Creative methods for designing and evaluating user experiences


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  • Appealing: able to trigger positive emotional reactions Satisfaction: being pleased if results matches expectations Pleasure: being pleased with unexpected desirable event Pragmatic attributes Fulfilment of individual’s behavioural goals Manipulation of the environment Hedonic attributes Individual’s psychological well-being Are strong potentials for pleasure “ outstanding”, “impressive”, “exciting”, “interesting”, … Provide stimulation, communicate identity and provoke valued memories Stimulation A product's perceived ability to surprise, to be novel Products should provide new impressions, opportunities and insight E.g. unused features you hope to use in the future Identification A product's ability to communicate a favorable identity relevant others Social function of self-expressivity Evocation The memories attached to a product A product that represents past events, relationships or important thoughts
  • Visceral level Reaction to visual and other sensory aspects of a product Helps us make rapid decisions about what is good, bad, safe, or dangerous Behavioral level Lets us manage simple, everyday behaviors Functionality and usability Can enhance or inhibit both lower-level visceral reactions and higher-level reflective responses Reflective level Involves conscious consideration and reflection on past experiences Can enhance or inhibit behavioral processing, but has no direct access to visceral reactions Accessible only via memory, not through direct interaction or perception
  • Fluent Automatic and skilled interactions with products Riding a bicycle Making the morning coffee Checking the calendar by glancing at the PDA Cognitive Interactions that focus on the product at hand Result in knowledge or confusion and error Trying to identify the flushing mechanism of a toilet in a foreign country Using online algebra tutor to solve a math problem Expressive Interactions that help the user form a relationship to the product Restoring a chair and painting it a different color Setting background images for mobile phones Creating workarounds in complex software Experience Constant stream of “self-talk” that happens when we interact with products Walking in a park Doing light housekeeping Using instant messaging systems An Experience Can be articulated or named Has a beginning and end Inspires behavioral and emotional change Going on a roller coaster ride Watching a movie Discovering an online community of interest Co-Experience Creating meaning and emotion together through product use Interacting with others with a museum exhibit Commenting on a friend’s remodeled kitchen Playing a mobile messaging game with friends
  • Postcards Please tell us a piece of advice or insight that has been important to you What do you dislike about [your home town]? What place does art have in your life? Tell us about your favourite device Maps Where have you been in the world? If [your home town] would be New York, where would you put the statue of liberty, junkies, … Camera Take a picture of your home, what you will wear today, the first person you see today, something desirable, something boring, something red, … …
  • Creative methods for designing and evaluating user experiences

    1. 1. <ul><li>David Geerts </li></ul><ul><li>Research Manager </li></ul><ul><li>Centre for User Experience Research (CUO) </li></ul><ul><li>K.U.Leuven </li></ul>Creative methods for designing and evaluating user experiences
    2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>The User Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis methods </li></ul><ul><li>Requirements specification </li></ul><ul><li>Design methods </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation methods </li></ul> / 50
    3. 3. Agenda <ul><li>The User Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis methods </li></ul><ul><li>Requirements specification </li></ul><ul><li>Design methods </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation methods </li></ul> / 50
    4. 4. First wave HCI (70’s-80’s) <ul><li>Cognitive approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human as information processor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interaction between single user and computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Human factors” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disciplines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive psychology, computer science </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rigid guidelines, controlled experiments, formal methods, user modelling, … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Theories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GOMS (Goals Operators Methods Selection rules), KLM (Keystroke Level Model), Fitt’s law, Hick’s law, … </li></ul></ul> / 50
    5. 5. Second wave HCI (80’s-90’s) <ul><li>Social context </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Groups working with collection of applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work settings and communities of practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Human actors” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disciplines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social sciences, anthropology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnographic observations, participatory design, prototyping, contextual inquiry, … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Theories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Activity theory, situated action, distributed cognition, … </li></ul></ul> / 50
    6. 6. Third wave HCI (90’s-00’s) <ul><li>User experience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Private and public environments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The home, everyday lives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Culture, emotion and experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-work, non-purposeful, non-rational </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disciplines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Design research, cultural studies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exploratory methods, cultural probes, narratives, experience prototyping, … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Theories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional design, four pleasures, threads of experience, … </li></ul></ul> / 50
    7. 7. Designing the user experience? <ul><li>Avoid negative emotions vs. produce positive emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Making products challenging, seductive, playful, surprising, memorable, moody, enjoyable, … </li></ul><ul><li>It is not possible to design the user experience, you can only design for the user experience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exploit design solutions that evoke or intensify certain feelings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A holistic view on designing products </li></ul> / 50
