted to solve some of these problems through the development of stock or model plans. Also mentions that It is important to recognize that our research was not intended to create a comprehensive catalog of all hospital construction in the CTS markets. ’’ Dailey (2004) states “In this environment, hospitals have both an obligation and an opportunity to subject their facility planning and building programs to a similar competitive analysis”. And also he describes that master plannig of the hospital to take place in the early stages of construction . The features to be included at the at the time of designing are design efficiency , operational impact , phasing sequence , project budget and cost and finally the schedules to complete the project on time . Alternetivily they shall to highlight the other best possible design options for construction with in the time frame of the project and bugdet . May (2006), describes that the construction projects should take care of the importance of the planning phase and services for the safety of the patients. Construction management contract (involved with construction supervision, scheduling,coordination of inspections , tests , permits), improved performance specifications of many subsystems components , required mandatory descriptions of methods the contractors planned to use to interface with other subsystems , identification of pre-fabrication systems , stress reactions for the work done with the flexible payment options and all the construction activities within the time frame are discussed by the (Anneliese,2006).
    • Budgeting is quicker and easier for the purpose of estimating the construction of the hospital project, provided the above discussed are properly documented and organised for the proposed project as discussed by (Anneliese, 2006). 2.3.5 Schematic Design Phase During the early stages of the schematic design phase , the architect explores alternative concepts for the building , using the knowledge and understanding gained from meeting with the board members and participating with the staff during the development of the healthcare specifications , and from the survey information provided for the site. ‘‘Asmussen believe that a healing architecture must be grounded in and express 7 fundamental principles: 1. Unity of form and function. 2. Polarity. 3. Metamorphosis, 4. Harmony with nature and site, 5. The living wall, 6. Color luminosity and color perspective, and 7. The dynamic equilibrium if spatial experiences. ’’ Were the basic seven prinicples adopted while designing the schematic design phase as discussed by Weber (1996). These designs need to go back to the planning committees or to the stake holders, administration and the board for their input. Involving the maximum number of people in the decision making process will allow the project to get more funds and will result in a better quality of the project. Also Terje Karlsen (2008) states, that ‘‘Trust is
    • built in a project-stakeholder relationship by improving communication skills, behaving reliably, showing commitment, being sincere, benevolent and competent, obtaining and acting with integrity, working towards reaching project milestones and establishing common goals.” The architect then is ready to prepare ‘preliminary estimates’ of construction and site development costs. When the schematic drawings are ready for approval , they will include a site plan, simple exterior and interior elevations , or perhaps a perspective rendering and the virtual models made with the help of softwares like Autocad , 3Dmax or Architectural Desktop. These drawings will not include any engineering drawings, but preliminary specifications in outline form should accompany and supplement the preliminary drawings in sufficient detail to make clear to the board members the type of construction, the interior and exterior finishes, the type of mechanical,electrical, and plumbing provisions which will be implemented . The amount of funds available may necessitate some considerable redesign of the approved design concept. 2.3.6 Design Development Phase After approval of the schematic design by the members of the board , the two to three months are very crucial for the entire project. The administrative team , staff of the project, community citizens and the hospital specification writer need to review every segment of architect’s progress, as the final design detail is being developed. These above groups need to visualise the end product of the hospital and the ease of maintenance. Once the design development phase is completed, board approved and bids accepted , any modification will require a change order. Change orders are costly and their administration is time consuming . Changing the construction techique and availability of new materials allows the architect’s freedom to be imaginative and creative. Aesthetics, color, and lighting are developed during the design development phase.
    • As far as the sterilisation conditions are concerned, The Engineer, (2007) has tried to depict its effect on learning process at the time of planning for the better design and healthy environment. Aleda (1995) considered the following overall factors at the timing of Planning (1) ‘‘Consideration of DRGs as products with a bill of resources structure that simultaneously incorporates both capacity and materials resources, (2)Implementation of a hospital-wide (versus a functional) planning and control system. ’’ In addition to the above planning standards and other considerations are determined by number of interrelated factors, including the following as discussed in the Guideline for Design and construction of Health Care Facilities owners (2007). 1. The number, size, and orientations of windows 2. The quality and extent of insulation 3. The quality of ceiling 4. The climate 5. Building orientation 6. The efficiency of mechanical and electrical systems (p -125). The architect/ engineer must consider all the above factors when designing a hospital to provide thermal comfort with respect to their cost (both initial and life) , their effect on energy use , and their impact on the perceptions and behaviours of the building users. This delicate task often involves balancing one need or priority against another and selecting the most advantageous alternative. HVAC, plumbing, electrical, fire security, building security, telephone cable, computer cables and networking cables etc. Shall be designed and organized to fit into the sandwich space (between ceiling tile and steel decking) in corridors. This eliminates if any minor problems occurs. ‘‘As patients enter the medical center, they're greeted with a warm welcome. Comfy lounge seating surrounds a large stone fireplace in the main lobby, which is adorned with soft, earthy-colored materials and finishes. The warm colors and stonework are carried throughout the building's main circulation corridor and into
