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Future Trends and Review - Lecture 13 - Introduction to Databases (1007156ANR)

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This lecture is part of an Introduction to Databases course given at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel.

This lecture is part of an Introduction to Databases course given at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel.

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  • 1. 2 December 2005 Introduction to Databases Future Trends and Review Prof. Beat Signer Department of Computer Science Vrije Universiteit Brussel http://www.beatsigner.com
  • 2. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 2May 23, 2014 Current Trends  We have already seen object database management systems (ODBMS) as an alternative to relational database management systems (RDBMS)  Recently, the term NoSQL databases has been introduced for different non-RDBMS solutions  non-relational, horizontally scalable, distributed, ...  often ACID properties not fully guaranteed - eventual consistency  many solutions driven by web application requirements  different classes of NoSQL solutions - object databases (db4o, ObjectStore, Objectivity, Versant, ...) - column stores (BigTable, Hbase, ...) - document stores (CouchDB, MongoDB, ...)
  • 3. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 3May 23, 2014 Current Trends ...  different classes of NoSQL solutions - key-value (tuple) stores (Membase, Redis, ...) - XML databases (Tamino, BaseX, ...) - ...
  • 4. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 4May 23, 2014 Column Stores  Solutions for large scale distributed storage systems  very large tables with billions of rows and millions of columns  petabytes of data across thousands of servers  BigTable  distributed storage solution for structured data used by Google  HBase  distributed open source database (similar to BigTable)  part of the Apache Hadoop project  use MapReduce framework for processing - map step • master node divides problem into subproblems and delegates them to child nodes - reduce step • master mode integrates solutions of subproblems
  • 5. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 5May 23, 2014 Document Stores  Data no longer stored in tables  Each record (document) might have a different format (number and size of fields)  Apache's CoucheDB is an example of a free and open source document-oriented database
  • 6. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 6May 23, 2014 Cloud Computing  Online or web-based databases  store data in the cloud or on servers on the internet  examples - QuickBase, quickbase.intuit.com - Blist, www.blist.com  Amazon SimpleDB  distributed database written in Erlang  offers a Web Service API  makes uses of S3 and EC2  on demand scaling  non-relational data store - schemaless - hashtables with set of key value pairs
  • 7. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 7May 23, 2014 Mobile and Embedded Databases  Many everyday devices contain databases  TVs, washing machines, mobile phones, ...  e.g. Android phones with SQLite database  Embedded databases in cars, airplanes etc.  manage configurations and store sensor data  e.g. db4o object database used in BMW's Car IT system
  • 8. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 8May 23, 2014 Course Review 1. Introduction and Conceptual Modelling  various DB application domains  basic DB terminology  data models and history of DBMS  conceptual modelling and the ER model 2. Extended ER Model and other Modelling Languages  EER model - specialisation and generalisation, ISA constraints, aggregation  OM and UML as alternative modelling techniques 3. Relational Model and Relational Algebra  relational model  relational algebra - fundamental, additional and extended operations
  • 9. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 9May 23, 2014 Course Review ... 4. Relational Database Design  reduction  functional and multivalued dependencies  normal forms and normalisation 5. Structured Query Language (SQL)  data definition language (DDL)  data manipulation language (DML) 6. Advanced SQL  authorisation  SQL programming environments - ESQL, SQL/CLI, SQL/PSM and triggers  impedance mismatch
  • 10. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 10May 23, 2014 Course Review ... 7. DBMS Architectures and Features  components of a DBMS  different DBMS architectures - teleprocessing, two-tier and N-tier architectures, SOA, cloud computing, ... - distributed DBMS, parallel DBMS, TP Monitor, ... 8. Storage Management  storage device hierarchy and RAID systems  buffer management  record formats and operations 9. Access Methods  indexing - sparse, dense and multilevel indices, B+-trees, bitmap index  hashing
  • 11. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 11May 23, 2014 Course Review … 10.Query Processing and Optimisation  query processing and query costs  selection, sorting, join, ...  basic query optimisation 11.Transaction Management  transactions - conflict serialisability  concurrency - lock-based, timestamp ordering and optimistic  recovery 12.Object Databases  impedance mismatch, object and object-relational databases  OODB Manifesto, ODMG Standard