    8. 8. User Experience Models / 50
    9. 9. User Experience Models / 50
    10. 10. A model of user experience (Hassenzahl) / 50
    11. 11. User Experience Models / 50
    12. 12. Emotional design (Norman) / 50
    13. 13. User Experience Models / 50
    14. 14. User-product interactions and experience / 50 ( Forlizzi and Battarbee)
    15. 15. Agenda <ul><li>The User Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis methods </li></ul><ul><li>Requirements specification </li></ul><ul><li>Design methods </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation methods </li></ul> / 50
    16. 16. Cultural probes <ul><li>Collections of evocative tasks meant to elicit inspirational responses from people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Package with e.g. postcards, maps, camera, diaries, … with assignments, often provocative or ambiguous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Materials are returned one by one during a short period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fragmentary clues about users’ lives and thoughts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inspiration, not information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulate imaginations rather than defining problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Openly subjective and playful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use ambiguity, absurdity and mystery </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recognizes and embraces the notion that knowledge has its limits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Values uncertainty, play, exploration and subjective interpretation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Unscientific’ approach, a subversion of traditional HCI methods </li></ul></ul> / 50
    17. 17. / 50
    18. 18. Dante’s Hell / 50
    19. 19. Advantages of cultural probes <ul><li>Provide opportunities to discover new pleasures, new forms of sociability and new cultural forms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not designing solutions to user needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offer possibilities for surprising results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doesn’t focus on an ‘average’ user </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reduce distance between researchers and users </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal, geographic and cultural distance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Through its design and communication, the designers make their intentions clear </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gives a deep sense of familiarity and engagement with the people you design products for </li></ul> / 50
    20. 20. From probes to design <ul><li>Probes are not meant to be rigorously analysed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serve as inspiration for reflecting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t directly lead to designs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Making you aware of the detailed richness of an environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Embraces subjectivity, uncontrolledness and personality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prevent from believing you can look into people’s heads </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Impossible to arrive at comfortable conclusions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand their responses empathetically </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make the strange familiar, and the familiar strange </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Probes are only one source for designing product </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some design decisions directly based on probe returns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create a relationship with users, like designing for a friend </li></ul></ul> / 50
    21. 21. Example cultural probe results / 50
    22. 22. Agenda <ul><li>The User Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis methods </li></ul><ul><li>Requirements specification </li></ul><ul><li>Design methods </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation methods </li></ul> / 50
    23. 23. Extreme characters (Djajadiningrat) <ul><li>Fictional users with exaggerated emotional attitudes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Take another perspective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To highlight cultural issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complementary method, not replacing personas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Character traits can be exposed which normally remain hidden because they are antisocial or in conflict with a person’s status. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is not your user, not based on data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How many extreme characters? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which extreme characters? </li></ul></ul> / 50
    24. 24. Example extreme character for agenda planner <ul><li>The drug dealer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information is very sensitive, cannot fall in the wrong hands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He does not plan far ahead since dealers come and go </li></ul></ul> / 50
    25. 25. / 50
    26. 26. / 50
    27. 27. Agenda <ul><li>The User Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis methods </li></ul><ul><li>Requirements specification </li></ul><ul><li>Design methods </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation methods </li></ul> / 50
    28. 28. Experience prototyping (Buchenau and Suri) <ul><li>“ A form of prototyping that enables design team members, users and clients to gain first-hand appreciation of existing or future conditions through active engagement with prototypes” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the contextual, physical, temporal, sensory, social and cognitive factors we must consider for our design? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the essence of the existing user experience? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are essential factors that our design should preserve? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Example: experience of a heart patient </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Designers were given a pager for a weekend </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When the pager went off, this simulated a defibrillating shock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designers had to record their current experience </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Closely related to role playing </li></ul> / 50
    29. 29. Examples of experience prototyping / 50
    30. 30. Agenda <ul><li>The User Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis methods </li></ul><ul><li>Requirements specification </li></ul><ul><li>Design methods </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation methods </li></ul> / 50