    • the separate departments.’’ as imagined by the architect for the ultimate and final delivery of the project after completion: Barista, (2007). 2.3.7 Construction Documents The final component of the design development phase consists of complete and detailed drawings, specifications, and cost estimates. Apart from the construction documents all the risks involved at the time of planning and construction phase rewards are equally shared and are agreed (Jeff, 2008). ‘‘Instead of relying on traditional contracts and construction documents, the three firms and AutoDesk agreed to form a four-way partnership that stipulated they work together as a team and share all risks and rewards equally.’’ Jeff was also under the impression that during the design phase and before the construction stage of the project, if all the contract documents are correctly written by the specification writer the chances of risk involved towards the construction of the hospital is to the optimum level. ‘‘This contract makes us true partners where the incentives to profit are meeting benchmarks such as achieving LEED certification and not putting in change orders or increasing the entire price of the project. In this contract structure, the more accurately we share information, the more risk we're mitigating.’’ As all the professionals like of the all the professionals like the architects , engineers ,contractors and sub contractors have the risk free contracts for all the work packages towards the execution works of the hospital project with a final set of construction drawings for site development , structural , exterior , interior , plumbing , electrical (including fire alarm and security details), HVAC, civil and allied , and landscaping transforms the building into a good environmental hospital for the community and the decision making members of the board members. A copy of set of construction drawings are passed to the respective contractors. These approved documents are developed for the final drawings and the specifications in the respective work packages areas of expertise towards beginning of the contracting. Once the final prints and documents are approved, the copies may have to be approved by several other government agencies. Architects review the plans for fire and safety regulation, handicapped accessibility, earthquake protection, etc. According to (Bogers, 2008), ‘‘A good brief explains what the client needs, desires and expects from a project.’ Architects for the hospital project were supported
    • with the all the documents for the agencies to start the process of contracting with ‘signed-off’ documents in lieu of the board members. 2.4.0 Contracting Cost becomes definite and final only when the contractors state the sums for which they will do the work drawn and specified by architect, and the board of members accepts the offers of some of them. To prevent the suspicion of favoritism, contracting is conducted for competitive bids. The reasoning behind these competitive bidding is to obtain the economical cost and to benefit for the budget of the hospital project. These practices of contracting help the board members and they have implications towards the construction of the hospital with all the contractors and the sub-contractors. ‘‘The ideas proposed for ways to develop trust in construction projects as seen from project findings have important implications for not only the clients but also for the main contractors and sub-contractors.” (Malik, 2007) also describes that practice leads to the trust building, dependence, and open professional relationship. 2.4.1 Advertising and Bidding the project Carefully prepared bidding documents and detailed procedures are necessary to obtain all the potential benefits of the competitive bidding system. These kinds of bidding system were earlier benefited in a construction project as depicted by (Franco et al, 2007). ‘‘The proposed framework has been tested as a decision support tool on a power plant project. ’’ A brief description of the project, and any conditions which are attached to preparing, submitting and opening the bids are also included. In addition, the architect should prepare a list of firms to be invited to bid. Those potential bidders who are definitely interested in submitting bids on a project as a result of notification are welcomed. According to (Chan, et al, 2004), the success of winning is the team effort for bidding, ‘‘Partnering is perhaps one of the most innovative developments in delivering a project efficiently and reducing construction disputes. Partnering provides a sound basis for achieving a win-win situation and implementing synergistic teamwork.’’ According to them, the certain requirements were to be met for
    • successful takeover of the project by the contractors with goal in the construction of hospital. Usually, a deposit is charged to anyone requesting a set or sets of documents. A deposit helps limited number of sets of documents the architects must produce, it prevents most persons from requesting documents out of sheer curiosity, and it helps to guarantee the return of the documents. The deposits are usually refundable to contractors making a bonafide bid. In large projects, it may be advantageous to allow the contractor up to six weeks. There are literally hundreds of kinds of line items in the bill of quantities that must be computed and prices secured. Contractors also must get an estimated cost of labor for each of the trades involved; this also helps for the project officer in building the honest trust towards the final settlement of payments towards the payments at the time of payment cycle of the month for smooth running of the project as noticed by Malik (2007) 2.4.2 Receiving Bids The treasures or the project officer should place the date and time the bid arrived on the outside of the bid package. The package needs to be put aside until it is time to open all the bids. 2.4.3 Tabulating Bids Bids are opened, information pertaining to each bid is thoroughly checked, and All bids forms should be made available to the interested parties who care to examine. At least two ‘official’ tabulations should be made on the spot, and these should later be checked against each other and against the original bid proposals. No bids should be returned unopened to the sender for the any particular reason as stated by (Sang-Hoon, 2008). 2.4.4 Analyzing Bids Relating to the bids of the construction of building especially, the authorities must accept the ‘lowest and best’ bid. “The data analysis results show that individual change management practices elements have different levels of leverage in helping to control project change cost and that using change management practices is truly helpful in lowering the proportion of change cost in project actual cost.” Cost is most approachable aspects of
    • winning the project for the construction project management as stated by (Sang-Hoon, 2008). Sang-Hoon (2008) states that the data analysis is the very crucial for several base bids are for project to be on control. Necessary things required for determining the lowest bid and best bid on a particular bid returns that at least the following questions to be answered: 1. Requirements for bidding been met? 2. Bid received on time? 3. Is the required bid bond included in the correct amount? 4. Is the proposal in proper form? 5. Are requested bids on alternatives included? 6. Does he have access to the necessary equipment? 2.4.5 Awarding and Execution of Construction Contracts According to the Guidelines for Design and Construction of Health care facilities owners (2006), after the bids have been received and examined, contract awards are approved by a resoultion pass by the board members. Board members are required to review the contracts prior to the board members approval . The bill of quantities or specification cannot be changed prior to rebidding . Negotiations are permissible to clarify or correct the agreement. Any new works are rebid legally for any change order in the contract. Architects intiates the change order for any change of contract. All the change orders are to be approved by the members of the board . The Guidelines for Design and Construction of Health care facilities owners (2006) also stated that contractors common practice is , either with the bid or following the bid opening, to submit to the architect a list of subcontractors they propose to employ on the project. The progress schedule of works for the project is the contractor’s responsiblility . The architect is responsible for ensuring that the general contractor holds regular meetings of the prime contractor and subcontractors . The design and construction issues are to be addressed to the architect at regular intervals for a better quality of the project. Job related meetings are the key to success on the originally proposed schedule.