  • 12. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 12May 23, 2014 Course Review … Access Methods System Buffers Authorisation Control Integrity Checker Command Processor Program Object Code DDL Compiler File Manager Buffer Manager Recovery Manager Scheduler Query Optimiser Transaction Manager Query Compiler Queries Catalogue Manager DML Preprocessor Database Schema Application Programs Database and System Catalogue Database Manager Data Manager DBMS Programmers Users DB Admins Based on 'Components of a DBMS', Database Systems, T. Connolly and C. Begg, Addison-Wesley 2010
  • 13. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 13May 23, 2014 Covered Book Chapters  The following chapters of the Database System Concepts book have been covered and should be studied  chapter 1 - Introduction  chapter 2 - Relational Model  chapter 3 - Introduction to SQL  chapter 4 - Intermediate SQL  chapter 5 - Advanced SQL
  • 14. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 14May 23, 2014 Covered Book Chapters ...  The following chapters of the Database System Concepts book have been covered and should be studied  chapter 6.1 - Relational Algebra  chapter 7 - Database Design and the ER Model - Reduction to Relational Schemas - Unified Modelling Language (UML)  chapter 8 - Relational Database Design  chapter 10 - Storage and File Structure
  • 15. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 15May 23, 2014 Covered Book Chapters ...  The following chapters of the Database System Concepts book have been covered and should be studied  chapter 11 - Indexing and Hashing  chapter 12 - Query Processing  chapter 13 - Query Optimization  chapter 14 - Transactions  chapter 15 - Concurrency Control
  • 16. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 16May 23, 2014 Covered Book Chapters ...  The following chapters of the Database System Concepts book have been covered and should be studied  chapter 16 - Recovery System  chapter 17 - Database-System Architectures  chapter 22 - Object-Based Databases
  • 17. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 17May 23, 2014 Exam  Written closed book exam in English  covers content of lectures, specific book chapters and exercises  Current exam date: June 10  room D0.02  14:00-18:00  Questions about the course content?  block hours on June 2, 09:00-12:00 and 13:00-16:00 - Reinout Roels, 10 G 730  send and email to your assistant to get an appointment
  • 18. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 18May 23, 2014 Exam Format  The exam will contain a number of questions addressing different parts of the lecture and exercises  Make sure that you understand the general concepts  we will ask less about specific details  Possible topics include but are not limited to  define a conceptual model (ER) for a given description of an application domain  reduction of an (E)ER model to a relational model  given a database schema and some questions about specific content - write the corresponding SQL queries  transform an SQL query to a relational algebra expression
  • 19. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 19May 23, 2014 Exam Format ...  given a number of relations - write specific relational algebra queries  given a relation R - find functional/multivalued dependencies - check normal forms  given two relations with specific properties - worst case estimates for different kinds of operations (e.g. join)  given an SQL query - define the query expression/execution tree  given a query expression tree and some indices - optimise the query expressions tree  given a schedule S - check if S is conflict serialisable  ...
  • 20. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 20May 23, 2014 Exam Format ...  You should further have a good understanding of the general concepts introduced in the lecture since there might be essay questions asking you to explain a concept or to compare two or more concepts or solutions
  • 21. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 21May 23, 2014 Erasmus+  Study a semester abroad at top European universities  3rd Bachelor year and Master  General courses or specialisation in areas not offered at the VUB (e.g. security)  Opportunity to widen your horizon  Explicitly mentioned on your final diploma  [http://wise.vub.ac.be/erasmus/] Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Switzerland ETH Zurich, Switzerland Technische Universität München, Germany Universitat Politécnica de Catalunya, Spain
  • 22. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 22May 23, 2014 Other Courses  Web Information Systems (4011474FNR)  evolution of the Internet and Web Information Systems (WIS)  basic technologies (e.g. HTTP) and Web architectures  Web 2.0, semantic web, Web search (e.g. Google PageRank)  security, privacy and trust  [http://wise.vub.ac.be/content/web-information-systems]  Advanced Topics in Information Systems (4016792ENR)  seminar about recent developments in information systems  internet of things, cloud computing, mashups, web search, post- relational databases, web of data, information visualisation, information system interaction, human-computer interaction, ...  [http://wise.vub.ac.be/content/advanced-topics-information-systems] WEB & INFORMATION SYSTEMS ENGINEERING
