ROLL NO. 1
ROLL NO. 9
RAJENDRA DHAKAL,ROLL NO.17
SAURAV BHATTARAI,ROLL NO.25
RAMESH SHAH ,
Nepal has diverse genetic material with high
variation providing a raw material for genetic
The indigenous cattle
Lulu, Achami,Siri, Pahari, Khaila, Terai and Yak.
(Though low productivity; disease resistance, hardiness and
other characters suitable for local environment due to
continuous selection pressure imposed by nature itself.)
Major dominating exotic breeds -Jersey and
Holstein Friesian. (High productivity)
So breeding plan should incorporate one of them.
necessity of employing appropriate breeding
strategy for upgrading local breeds with
exotic breeds suitable for local production
However, the indigenous breeds are in danger
of extinction due to
injudicious use of crossbreeding program
superiority of cross bred cattle compared to
local breeds drawing attention towards
keeping those cross bred animals.
So, it is a prime necessity to preserve the genetic
High mountain of western
and eastern Nepal, Mustang
Western part of hills , Achham
High areas of eastern region
Found in mountain, hills and
Mountain and hills
Yak and Nak
BREEDING:thepresent need of cattle industry of Nepal
To conserve indigenous genetic resource
To increase the milk production with high fat
To improve the body configuration
To increase the feed efficiency
To decrease the generation interval and age of
To increase lactation length
To reduce calving interval
STATEMENT OF PRESENT CONDITION
In Nepal, local male cattle are used especially for
drought purpose as they are hardy in nature and
cows are reared for milk production and manure. In
mid hills most farmers are domesticating local cows
because of which they are forced to get-Low milk yield 150-180 lit/lactation over a
period of 180-200 days.
-Short lactation length
However, local cattle can be adopted easily in
midhills. It as they are hardy in nature, can resist
Proper breeding techniques are limited in research
station and mostly farmers are growing cattle so
there should be the necessity of improvement of local
The breeding system will involve two steps:
1.Line breeding of indigenous breeds at their
Particular production environment in order to
conserve the native germplasm.
2.Cross breeding of selected females of local breed
with suitable other exotic or local breeds as per
necessity of the production environment.
For bringing exotic breed into the native gene
pool the 3 tier breeding scheme will be used.
1. Nucleus: breeding unit in the exporting
country ( for 100%jersey semen)
2. Multiplier: breeding unit in the country at
3. Producer: producing (commercial) unit in the
country at particular eco-zones.
Selection of individuals
Selection differential, heritability, genetic
gain, selection index and other parameters
will be determined on each generation mainly
based on milk production and fat percentage.
This increase milk production with higher fat
percentage, shorter calving interval, and
longer lactation yield all has
positive economic values.
The animals will be evaluated based on its
own production and pedigree records,milk
yield, fat percentage, disease resistance
Certain healthy animals, productive (fertile)
female animals of local cattle will be
the population for improvement and for
male; the jersey bulls will be chosen.
Mating for Selected Animals
Indigenous germplam will be
preserved by line breeding
For cross breeding (grading up) all the female
cattle selected will be inseminated by the
semen of pure breed jersey bulls or semen of
other local breeds as per necessary and
progenies will be selected on the basis
of breed characters.
For cross breeding with jersey breed repeated
back crossing will be employed to achieve the
required blood level i.e. more than 75%
The genetic improvement strategy for for Acchami cattles should be
dedicated in maintaining purity by line breeding and then at
commercial level crossing with hill cattle can be practiced.
For Lulu, Pahadi, Khaila and Terai :
line breeding will be done at germ palsm conservation center
established at high mountain ( mustang), hills, mountain and terai
region respectively. For commercially improving productivity
grading up will be done with jersey semen use by artificial
insemination upto 75% blood level for lulu, pahadi and khaila and
87.25% blood level to terai breed.
Pure-breeding is the predominant practice with yak.
The aim should be to improve the breed for meat and hair.
The use of selected breeding bulls is recommended, and newborn
animals may be assigned a grade on the basis of the grades of their
parents. Nucleus herd and multiplier herd scan be established in
high Himalayan region for genetic improvement program.
The concerned trait for the study is about
milk production. The different methods used
for the program are:
Selection of the breeds on the basis of
The male of pure jersey breed and female of local
cattle were selected on the basis their
considered as economical producers. Highest
milk recorded was 11381 kg in the period of
365 days of lactation length with 5.3% fat.
Local cattle Siri in the midhills
Less feed required
can produce 2.5litresday at the peak period of
lactation and the length of lactation was found to
be 180-210 days
mating of animals of different breed, generally
used where crossed progeny is directly marketed.
It can be used for the production of new breeds. It
is important tool for introducing desirable traits
into a breed. Crossbred animals exhibit an
accelerated growth and vigor or heterosis.
practice of breeding sires of given breed to
nondescript females and their offspring for
generation after generation.
Here, the local cattle female acted as non
descriptive female mated with a breeding sire
jersey. The female offspring are backcrossed
with jersey bulls and such back crossing is
repeated generation after generation.
It is very important tool in the breeding
technique and is responsible for the success
and failure of the breeding plan. Best to best
mating among the animals is very important
during breeding for getting the better
progeny with desirable traits which the
breeder going to introduce in that progeny.
An example of genetic improvement program and its effect
Lets consider grading up of local cattle breed say, local cattle(Siri) and exotic
cattle breed jersey for improving milk production
The milk production traits are medium to high in heritability in cattle
indicating additive and non-additive genetic effect both. Progress can be
made by selection and breeding.
The cross breeding will be carried to maintain 62.5% blood level of jersey.
3 successive generations crossing of female with 100% pure jersey male will
be carried out at multiplier herd.
Same procedure will be disseminated to commercial level
It is very necessary that proper breeding plan
should be implemented in Nepal
improved breed gives higher milk yield which
acts as an additional income of farmers and
can easily raise their economic status.
Nepal has its own diverse genetic material
which have additional benefit of disease
resistance, hardiness and other characters
suitable for local environment
Native genetic resources are in danger of
extinction because of indiscriminate breeding
programs and comparative benefit of other cross
bred or exotic breeds of cattle.
Conserving the native gene pool of cattle breed is
the responsibility of government and it should
launch an effective program for identification,
characterization and preservation of these
indigenous genetic resources of cattle.
Line breeding can be considered for improvement
of local breeds of cattle by opening research and
germplasm conservation stations at various
Commercially, cross bred animals especially with
jersey are found to be beneficial due to their high
lactational milk yield. Due to this, crossbreeding
with Jersey should be carried out as means of
upgrading the local cattle.
Governmental sector should formulate proper
breeding strategy to address different ecological
zones and breeds available there.
Establishment of multiplier herds at different
eco-zones may be considered for ensuring
judicious use of breeding program at farmers’
level to bring white revolution for overall
development of country and alleviation
Lasley, J.F. Genetics of Livestock improvement
practice (3rd edition).
Kolachhapati Manaraj and Neupane Manish, 2005
Practical manual of principles of animal breeding,
HICAST, Kathmandu Nepal.
Dalton,D.C. (1985), An introduction to practical
animal breeding (2nd edition).
Banerjee, G.C. A text book on animal husbandry (8th
Legates, J.E. and Warwick, E.J. Breeding and
improvement of farm animals (8th edition).