Bridging the Paper-Digital Divide

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Presentation given at CSCW Seminar, ETH Zurich, March 2007

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Bridging the Paper-Digital Divide

  1. 1. Bridging the Paper-Digital Divide CSCW Seminar Beat Signer Global Information Systems Research Group ETH Zurich http://vub.academia.edu/BeatSigner CSCW Seminar 2007, March 27, 2007
  2. 2. Lecture Schedule CSCW Seminar 2007, March 27, 2007 Beat Signer, signer@inf.ethz.ch 2
  3. 3. Student Projects  Basic technologies and infrastructure  iGesture recognition framework (www.igesture.org)  integration of different tracking technologies  iServer resource plug-ins, …  Paper-based applications  PaperPoint, paper-based interface to digital agenda/todo list (e.g. Outlook), paper-digital notebook, paper-digital photo album, … We offer Master and Semester projects and are also looking for Hilfsassistenten CSCW Seminar 2007, March 27, 2007 Beat Signer, signer@inf.ethz.ch 3
  4. 4. The Paperless Office (1975) CSCW Seminar 2007, March 27, 2007 Beat Signer, signer@inf.ethz.ch 4
  5. 5. The "Paperless Office" (2003) CSCW Seminar 2007, March 27, 2007 Beat Signer, signer@inf.ethz.ch 5
  6. 6. Worldwide Paper Consumption Per capita consumption of paper and board by region, 1989 and 1999 Source: The Paper Federation of Great Britain, Nov 2000 CSCW Seminar 2007, March 27, 2007 Beat Signer, signer@inf.ethz.ch 6
  7. 7. The Myth of the Paperless Office  For decades, people have predicted the office of the future as a paperless office  documents generated, published and distributed electronically  documents read electronically  What has happened to this imminent revolution? CSCW Seminar 2007, March 27, 2007 Beat Signer, signer@inf.ethz.ch 7
  8. 8. Affordances of Paper  The physical properties of an object determine how people use that object  Properties of paper  light, flexible, robust, porous, opaque, transparent, ….  Human actions  grasping, folding, tearing, carrying, writing, on ….  Paper supports forms of collaboration and interaction difficult to mimic in the digital world CSCW Seminar 2007, March 27, 2007 Beat Signer, signer@inf.ethz.ch 8
  9. 9. Working Together with Paper CSCW Seminar 2007, March 27, 2007 Beat Signer, signer@inf.ethz.ch 9
  10. 10. Spatial Layout of Documents CSCW Seminar 2007, March 27, 2007 Beat Signer, signer@inf.ethz.ch 10
  11. 11. The History of Paper  3000 BC  papyrus produced in Egypt  AD 105  paper invented in China (wood pulp)  610  paper imported to Japan CSCW Seminar 2007, March 27, 2007 Beat Signer, signer@inf.ethz.ch 11
  12. 12. The History of Paper …  1120  arab traders bring paper to Europe  first paper mill in europe (Spain)  1440  Johannes Gutenberg develops the printing press  increasing demand for paper  19th century  paper gets cheaper (new paper making machines) CSCW Seminar 2007, March 27, 2007 Beat Signer, signer@inf.ethz.ch 12
  13. 13. Paper and Digital Media Paper Digital Media readability interactivity portability dynamic presentation cheap search functionality flicking through pages easy to update multiple documents with spatial order typsetting systems persistency fast distribution privacy/security storing large amounts of data … … CSCW Seminar 2007, March 27, 2007 Beat Signer, signer@inf.ethz.ch 13
  14. 14. "As We May Think" (1945) Vannevar Bush The Atlantic Monthly July 1945 memex (memory extender) CSCW Seminar 2007, March 27, 2007 Beat Signer, signer@inf.ethz.ch 14
  15. 15. Integrating Paper and Digital Media  Complementary character of paper and digital information Time has only confirmed this early indication of paper’s importance in the digital office. While other print technologies have come to compete with it, laser printer sales have increased twelve-fold in the past decade. If the digital office from PARC to the present is anything to go by, bits and atoms, the digital and the material, don’t seem so much in opposition as in tandem. Despite confident claims that their only relationship is one of replacement and dismissal, the two look much more like complementary resources. The Social Life of Information, Brown and Duguid, 2002 CSCW Seminar 2007, March 27, 2007 Beat Signer, signer@inf.ethz.ch 15