    • 2.5.0 Construction 2.5.1 Ground Breaking Shortly after the board has awarded the prime contracts, but prior to the actual construction beginning, the board will want to hold a ground breaking ceremony. Normally, key individuals will get short speeches thanking the individuals and groups that have worked hard throughout the planning and design process. The following are just a few of the individuals who can be invited: Board members (present and past), administrators of the local community , elected officials , certified and classified staff , and members of all ad hoc committees. In addition to these individuals, the architect and prime contractors need to participate. A ground breaking exercise can be used for different purposes, such as public relations, thanking the individuals working on the project, developing the anticipation and excitement of the project, and serves as a tangible signal to begin the construction phase. Normally, after the speeches and introduction, individuals will be invited to use a spade to turn a symbolic shovelful of dirt. Drawing, models, and 3d rendered images are displayed on the canvas. A ground breaking ceremony is an excellent vehicle to earn community acceptance of the total building project. 2.5.2 Construction Administration Traditionally, the architect or an employee of the architect is responsible and observes the project on-site to protect the owner against the defects and deficiencies in the contractor’s work. In theory, the architect turns the contract document over to the contractor, who in turn, performs in accordance with these documents and claims completion of the work. In practice, however, the best inspection is continuous inspection of the work on the site. According to the AIA contract documents, the architect is not responsible for exhaustive or continuous construction administration.
    • The Guidelines for Design and Construction of Health care facilities owners (2006) writes that the best way for a board to ensure that the necessary construction administration occurs is to pay the salary of a full-time on-site representative from the architects firm to perform these functions. If this is not acceptable, the board can hire a clerk of works. A clerk of works ensures that the owner has a construction administrator on the premise at the proper times and that the inspections are performed in a manner that confirms the reported results. He supplements, rather than replaces, the work of architect’s employees. Nirmal et al, (2006) wrote, “Specialists construction professionals on the site play a vital role in the absence of the Architect on-site .The study provides field level experiences from which the inexperience construction site professionals could learn the instances of conflicts and not repeat the mistakes in their project.’’ And also The construction professionals can be on the board at any number of points in planning /construction process. It is important that the work of the architect should not be taken over by the construction manager and vice versa. Iyer and Jha(2005) wrote, “Critical success factors obtained by the analyses are: project manager's competence; top management support.”Also he is under the impression that the coordination between the construction project managers for the site related activities plays a vital role. The managers were involved in the construction quality , reduction in costs, and an acceleration of construction schedule of the hospital projects decision to choose construction management over the general contractor approach . (Linda, 2008) supported the argument for design and construction management with the following , “ The reason for using an integrated design-build delivery method, in my mind, is that the client can benefit from a side-by-side working process involving the design and construction teams, engineers, property management, energy-analysis folks, and subcontractors.” Also he is under the impessrion that various other factors of the construction activities like cost efficiency, multiple low bids watch dog and claim reduction and time savings , The construction project managers will be on the site daily at varying times , observing , taking notes , and even photographing the progress of works on regular basis. These individuals during the inspections must be familiar with established
    • construction practices and also required to interpret the architectural drawings and the specification documents. 2.5.3 Change Orders Change orders can occur if the architect or engineer omitted the approved design factor(s) that requires. Often, the owner initiates a change to the originals plans. (Sang- Hoon, 2008) pointed that change orders are expensive, because the contractor normally calculates at least a 15 percent overheads charge and a 10 percent profit charge. Often, a prime contractor will tack on a 5 percent or more profit charge to the cost of their subcontractors. Chen-Yu (2007) identifies the root causes for the project to get into trouble with change orders. “Three parameters, including ungovernable uncertainty, degree of lock-in and amount of money under dispute, are identified.” Also, under the impression that protective contracts of the payments were not to be stretched for the benefit of the project 2.5.4 Payments Payments to contractors are commonly made on a monthly basis .These payments are the crucial part of the projects to run smoothly. Francis (2008) suggested adopting for risk free method for the progress of the project. “Bayesian analysis can be applied to construction contract risks, as part of a more systematic management of contract risks, to achieve better rigour in risk analyses.” If the payments are approved by the board members, the cheque is issued by the treasurer. There is a common practice to retain little percentages of request in each cheque until the contractor has completed the project. 2.5.5 Building Activation Building Activation refers to that transition period when the construction has or is nearing completion, but prior to the building being placed into performing service to the users. During this period, The Guidelines for Design and Construction of Health care facilities owners (2006), points out that individual pieces of equipment, as well as entire system, are tested to make sure that they are working as per the design and
    • specifications intended.In addition, various systems of the building, such as the mechanical, electrical, support laboratory rooms are checked to assure that they function together. Heating , cooling and plumbing systems should be drained and throughly cleaned after activation, then refilled for operational use. 2.5.6 Punch list According to Sang-Hoon (2008), when a contractor determines that his portion of the project is completed, he notifies the architect and the construction project managers in writing. All the items that do not pass the inspection are placed on a list called ‘snag list’. The contractor then uses this list to find and correct the deficiencies. Once all the items have been completed and corrected to the standards of architect, construction project manager and the board members, the contractor has completed his allotted work.