  • 23. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 23May 23, 2014 Other Courses ...  Next Generation User Interfaces (4018166FNR)  general HCI introduction  multimodal interaction (theoretical concepts, fusion and fission, ...)  adaptation  pen-based interaction  tangible interaction and augmented reality  [http://wise.vub.ac.be/content/next-generation-user-interfaces]  Open Information Systems (4014887FNR)  information integration  RDF and the semantic web  ontologies  semantic desktops  linked data WEB & INFORMATION SYSTEMS ENGINEERING
  • 24. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 24May 23, 2014 01001000100 0101001100010010100010010 0100100010010001000100001001000 100010001100001001000110010101010110 1100010010100010010010010100010101011001 101001100001100 101010100 00101000100 110101010101 00100 01010101000 1001 1111111111 111 0000000010 0 11111111 0101001011 010101010 111010101 001010010110 Fluid Cross-Media Information Spaces
  • 25. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 25May 23, 2014 Prof. Dr. Beat Signer Interactive Paper, Cross-Media Information Architectures Dr. Bruno Dumas Multimodal Interaction, Cross- Media Information Architectures Lode Hoste Multimodal Interaction, Midas and Mudra Framework CISA Human-Machine & Human-Information Interaction Information Systems & Management Information Visualisation & Navigation WEB & INFORMATION SYSTEMS ENGINEERING CROSS-MEDIA INFORMATION SPACES AND ARCHITECTURES (CISA) Sandra Trullemans Personal Cross-Media Information Management
  • 26. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 26May 23, 2014 Reinout Roels MindXpres: Extensible Content- driven Presentation Tool Ahmed A.O. Tayeh Open Cross-Media Authoring, Fluid Document Formats WEB & INFORMATION SYSTEMS ENGINEERING CISA Human-Machine & Human-Information Interaction Information Systems & Management Information Visualisation & Navigation CROSS-MEDIA INFORMATION SPACES AND ARCHITECTURES (CISA)
  • 27. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 27May 23, 2014 PARC User Interface (Mid 70s)  Desktop metaphor  WIMP interaction  "filing cabinets" with hierarchical folders  Paper paradigm  "What You See Is What You Get" (WYSIWYG)  what about richer document formats that existed at that time? Xerox Star 8010 [http://www.digibarn.com/collections/systems/xerox-8010/]
  • 28. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 28May 23, 2014 What is Wrong with Digital Documents?  Existing document formats are based on the simulation of paper affordances on desktop computers  How to manage mixed-media "documents" in open and fluid cross-media information spaces?  on the data level - context-sensitive adapatation - cross-media transclusion  on the visualisation and navigation level - zoomable user interfaces  on the cross-media interaction level - fluid multimodal cross-media interfaces  Remediation of the "paper simulation" approach  WYSIWYG is only one out of many options! CISA Human-Machine & Human-Information Interaction Information Systems & Management Information Visualisation & Navigation
  • 29. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 29May 23, 2014 RSL Metamodel and iServer Global Information Systems Group, ETH Zurich
  • 30. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 30May 23, 2014 Links Users Layers Plug-ins Structure Active Content Global Information Systems Group, ETH Zurich
  • 31. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 31May 23, 2014 Bridging the Paper-Digital Divide
  • 32. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 32May 23, 2014 Paper-Digital Integration Amazon Kindle Anoto Digital Pen and Paper Technology Augmented / Interactive PaperElectronic Paper
  • 33. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 33May 23, 2014 Interactive Paper Applications  Enhanced Reading  paper-digital maps  interactive festival brochures  educational materials  auction brochures  scientific publications  …  Enhanced Writing  photo album  researcher's notebook  mammography annotation  query by sketching  …  Paper-based Interfaces  PaperPoint  document proof-editing  digital libraries  video analysis tool  educational games  Art Installations  Lost Cosmonaut  Generosa Enterprise  Interactive Tabletops  photo browser  collaborative sketch tool
  • 34. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 34May 23, 2014 Interactive Festival Guide (EdFest) Global Information Systems Group ETH Zurich
  • 35. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 35May 23, 2014 PaperPoint Presentation Tool  Mobile PowerPoint presentation tool  non-linear presentations  real-time annotations  digital whiteboard  ...  Multi-pen support  brainstorming Global Information Systems Group ETH Zurich
  • 36. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 36May 23, 2014 Paper-Digital Maps Szabolcs Becze
  • 37. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 37May 23, 2014 RSL-based Associative File System signer My Pictures Vancouver ER 2010 Granville Island Vancouver Harbour Public Market Keynote J. Thorp Olga and Lamia Dinner ER 2010 multiple classification structural link navigational link My Videos Vancouver Aquarium ER 2010 Keynote cross-media association My Presentations ER 2010 WISE 2009 cross-media transclusion single slide transclusion (via OOXML RSL selector) Gregory Cardone
  • 38. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 38May 23, 2014 RSL-based Associative File System ... Gregory Cardone