  16. 16. Augmenting the Physical Space  Embedding computing functionality in everyday objects instead of digitising the physical environment At breakfast Sal reads the news. She still prefers the paper form, as do most people. She spots an interesting quote from a columnist in the business section. She wipes her pen over the newspaper’s name, date, section, and page number and then circles the quote. The pen sends a message to the paper, which transmits the quote to her office. The Computer for the 21st Century, Weiser, 1991 CSCW Seminar 2007, March 27, 2007 Beat Signer, signer@inf.ethz.ch 16
  17. 17. Paper-Digital Integration Technologies  Document (object) identification / tracking  barcodes  RFID tags  optical tracking  …  Within-document position tracking  relative/absolute positions  support for mobility  … CSCW Seminar 2007, March 27, 2007 Beat Signer, signer@inf.ethz.ch 17
  18. 18. Paper-Digital Integration Technologies …  Writing capture  optical approaches (e.g. scanner)  position tracking  …  Within-document information encoding  positional information  arbitrary digital information (e.g. sound clips)  … CSCW Seminar 2007, March 27, 2007 Beat Signer, signer@inf.ethz.ch 18
  19. 19. Paper-Digital Integration Technologies …  Electronic paper  electronic ink (E-ink)  electrochromic displays (e.g. from Acreo)  electrowetting  …  E-books  Sony LIBRIé eBook reader (based on E-ink)  … CSCW Seminar 2007, March 27, 2007 Beat Signer, signer@inf.ethz.ch 19
  20. 20. Augmented Paper Applications  Reading  links to additional digital information and services  digital links between paper documents  …  Writing  enhanced paper-based notebooks (e.g. with audio capture)  paper-based form filling (e.g. FAS, Hewlett Packard)  … CSCW Seminar 2007, March 27, 2007 Beat Signer, signer@inf.ethz.ch 20
  21. 21. Augmented Paper Applications …  Annotation  proofreading of documents  annotation of research papers  …  Paper-based user interfaces  Palette and PaperPoint  Video Mosaic  … CSCW Seminar 2007, March 27, 2007 Beat Signer, signer@inf.ethz.ch 21
  22. 22. Cross-Media Publishing  BBC Blue Planet series  television series - available on video/DVD  book  web site - fact files - quizzes - games  Open University course book and CD CSCW Seminar 2007, March 27, 2007 Beat Signer, signer@inf.ethz.ch 22
  23. 23. Digital/Physical Document Lifecycle  Multiple digital/physical editing iteration cycles  Digital and paper-based user interface  Support for collaborative editing Digital Document Printed Document CSCW Seminar 2007, March 27, 2007 Beat Signer, signer@inf.ethz.ch 23
  24. 24. Bridging the Paper-Digital Divide  Many projects focus on the input device, paper, printing and other hardware technologies rather than on the data integration and information management aspects  isolated solutions  The linking of paper tends to be based on physical rather than logical concepts  not easy to change to another input device technology CSCW Seminar 2007, March 27, 2007 Beat Signer, signer@inf.ethz.ch 24
  25. 25. Bridging the Paper-Digital Divide …  "The key to a highly integrated interactive paper solution lies in the introduction of a platform for general cross-media information management introducing fundamental link concepts in combination with other database functionality"  Support all possible types of links between paper and digital media  paper-to-digital, digital-to-paper, digital-to-digital and paper-to-paper CSCW Seminar 2007, March 27, 2007 Beat Signer, signer@inf.ethz.ch 25