    • CHAPTER-III 3.0 METHODOLOGY This chapter examines the approach of the present study on Planning Stages in Project Management : Development of the 100 – Bedded Hospital Construction Project. The following topics are briefly discussed 1. Statement of the problem 2. Purpose of the study 3. Hypothesis 4. Aims and Objectives of the study 5. Research methodology 6. Sample Collection 7. Area of the Present Study 8. Importance of the Present study. 3. 1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM As stated in the earlier chapter, in the construction projects unique challenges arise when the construction project relates to a hospital. The purpose of this study is to produce a reliable technique for identifying the adequate project management stages of the construction project of a hospital, in order to have a proper project management plan during different stages of the project life cycle in the 100 Bedded Hospital as well as in any construction industry. This study helps all the new comers in the construction industry on the project and also the existing personnel working on the construction project, to have a clear understanding of the construction stages already completed, any backlogs, actual position of present stage and balance stages to be completed. Projects in India are frequently late: This is due to improper budget, poor workmanship during the formation of construction site, materials. Conflicts are in every project and at different stages, resulting in litigation and arbitration among the people working in the project with discouraging regularity. The aesthetics of the unfinished construction environment are subjected to immense dissatisfaction in the popular press in India, and
    • this is often reinforced by more publicity in the media. This reflects lack of control over the management of the project and from the application of outdated ideas in the construction industry. 3. 2 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY This study considers the present state of affairs in 'Project Management and Construction'. It discusses the reasons for the lack of advancement in the field and proposes measures, which can be taken to improve upon the situation. It suggests that key changes in approach are necessary. The configuration of comprehensive remains dedicated to the development of promotion, coordination and dissemination of works in the area of construction. This study considers the ‘Planning Stages in Project Management: Development of the 100 Bedded Hospital Construction Project in Hyderabad, India’. It discusses the various stages of the 100 Bedded hospital project through out the life cycle of the project. Project Management plan and feedback are the priorities and methods needed to identify the objectives for the project team members. To achieve this, the present study has been under taken. It is also intended to study the relationships with in the project life cycle, and to come up with a solution in the field of construction project environment. 3. 3 HYPOTHESIS The hypothesis of this study is that the construction industry could improve its performance on all of the grounds mentioned, if project management stages are created to the required level of detail, of what and when activities have to take place with proper project management which address time, cost, function, quality, resources and thus resolving conflict.
    • 3. 4 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 1) AIMS The aim of this study is to highlight a workflow and evolve the frame work of project management in the construction industry. It also includes mixture of activities at different stages of the project in terms of project management at site. The research aims to provide a model that can be practically applied to different types of construction projects. Keeping in view the aim of this study the following objectives have been derived. 2) OBJECTIVES • To study the nature of construction-related project management, planning, processes and its and consequences on the life cycle of the project. • To study step-by-step project management stages of the construction process, such as planning, design, management, finance, costs, health and safety, etc. • To study how the effective the project management plan can be effectively implemented at different stages of the workflow during project life cycle. 3. 5 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The research methodology selected for project management project of this construction project comprised comprehensive literature review, a postal questionnaire to the construction industry practitioners and a 90-minute telephonic interview and analysis of the data collected. The questionnaire consisted of two sections: 1. Section I - Gathered general information about the respondents. 2. Section II -Gathered specific questionnaire specifically for specialists or experts associated with this hospital construction project. The questionnaires were sent to five construction practitioners involved in the project by post. All respondents were contacted beforehand to make sure that they were familiar with objective of this study and asked if they were willing to join this study to
    • give their feedback about the activity that took place during the time of this project execution. After a week of waiting period, their feedbacks were received. 3. 6 SAMPLE COMPOSITION The respondents were all industry practitioners that included: 1. Project Architects, 2. Document Controller, 3. Construction Project Manager 4. Contractors and 5. Board Members (i.e. managing director and senior associate). They all had worked and had been involved during the initial stage of the project and up to the closure of this particular project. It should be noted that the sample size is relatively small in this survey. 3. 7 AREA OF THE PRESENT STUDY Healthcare is the sunrise sector globally especially in a country like India with ever increasing population. The Indian governments in liaison with large corporate groups are pumping crores of rupees into hospital constructions that are being promoted aggressively in every corner of the country. As part of its strategic plans the ‘PATNALA ASSOCIATES’ initiated the establishment of a multi-specialty government hospital in Hyderabad and constructed 100-bedded hospital at Hyderabad, India, beginning in the 2000 to 2004 ending. Project implementation, which was commenced, was based on designs drawn up by Project Architect at Patnala Associates. Designed strictly in accordance with the architectural principles and to the regulations of APH&MRIC, the hospital accommodates all the major medical disciplines supported by the latest generation radiology and imaging equipment. This 2-storeyed and 67000 sqft state-of-the-art multi-specialty tertiary-care facility is designed to house 100 in- patient beds, 5 Operation Theatres and supported by other facility rooms etc. Following
    • an in-depth analysis of the user scenario, the design team submitted a schematic plan and the structure plan for the development of the entire facility. Based on designs submitted by Patnala Associate design team, the construction activities of the project and project management at the site level had been carried out. This Hospital had been constructed on a generous 25-acre, gently undulating site. The architecture of the building adopted cost-effective design technology, which was aimed at economizing on the operational expenses of the hospital systems and in response to the local building regulations requirements that all building reflect the traditional architectural style of the region. The design of the proposed hospital building is a blend of local architecture. Having looked into the complexities of constructing a hospital and its management and having myself involved in one of the projects of hospital construction, it has inspired me to undertake this study. This study aims to highlight different common management plans in the construction of a hospital building. 3. 8 IMPORTANCE OF THE PRESENT STUDY This study presents an approach to the integration of site-related activities into the planning and scheduling of the entire construction project. The study starts by briefly studying some common project management methods used by construction firms and architectural firms in the planning and scheduling of site activities by questionnaire, interviews and observation. This could help the construction projects to end successfully. Based on the feedback and results gathered, a virtual-reality-based model is proposed and presented at the end of the appendix. The proposed model uses both knowledge-based simulation of the work progress of any building construction, logical interpretations and visualization capabilities, to achieve the desired goal.
