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Communities of Practice: A Conceptual Frame for Human-Centred Computing
 

Communities of Practice: A Conceptual Frame for Human-Centred Computing

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  • Dear Listeners, as you see it on the title, the topic of our talk is the access control. The second part of the title “Studying Maintenance Engineering across Organizational Boundaries” indicates that a) our work is grounded in an empirical work und b) that this work is restricted to a special setting. Nevertheless we believe that our main results could be generalized. One of our results is referred in the first part. “A new dimension in access control” means that the classical access control should be enlarged to another dimension. What this means precisely, is part of the lecture.

Communities of Practice: A Conceptual Frame for Human-Centred Computing Communities of Practice: A Conceptual Frame for Human-Centred Computing Presentation Transcript

  • Communities of Practice: A conceptual frame for Human-Centred Computing Volker Wulf University of Siegen International Institute for Socio-Informatics (IISI), Bonn Fraunhofer FIT, Sankt Augustin
  • Content
    • Theories of Practice
    • Communities and Networks of Practise
    • Research Agenda
    • Innovative Applications for specific practices
      • Wearable Computing supporting the Paris fire brigade
      • Expert Finding inside a German industrial association
      • Computer Club to integrate a Bonn neighborhood
    • Practice based design methods
      • Virtual Prototyping
      • End User Development
      • Appropriation Infrastructure
    • Conclusion
  • Theories of Practise
    • Theoretician of Practise
      • Bourdieu (1977 and 1990) Giddens (1979 and 1984), Garfinkel (1967) and Latour (1993): Sociological theories focusing on social practises
      • Reckwitz (2002 and 2003): Line-out of an idealized theory of social practise
    • Practise is understood to be a mainly routinized pattern of human action
      • Consisting of mental and physical aspects
      • Grounded in background knowledge (know how, forms of understanding, state of emotion and motivational knowledge)
      • Importance of artefacts and their use
    • Examples of practises
      • Specific manner to work, to cook, or to play soccer
  • Theories of Practise (2)
    • Shared practises constitute sociality
      • Common language use
      • Common perception of the world
      • Common identity
    • Practises are reproduced situatedly within specific contexts
    • Human cognition and action cannot be understood to be rational or determined by social structures, but
      • Historical predisposition
      • Collective framing
      • Reflexivity
  • Socio-cultural Theories of Learning
    • Goal: understanding learning as a situated and collective activity
    • Learning takes place inside specific social entities: Communities and Networks of Practice
      • Learning happens when conducting a bundle of related (work) activities
      • Learning is demand-driven and identity forming
    • Similarities and differences in practices identify opportunities for learning
      • Practices segregate the social world
  • Communities and Networks of Practice
    • Community of Practice
      • Working together, need to coordinate their work practice
      • Tightly knit together, common identity
      • Common language use, shared values
    • Networks of Practice
      • Practice in common in a broader sense, but do not work together
      • Occupational communities, often do not interact directly or know each other in person
      • Information passing rather than knowledge creation
  • A Practise-based Perspective on Social Systems CoP NoP Orgas
  • A Practice-based Perspective on Social Systems
    • Practices are differentiated to various extends
      • Inside vs. outside of a NoP
      • Inside vs. across organizational boundaries
    • Differentiated practices evolve over time
    • Appropriation of computer applications, like other artifacts, challenges practices
    • HCC-Challenge: Design for change within and among practice-based social entities
  • Research Agenda Innovative artefacts for specific practices Wearable Computing to support Paris fire brigade Computer Club to integrate Bonn neighborhood Expert Finding inside German industrial association End User Deve lop-ment Appr. Infra-struc- tures Virtual Proto- typing
  • Understanding Work Practices inside the Paris Fire Department
    • 22 Interviews
      • Covering different CoPs in the organisation: central control unit, different fire stations, special forces, department of public relations
      • Newcomer upto the deputy general
      • 23 hours of recording
    • Immersive practical experience (5x24h)
    • About 200 photos and 10 videos
    • Problem: lacking situated information
  • Wearable Technologies: Visions to support Fire Fighters Helmet-integrated dedicated sensors Head-Up Display (LCD or see-through technology) Optimised Speech Acquisition (throat or bone microphones,…) Emergency Signalling Arm-mounted Display Glove-integrated Sensors (accelerometers for MMI,…) Sensors for toxic substances identification
  • An industrial association and its member companies: an organizational view