  26. 26. Palette  Control of electronic slide-shows by manipulating physical cards Nelson et al. CSCW Seminar 2007, March 27, 2007 Beat Signer, signer@inf.ethz.ch 26
  27. 27. FieldMouse (Absolute Mouse)  Combination of an ID recognizer (e.g. barcode reader) and a mouse detecting relative movement of the device  Used in IconStickers, Scroll Browser and Active Book projects Tamagawa University, Tokyo, Japan CSCW Seminar 2007, March 27, 2007 Beat Signer, signer@inf.ethz.ch 27
  28. 28. Active Book CSCW Seminar 2007, March 27, 2007 Beat Signer, signer@inf.ethz.ch 28
  29. 29. DigitalDesk  "Instead of making the workstation more like a desk, make the desk more like a workstation" Wellner, EuroPARC CSCW Seminar 2007, March 27, 2007 Beat Signer, signer@inf.ethz.ch 29
  30. 30. Listen Reader  Combines the look and feel of a real book with an interactive soundtrack  Electric field sensors in the book binding  RFID tags embedded in each page CSCW Seminar 2007, March 27, 2007 Beat Signer, signer@inf.ethz.ch 30
  31. 31. Quicktionary CSCW Seminar 2007, March 27, 2007 Beat Signer, signer@inf.ethz.ch 31
  32. 32. Datasound Strip-Reader Datasound strip  Two-dimensional matrix code  Digital information (sound, text, images, etc.) can be encoded in strips CSCW Seminar 2007, March 27, 2007 Beat Signer, signer@inf.ethz.ch 32
  33. 33. Electronic Paper Sony LIBRIé eBook Reader TOPPAN wall-sized electronic paper display, Expo 2005, Japan Citizen curved watch CSCW Seminar 2007, March 27, 2007 Beat Signer, signer@inf.ethz.ch 33
  34. 34. Video Mosaic  Use paper storyboards to control an on-line video editing system  Based on the EVA system developed at MIT Mackay and Pagani CSCW Seminar 2007, March 27, 2007 Beat Signer, signer@inf.ethz.ch 34
  35. 35. LeapPad  "Magic pen" uncovers the sounds and words on the page CSCW Seminar 2007, March 27, 2007 Beat Signer, signer@inf.ethz.ch 35
  36. 36. FLY Pentop Computer  Everything integrated into the pen  Voice feedback  Applications on cartridges  english to spanish translator  calculator (draw interface)  ... CSCW Seminar 2007, March 27, 2007 Beat Signer, signer@inf.ethz.ch 36
  37. 37. Tourists and Maps  Previsit  activity planning  layout and social zones of city  Visit  locator, proximity, navigation and event tasks  Postvisit  share experience with family and friends CSCW Seminar 2007, March 27, 2007 Beat Signer, signer@inf.ethz.ch 37
  38. 38. Edinburgh Fringe Festival  World's largest international arts festival  4 weeks  ~1700 events  ~27000 performances CSCW Seminar 2007, March 27, 2007 Beat Signer, signer@inf.ethz.ch 38
  39. 39. EdFest Components CSCW Seminar 2007, March 27, 2007 Beat Signer, signer@inf.ethz.ch 39
  40. 40. EdFest Booklet CSCW Seminar 2007, March 27, 2007 Beat Signer, signer@inf.ethz.ch 40
  41. 41. EdFest User Trials CSCW Seminar 2007, March 27, 2007 Beat Signer, signer@inf.ethz.ch 41
  42. 42. References  Fundamental Concepts for Interactive Paper and Cross-Media Information Spaces, B. Signer, Diss ETH Zurich Nr. 16218, 2006  The Myth of the Paperless Office, A.J. Sellen and R. Harper, MIT Press, November 2001  Writing Space: Computers, Hypertext and the Remediation of Print, J.D. Bolter, Second Edition, 2001 CSCW Seminar 2007, March 27, 2007 Beat Signer, signer@inf.ethz.ch 42
  43. 43. References …  Scrolling Forward: Making Sense of Documents in the Digital Age, D.M. Levy, Arcade Publishing, October 2001  How to Read a Book, M.J. Adler and C. Van Doren, Revised Edition, Simon and Schuster, New York, 1972  As We May Think, V. Bush, Atlantic Monthly, July 1945 CSCW Seminar 2007, March 27, 2007 Beat Signer, signer@inf.ethz.ch 43
  44. 44. Next Lecture  May 8, Technologies I : Augmented Paper  Document Tracking, Mario Deuss  Within-Document Information Encoding, Philip Stutz CSCW Seminar 2007, March 27, 2007 Beat Signer, signer@inf.ethz.ch 44
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