    • CHAPTER IV 4.0 DATA INTERPRETATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE PRESENT STUDY UNDERRTAKEN In this chapter, the findings are done according to the planning stages of the project as developed into reality. The questionnaires were initially sent before the telephonic interviews are conducted. This approach for quicker feed back had been taken with the project personnel who were most significant people involved in the project from initiation stage of the project to the closure of the project. They were 1. Project Architect, 2. Document Controller, 3. Construction Project Manager 4. Contractor and 5. Board members representing the Government of India. The significant activities of the project were gathered according to the developmental project stages. The various stages identified are STAGE-I - BID STAGE, STAGE-II - FINAL BID STAGE, STAGE-III - PRE CONTRACT STAGE, STAGE-IV - SITE STAGE, STAGE-V - POST CONTRACT TEAM The data gathered from the above stated prominent personnel had been analysed and interpreted in the following manner. 4.1 STAGE-I BID STAGE In a project, during this stage of the project it is very essential and important to recognise the close connection between architectural design and construction. In a large picture, design is a process of creating the representation of a new facility, usually represented in the form of detailed architectural construction plans during this stage and
    • specifications. Construction management planning is a process of identifying activities, work break down structure and resources required to make the final design into physical reality. Accordingly, Architects and engineers imagine and design to construct the facility and the Construction project managers to implement on the site during the construction of the project. In both design and construction stages of the project, a number of different relational tasks have to be preformed according to the precedence during the construction project among different work packages. During this stage, keeping this in mind the maximum numbers of risks have to be identified and avoided at the early stage of the project. For common projects of moderate size and complexity in the design and construction, the owner often makes use of a designer. The Project Architect prepares the detailed plans, elevations, sections, necessary detailed drawings and specifications of the project for the constructor to build the facility. The Project Architect plays significant role in the absence of the owner to administer the project implementation during construction. And for construction of the new facility, the general contractor is responsible, though the work is taken over by the sub contractor for the project. Despite the fact that, the conceptual design proposals may be formal or informal and can be recognized by a series of actions involved in the design formulation, design data analysis, date search, decision making, specification writing, and finally modification. On the other hand, in the first instance of the development of the facility, these actions are extremely interactive to the functional needs. Many iterations and changes of design are likely to happen for the basic functional requirements for simplicity and comfort, design concepts for appealing and financial constraints of the project. The analytical tools applied to the solution for the problem of design and construct at this stage may be much unfinished during the later part of the project. During the project of the present study the concerned important personnel have stated and identified the following activities. A) Architectural Issue during the project implementation B) Planning and specification documents C) Payment Cycle D) Safety Plan
    • E) Coordination A) Architectural Issues 1. According to the data gathered from the Project Architect, during the designing stage of the project, some of the areas like the nurse stations, wards and physiotherapy rooms in the floor plan have been changed three times, after the initial plan was approved for construction. This was due to the delay of project specific requirements given later by the Board members to the Project Architect to incorporate the details of the specification not given in the tender stage. Thee delay in the approval of the project design by the Board members and delayed the supplying some of the drawings are required with specifications had caused the delay of the project to begin on time. This was identified by the Project Architect. 2. During this phase, developing the required set of construction drawings took considerable amount of time to prepare than the scheduled plan; this had implications at the bidding stage of the project. ‘This has resulted in the change of time frame schedule of the project time lines’. This issue was identified by the Project Architect. This was due to lack of sufficient man power on the proposed project. 3. Project Architect had proposed specifications of material for the floorings at various places on the floor according to the respective rooms for the project. As the contractor could not get the required material at the site on time, there were some delays. This issue was identified by the Project Architect. This was due to the supply chain which could not supply the required material to the contractor. B) Planning and specification documents The process of development of a construction plan is exceptionally similar to the development of a good facility design by the Project Architects and contractor from project to project. The project planner at this point of time is required to prepare the budget sheets and the dependability’s of different options while at the same time underwrite technical feasibility for the proposed project. Construction planning during the execution is more difficult in so many ways, since the building process is very dynamic, as the site progresses as quickly, the physical appearance of the facility
    • changes over time as construction progress day by day and hour by hour. On the other hand, on the project to project basis the construction operations tend to be to the expected standards, similarly structural and foundation details significantly differ from the design point of view. For examining the alternatives the design and construction can start at the same time, which would be useful for examining the alternatives paralleled to the value engineering purpose. The review process with designs can be carried from planning to design. 1. During the Planning and Development phase of this project, planning and designing, specification documents began to define user requirements for better building performance. When the entire project delivery process was documented in a consistent manner on the paper, a sequential perspective was created that explained the iterative process of determining the agreed-to project requirements at each step of the development process. It was identified by all three team members of the requirement i.e. Project Architects, Construction Project Managers and Contractors that relevant planning and specification documents and necessary information during the bid stage of the work packages were provided to all the contractors involved in the project. 2. Administration and financial staff The administration and financial staff was an outside controlling body of this project. They were part of Board members department and responsible for the documentation works and cost control management of the project. It was found that administration and financial staff was controlled by the Board members. The Construction Project Managers of the project are guided by the Board members, that the funds and resources could be increased on the project to complete the project within the permitted budget. This issue was identified by the construction project managers. This was due to project setup of internal communication at the beginning of the project. C) Payment Cycle 1. The payment cycles were under the control of the administration and financial department. It was identified that there were irregular payment cycles in this project. Contractors did not get the payments on time during the progress of work.