  • An industrial association and its member companies: a CoP perspective
  • Expert Finding: Identifying Expertise and supporting Networks of Practice
    • Goal: Making common practice visible across organizational boundaries
    • Similarity among individuals‘ documents as an approximation for shared practices
      • Documents selected from yellow pages and users‘ personal folders
      • Text analysis with different methods
    • Evaluation
      • Installation: one section, central units, and one member company
      • High interest in presenting themselves
      • Helpful to find expertise inside the association
      • Helpful to distribute information towards members
      • Organizational boundaries need to be considered
  • Expert Finder: Recommended Experts
  • Bonner Altstadt: An Ethnic Perspective German origin Turkish origin Different other origins
  • Come_In: Computer Club House
    • Goal: Impact identity by establishing common practice
      • Across the ethnical communities
      • Across generations (parents and children)
    • Practice: Multimedia projects in a computer club house
      • Projects: “family history”, “soccer teams”, “houses and places”
    • Shared Practice leads to
      • Club house is operating since three years
      • Increase in social interaction among families participating in the club
      • Negotiation of meaning across communities (full of conflicts)
  • Some Impressions
  • Research Agenda Innovative artefacts for specific practices Wearable Computing to support Paris fire brigade Computer Club to integrate Bonn neighborhood Expert Finding inside German industrial association End User Deve lop-ment Appr. Infra-struc- tures Virtual Proto- typing
  • IT Design Challenges
    • Meeting the specific needs of a particular CoP
      • Understanding existing practice
      • Anticipating future practice
      • Defining the role of IT
      • Supporting appropriation processes
    • Designing for appropriability across different CoPs, NoPs, or organizations
      • Understanding the diversity of existing practices
      • Anticipating a diversity of future practices
      • Defining the role of IT and allowing for flexibility
        • Different modes to appropriate the same artefact
        • Technical flexibility designed into the artefact
      • Supporting appropriation processes across CoP boundaries
  • Wearables: Innovative Techniques of Prototyping Paper: low efforts VR: interaktivity and fun Living Lab: maximal validity
      • Bridging the gap between the CoPs of Designers and Users
  • IT Design Challenges
    • Meeting the specific needs of a particular CoP
      • Understanding existing practice
      • Anticipating future practice
      • Defining the role of IT
      • Supporting appropriation processes
    • Designing for appropriability across different CoPs, NoPs, or organizations
      • Understanding the diversity of existing practices
      • Anticipating a diversity of future practices
      • Defining the role of IT and allowing for flexibility
        • Different modes to appropriate the same artefact
        • Technical flexibility designed into the artefact
      • Supporting appropriation processes across CoP boundaries
  • End User Development
    • Challenge: Flexibility of Software Applications in Use
    • Interface
      • Direct Activation
      • Construction Metaphor
    • Architecture
      • Decomposition
      • Components and Services
    • Collaboration
      • Shared Repositories
      • Recommender Systems
  • Appropriation Infrastructures
      • Among users: create a network of practice around an application
        • Help text wiki
      • Between users and software developers: bridge between the CoPs of designers and CoPs/NoPs of users
        • Requirements tracking system
    • Challenge: Integrate Communication Channels into the software artefact
  • Conclusion
    • Practice-orientation is an interesting framework (vs. purely prescriptive design (methods))
      • Application design
      • Development of methods
    • Core task in social computing
      • Changing existing practices
      • Bridging among different practices
    • Practice-orientation requires long-term (action) research perspective
      • Trustful cooperation with fields of application
      • Reliable technical artefacts
      • Facilitation of socio-technical processes
    • Practice-orientation is a risky research framework
  • Conclusion (2)
    • Related work (STS, ethnography, participatory design)
      • Long-term perspective, design-orientation, focus on knowledge and identity
    • Theoretical Challenges
      • Boundaries of practices need to be understood and negotiated
      • Design implications are sometimes vague (e.g. boundary object)
      • Problems with „abstraction“ and „generalization“ of findings
    • Quality of design is evaluated in social practice
  • Many thanks to my colleagues at the University of Siegen and Fraunhofer FIT
    • Markus Klann
    • Bernhard Nett
    • Volkmar Pipek
    • Tim Reichling
    • Markus Rohde
    • Kai Schubert
    • Gunnar Stevens
    • Anne Weibert
    • Matthias Betz
    • Alexander Boden
    • Christian Dörner
    • Sebastian Draxler
    • Tobias Dyrks
    • Jan Heß
    • Dorothea Kugelmeier
    • Claudia Müller