  • 39. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 39May 23, 2014 Personal Information Management (PIM)  Keeping, organising and re-finding information  digital and physical  Investigating user- information interaction  Conceptual PIM model (based on RSL)  Cross-media PIM system  document tracking  context model  ... Sandra Trullemans
  • 40. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 40May 23, 2014 What is Wrong with Slideware?  Simulation of physical slides  limited space due to the slide concept  linear navigation from slide to slide  difficult to reuse content and embed rich media types  MindXpres addresses these issues  unlimited canvas with zoomable user interface  non-linear navigation and associative linking  content-based approach with automatic visualisation
  • 41. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 41May 23, 2014 MindXpres Presentation Tool  HTML5-based extensible core with three types of JavaScript plug-ins  components - source code, graph, video, ...  containers - slide, image gallery, ...  structures - grid, graph, clustered, ...  Presentation as RSL- based overlay structure  enables navigation across multiple presentations Reinout Roels
  • 42. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 42May 23, 2014 MindXpres Presentation Tool ... Reinout Roels
  • 43. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 43May 23, 2014 MindXpres Presentation Tool ...  Functional MindXpres prototype  Ongoing work  visual authoring tool - alternative to XML-based authoring  rich media plug-ins - videos with subtitles, annotations etc. - statistical data with alternative visualisations - live sensor data - ...  audience-driven presentations  collaborative annotations and information sharing  multimodal interaction (e.g. integration of PaperPoint concepts)  import of existing slideware formats
  • 44. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 44May 23, 2014 ArtVis  Advanced visualisation techniques in combination with a TUI  explore Web Gallery of Art  faceted browsing  Phidgets-based TUI  RFID-tagged physical objects  Three main components to explore, analyse and browse the information Bram Moerman
  • 45. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 45May 23, 2014 ArtVis ... Bram Moerman
  • 46. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 46May 23, 2014 ArtVis ... Bram Moerman
  • 47. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 47May 23, 2014 Video: ArtVis Bram Moerman
  • 48. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 48May 23, 2014 Multimodal and Multi-Touch Interaction EPOC, emotiv Echo Smartpen, Livescribe Kinect,Microsoft
  • 49. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 49May 23, 2014  Midas/Mudra Framework  declarative definition of multimodal and multi-touch interactions  rule-based language approach  rapid protoyping and application development  iGesture Workbench  create and test gesture sets and algorithms  different modalities: digital pen, Wii remote, …  open source (www.igesture.org)  HephaisTK Toolkit  domain-specific human-computer dialogue language (SMUIML) for multimodal I/O  speech recognisers, RFID readers, … Multimodal and Multi-Touch Interaction
  • 50. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 50May 23, 2014 Home Automation / Office of the Future
  • 51. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 51May 23, 2014 SpeeG2 User Speech recognition (Microsoft SAPI 5.4) Skeletal tracking (Microsoft Kinect) 5 4 2 3 SpeeG2 GUI 6 1 Sven De Kock
  • 52. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 52May 23, 2014 Video: SpeeG2 Performance (21 WPM) Sven De Kock
  • 53. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 53May 23, 2014 Video: Kinect Presenter
  • 54. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 54May 23, 2014 Video: Augmented Reality (Mental Nomad) Toon Duwee
  • 55. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 55May 23, 2014 Student Projects  Interactive paper and augmented reality  various apprenticeships and thesis proposals in the area of interactive paper and augmented reality  Multimodal and Multi-touch Interaction  next generation text input devices (e.g. combine voice and Kinect)  multimodal mobile interaction  Cross-Media Information Spaces and Architectures  fluid cross-media document formats  MindXpres presentation tool, office of the future, PIM, ...  If you should be interested in one of these topics (or if you have your own ideas) please contact us!  http://wise.vub.ac.be/thesis_proposals
  • 56. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 56May 23, 2014 References  A. Silberschatz, H. Korth and S. Sudarshan, Database System Concepts (Sixth Edition), McGraw-Hill, 2010  Thesis Projects (Bachelor and Master) ...  http://wise.vub.ac.be/thesis_proposals  Cross-Media Information Spaces and Architectures  http://wise.vub.ac.be/content/cross-media-information- spaces-and-architectures  Interactive Paper and Augmented Reality  http://wise.vub.ac.be/content/interactive-paper-and- augmented-reality
  • 57. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 57May 23, 2014 References  Multimodal and Multi-Touch Interaction  http://wise.vub.ac.be/content/multimodal-and-multi- touch-interaction
  • 58. 2 December 2005 The End Good Luck with the Exam!