    • This is one of the critical issues of the project, which affected the work. This was identified by the Document controller of the project that no proper payment cycles were defined in the earlier stages of the project. Two payments cycles could be necessary for the smooth running of the project of this size. D) Safety Plan Safety is important to everyone. Job site safety is the responsibility of the contractor. Health and safety is prepared by construction project managers before the contractors are on the board to manage during the construction phase. The principal contractor is then required to develop the health and safety plan before work starts on site and keep it up to date throughout the construction phase. 1. During the construction of this project, two site accidents took place where two labors died during the excavation phase of construction. It was stated by the construction project manager on the site that no safety plan and procedures were adopted before the accident occurred at the time of construction. 2. Two fire accidents occurred during the construction stage of this project as stated by the contractor’s subcontractor. The monitoring of the subcontracts standards was not done prior to work commenced on the construction site by the contractors. It was also stated and identified by Document controller and contractor that no insurance system was existing for some of the work packages provided by the sub contractor. These incidents delayed and affected the schedule of the project as identified by construction project manager and also stopped the labor force to work on the project for some duration, till the subcontractors raised the quality standards. E) Coordination Design Project Managers and Construction Group personnel work closely from project initiation through final inspection. Coordination between the staffs of these sections of the department is key to successful project completion. 1. During the execution stage of the project, it was identified that the coordination between the work package contractors are poor at the time of execution on the site related activities by different contractors. It was found that by the
    • construction project managers that contractors, project managers were not experienced persons and lacked the knowledge to coordinate with other contractors; project managers have hindered the progress of work on the site. This aspect hindered the progress of the site. This was identified by the construction project managers of the project and Project Architect. 4.2 STAGE –II FINAL BID STAGE This is the final stage of the bidding process. During construction the central of focus is to predict the cost estimating of any changes that are planned. There are many reasons for the changes to happen like the drawing errors, code issues, contractual terms and user generated changes. At the final bid stage the drawing to one hundred percent complete by the architects for the project. The estimate for the changes is often adjusted to account of the design changes for the final estimate. This is for the out of scope of works for the project at the time of bid. During the project of the present study, the concerned important personnel have stated and identified the following activities. A) Cost Management B) Value engineering C) Waste management D) Risk Register A) Cost Management The Board members directed certain modifications during this stage of the project. The settlement of these modifications not only increased the cost and time but also directly affected the work pattern. It had implications on the unchanged work. It was stated by the Project Architect that the impact portions on unchanged work of a modification were very difficult to determine the impact portions of unchanged work modifications for construction project managers and contractors. The construction project managers pointed that the scope of impact was very broad, intangible, and susceptible to different situations.
    • B) Value engineering Value engineering process may be mostly defined as an organized approach during the course of the project in identifying unnecessary costs in design and construction and in requesting or proposing alternative design or construction technology to reduce costs without sacrificing quality or performance requirements of the project. It usually involves the steps of gathering relevant information based on the study and existing data, searching for creative ideas in the similar field, evaluating the capable alternatives, and proposing a more cost effective alternative for the design and construction. Value engineering approach is typically applied at the beginning of the construction phase of the project life cycle. 1. In this project, value engineering workshop was conducted by the Board members. It was stated that Board members wanted the Project Architect or consultants to develop and coordinate value- engineering tasks that identified potential cost savings for the project. Cost savings that have more of an impact on the overall project budget or schedule typically were identified during this phase when the appropriate value engineering systems. As part of the finances of the project, corruption on a construction project increased projected costs; It was identified by the Document controller that it had an adverse effect towards the advancement of this project. C) Waste management: The presence of waste deposits on a potential construction site can have substantial impacts on the surrounding area. Waste management is the responsibility to ensure that all waste produced during the construction works for the project are handled, stored and disposed of in accordance with good waste management practices, regulations and requirements. Contractor has to develop a site waste management plan with recommended mitigation measures before the start of the construction phase. 1. Hazards associated with health-care waste management and shortcomings were identified during this phase of the project by Board members. It was identified by Board members that the disposing system did not hold good for the
    • user and local community due to lack of thought process at the time of design phase of the project. This has resulted in creating the environmental pollution to the community. It was identified by Board members that the biomedical wastes produced by the hospital did not have any definite action plan for expansions within the project. D) Risk Register The Risk register is maintained in relation to a specific activity or plan of action. This register holds all the lists, all the identified risks and the results of their analysis and evaluation for the purpose of the project. The risk register is put in place during the start up of the project. This is to readily record project risks, including any prominent risks in the Project Brief. It is an important component of the project risk management framework in which the problems may arise during the project and affect adversely the delivery of the project. Also the anticipated benefits and actions are captured to decrease the probability and the impact of the particular risk. 1. Risk register for this project was developed in the initial stage itself during this stage of the project. It was said that all issues and risks were raised by anyone involved in the project throughout its lifecycle and were to be recorded regularly. Unfortunately, it was identified that it was not updated on a regular basis at regular intervals. This issue was identified by the Board members with utter surprise. 4.3 STAGE-III PRE CONTRACT STAGE Pre contract stage is the stage to explain the site staff in detail the scope of works that have to be carried or already carried out by their employer and seniors, before the contract is awarded of the bidding process. During the project of the present study, the concerned important personnel have stated and identified the following activities. A) Change-order B) Progress meetings
    • A) Change-order 1. During execution of the project, the tasks on the site activities related- Architectural Issues were required approvals from the board members. It was identified by the construction project managers that the decisions to be given by the board members took more than the required numbers of days to give approval of change order for the work to commence on the site. B) Progress meetings 1. Monitoring services were done by the construction project managers on the site and the appointed site Project Architect during project execution and implementation stages ensures that the project progress was in accordance with the approved plan, both in physical and financial terms. This was measured against the planned verses actual by software like MS – Project. The above two issues were identified by the construction project managers that these were achieved through network techniques based on the project specific information system, project communication plan, weekly progress review meetings, safety assurance requirements, quality assurance requirements policies and procedures. 4.4 STAGE-IV SITE STAGE The general information about the construction site is usually available at the planning stage of a project, it is significant for the all the team members like architects, construction manager as well as the contractor to visit the site. All the team members involved on the project would be benefited on examining the topography of the site for the facility. A bad design layout can cause construction problems such as inadequate space for staging, limited access for labour and material and for the construction methods. Design and construction inputs are important in the layout of the facility. The construction manager and the contractor visit the site to gain some insight in preparing or evaluating the bid package for the project. They can also observe any interference of existing facilities with construction and develop a plan for site security during construction.
    • During the project of the present study, the concerned important personnel have stated and identified the following activities. A) Construction Site Environment B) Electrical and Mechanical C) Construction Project Manager D) Payments E) Interpersonal Relations A) Construction Site Environment 1. At the time of construction stage, new construction project managers were constantly replaced on the site because of either internal problems or politics. These new recruits of the project took much time to understand the project specification and the drawings. And also the pressure of work on the site resulted delay on the construction schedule of activities. This was identified by Project Architects. B) Electrical and Mechanical 1. During the site stage of the project of the execution, the execution at the site level as per the coordination drawings became a problem for electrical and mechanical contractors and this had impact on the proceedings. This was identified by the construction project managers. This was due to the fact that coordination drawings were not developed during the previous stage of the project. 2. During this phase of the project, the construction project managers found that many modifications of the work plan changed when superimposed upon the original drawings. The construction project managers at the site modified the specifications schedule in such a manner to minimize delay under the given requirements. It was also identified that the revised drawings and specifications were thoroughly reviewed in relation to the existing job plan on the site with the specific contractors of the project to meet the dead lines of the project and the critical path. C) Construction Project manager The construction project manager is the most important and vital person for the success or failure of a project. The project is controlled by the project manager in the departments like planning, organizing and controlling of the project. At the same time,
    • the project managers are entertained to authority and take control to manage and organize the resources required for the project and to complete. 1. In the present project, the construction project managers played an important role during this stage of development of the construction. Retaining the employees with good knowledge has costed additional unexpected costs in the project. During this phase of the project, the human resources department intended to appoint technically qualified staff for easy execution of the project, familiar with all the work packages to coordinate on the site for easy execution of purpose, as there were lots of opportunities in the construction industry, it was stated by the human resources department that the many construction project managers have moved out of the project for their own individual career growth. D) Payments 1. During this stage of the project, it was identified that payment claims had been rejected or at least diluted by the contractor causing a delay in the project, it was identified by Document controller that there were numerous other combined issues which resulted in delays during the execution stage of project as discussed earlier with payment cycles . E) Interpersonal Relations The successful project manager must be a proactive leader, the project management team members are required to work together, assembled from different organization to work on the proposed project. There may be miscommunications among the team members with regard to the roles and responsibilities in the project team. These troubles of the team members must be resolved quickly in order to develop an effective functioning team. The project team contributors are supposed to have good interpersonal skills and should over -come serious communication issues at the earliest stage. The problems between the team members should be resolved and dealt with immediately. The ultimate results are maximized about controlling the groups and individuals when things go miserably on the wrong side of the project and lose control. These are the actions to be determined the project organization. 1. During this stage of the present project, the coordination among the work package contractors and managers was very poor, There were numerous site related activities that required coordination by the contractors and the construction project
    • managers. Some of the construction project managers as well as the contractors had little knowledge or no site related experience, lack of proper communication and not having good knowledge of the drawings had led to minor conflicts on the site. This was identified by the Construction Project manager. 4.4 STAGE-V POST CONTRACT STAGE Post Contract Stage is the stage that provides the means to ensure that the contract which was signed today at the end of the project would still represent value for money of the project. During the project of the present study, the concerned important personnel have stated and identified the following activities. A) Cost management liability Period B) Completion Certificate C) Lessons Learned Report Submission A) Cost management liability Period 1. Construction project manager ensured that all contractual obligations related to the project have been met and closed. As part of the project team, he was responsible for contract management and also answerable to the board members. It was identified that two teams have been responsible in managing the contract satisfactorily through out the life cycle of the project. Those are Construction project managers and Board members. As part of managing the contracts, the construction project managers in concurrence with the board members ensured that all the contractors have fulfilled their contractual obligations before the closure of the project. B) Completion Certificate 1. Based on the periodic observations done on site by the Project Architect in accordance with specification standards of the site, it was identified that a joint signoff was done with the construction project managers and contractors on all the work packages for completing the work. Project has been completed by the contractors on the site with defects lists (except for minor punch list items specifically described in this certificate with estimated costs) so that occupants could occupy for the purpose for which it was intended.
    • C) Lessons Learned Report Submission 1. During this stage of the project, it was stated that the lesson learned report was submitted by construction project manager to the board members representing the government. This report highlighted the vision needed by the construction project managers regarding the planning, design, construction and activation phases of the project. It also highlighted that no one had lost the sight of the ultimate goal. Additionally, important strategic, operational, and financial decisions made throughout the project had been submitted. This was been done keeping in view that this kind of project report might be useful for reference to either the board members or other construction personnel who would be involved in similar kind of projects in future.
    • CHAPTER V 5.0 KEY RECOMMENDATIONS In this chapter, with hypothesis tested the following recommendations have been proposed in the present chapter. 5.1 Architectural A) The selection of an architect with most consistent experience in designing hospitals and also with strong construction background is the single most important decision for any member of board for the success of the project . B) The drawings and the specifications have to be made by the architects and the specification writer well in advance for the bidding stage, and construction project managers and the contractors have to review prior to the start of construction on the site. C) Using of latest software’s like BIM (Building Information Management), AutoCAD and Microsoft Project, and people skills with the latest use of product for designing helps to reduce the time, paperwork and accurate results for better output. This also helps the redundancy in any point of designing and planning stages. 5.2 Planning A) Planning the entire facility with all the requirements of architects are necessary and would be very essential for the board members to take a decision in a single go for all approvals and for the local community during the construction. This also helps the project to progress in an efficient manner with in the required time schedules. Even before the construction begins on the site, the method statements for all the activities and the safety plan for the project shall be in place. This helps the project to run efficiently for all the stages of the project. 5.3 Cost A) The board members should use cost analysis methods for right decisions concerning all possible options. The main goal is to show financial implications
    • over the project would differ for each alternative and make it to the best use for practicable consideration with in timelines, comparability and flexibility. B) Lack of financial appropriations for maintenance after completion of the construction project is a major problem. Budget for the project with adequate buffer would be necessary for all the possible project related works. 5.4 Construction A) During the construction stage of the project, there should be well experienced and knowledgeable people like architects, construction project managers and contractors and those only are to be recruited for the project. B) During the time of construction, health and safety plan to be implementing well before the construction of the site. C) The main contracting work packages like mechanical and electrical should be carried by single contractor. Then only coordination issues on the site as well as preparing the drawings for the project could be easy. 5.5 Coordination A) Get every team member together as early as possible on the board of the project and evaluate and identify which issues are to be resolved on priority basis, for different stages of the project. The contractors on the board of the project should control the subcontractors. The subcontractors on the board of the project should be handled with utmost most care at the time of construction by their respective contractors, and also they are required to follow the guidelines of the project. 5.6 General A) Increasing number of the people walking to the hospitals is high in volume, especially among the aging population. The entire facilities with excellent architectural solutions for the convenience of these people are to be provided. B) Risks are to be prioritized according to their importance of pressure on typical project with explicit objectives in terms of cost, time, quality, safety and ecological sustainability, and then scrutinized from a joint perspective of project members for the life cycle of the project.
    • C) If discovery begins before the investigation commences for dreaming the construction of the project, the probability of finding a successful direction for the project only increases. The amount of time spent on planning and design is usually proportional to the overall scope and planned duration of the project. D) Hospitals that demonstrate good design and construction quality with good operational efficiency would have good bench mark for the business growth. Anticipate designing and planning needs of the future based on possible trends of the future developments involved in both the hospital and in the project management of construction, but not on the trends of the past .
    • CHAPTER VI 6. 0 CONCLUSIONS Appointing the good architect with experience in designing could be useful for high-quality mental picture of the project. Developing the drawings much early for the project with latest software can save time for the contractors to bid. Construction project managers should control the contractors at the site level execution of the project for successful hand over of the site to the user with in the time lines and cost of the budget. The construction project management team should be on the site, having to coordinate to the best of the abilities and capabilities with all the work package contractors during the project execution of the site. Risk register, Lessons learned register, and Health and safety plan have to be in place before the construction stage. The board members are advised to appoint the experienced and talented personnel for the construction project with the correct remunerations at the beginning of the project and incentives at the end of the project for the excellent closure of the project on time. This helps the project to be on target schedules and time lines. In this study, project management various stages of construction and project management are proved to be more important for the construction project managers who are involved in the project life cycle. The construction project managers on the site have got the control over the project. The London’s tube map was developed over 108 years. As inspired from the London’s Tube map, a Construction map graphically representing various stages of the project and the main activities of the construction was developed for the convenience of the people involved in the project. This was similar to the London’s tube map with the logical interpretation of activities happening through out the project and from data interpretations at the time of interview. To develop these activities as to how they are linked to one another among the other departments of development of construction, free downloaded software from internet by name Concept Draw MINDMAP 5 software was used as a tool. The final output of Project management stages in the project was developed in the AutoCAD software used by Architects for developing the drawings. Construction map, which is self explanatory with the color coding and the legend helps
    • all the people working on the projects with ease, this will help on the activities of the project at any given of point of time . The activity that takes place at the time of construction are identified according to the stages of the construction of the project. Project management activates of the site stage were also identified and high lighted, which are critical for the project management in the construction of projects. To develop this map all the inspiration was the London’s Tube map. Though, the thought process for developing this Construction map was at the time of submitting the proposal, this map was developed during the course of the dissertation during the findings. This could be one of the self-motivated suggestions for the development and successful closure for any project in the construction for every individual working on the project. This construction map can further be developed with GAR (Green, Amber, and Red) model for the activities. This can be developed with the help of software developers as an enterprise software for the construction projects. Reflecting back to the aim and objectives to evolve with a frame work of project management stages is supported by this construction map. The construction related consequences on the life cycle of the project, while identifying step by step project management stages and following the project management plan can be implemented at different stages of the project life cycle applying proactively In the general practice of the construction. Planning Stages in Project Management is supported with a Construction map in the APPENDIX E.