    31. 31. UX evaluation methods <ul><li>Most amount of new methods in this category </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A lot of research in this area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New methods or variations are being discussed at several conferences (e.g. see ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Different classifications possible, based on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal or non-verbal measurement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quantitative or qualitative results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phase in the design process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General type of evaluation (lab, field, survey, …) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Analysis, design or evaluation? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some methods could be used in several stages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only evaluation when interaction with product is the focus </li></ul></ul> / 50
    32. 32. Verbal vs. non-verbal methods <ul><li>Non-verbal observation methods (‘objective’) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Language independent, unobtrusive, more objective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited set of basic emotions, no combination of emotions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psycho-physiological measurement, facereading, emotion heuristics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Verbal self-report methods (‘subjective’) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subjective feelings measured through self-report </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can represent any set of emotions, can measure combinations of emotions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to apply between cultures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Questionnaires, rating scales, laddering </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Non-verbal self-report methods (‘subjective’) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subjective feelings, distinct or combinations of emotions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not require subjects to verbalize emotions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM), Product Emotion Measurement Instrument (PrEmo), Emocards </li></ul></ul> / 50
    33. 33. Means End Theory <ul><li>A theory to understand how specific features or attributes (means) of a product relate to personal values (ends) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People choose a product because it has attributes (the means) that provide consequences and fulfilling personal values (the ends) </li></ul></ul>
    34. 35. Examples <ul><li>Attributes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>colour, taste, design, … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consequences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional: price, quality, user-friendliness, … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psycho-social: habits, reliability, … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Values </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Health, security, fun, social power, … </li></ul></ul> / 50
    35. 36. <ul><li>Glass => transparent, see what is in it => make sure it is healthy => my children deserve the best => I am a good mom </li></ul><ul><li>Glass => can be cleaned and reused => environmentally friendly => save the planet </li></ul><ul><li>Plastic => light => easily disposible => practical => more time for more important things => you have to be productive and get ahead in life </li></ul>Example: Yoghurt packaging
    36. 37. <ul><li>One particular method for researching means-end chains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not the only one but the most popular in consumer research because it proved to be superior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Entails both a </li></ul><ul><ul><li>qualitative technique (which ladders) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How to interview </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>quantitative technique (which are dominant) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How to analyze data and generalize from it </li></ul></ul></ul>Laddering
    37. 38. <ul><ul><li>Graphs the dominant links in a hierarchical value map (HVM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>association network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>meaningful couplings between attributes, consequences and values. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(reynolds and Gutman, 1988) </li></ul></ul>Hierarchical Value Map
    38. 39. How to perform laddering <ul><li>One-to-one in-depth interviews </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Researcher asks question ‘what do you like about [product x]’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After first answer, question is reformulated to ‘what do you like about [answer]’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reveals the relation between </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Product attributes (A) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product consequences (C) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User’s values (V) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Results in means-end chain </li></ul> / 50
    39. 40. Example of laddering interview / 50 Researcher: I forgot again, which one did you like most? Child stands up and points at the bird Oh yes, the bird, can you tell me why? &quot;Because I like it&quot; Ah, because you like it, and can you tell me why? &quot;The tumbling it makes” [A] Ah, the tumbling it makes, and why is that nice? &quot;Because that is so funny” [C] Ah, and why do you like it when it is funny? &quot;Because it is really cool that it can make a looping&quot; [A] Ah, and why do you like that it makes a looping? &quot;Because sometimes they fall on their bum and they do funny&quot;[A-C] Ah, and why do you like that it is funny? &quot;That they fall on their bum&quot; [A]
    40. 41. Example means-end chain / 50
    41. 42. Example means-end chain / 50
    42. 43. AttrakDiff evaluation (Hassenzahl) / 50
    43. 44. AttrakDiff results / 50
    44. 45. Emocards (Desmet) / 50
    45. 46. Example analysis emocards (Wimmer e.a.) / 50
    46. 47. Sensual Evaluation Instrument (Isbister e.a.) <ul><li>A tool for self-assessment of affect while interacting with computer systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subjective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Real-time feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transcending language and cultural barriers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No distortion through verbalization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More fun for the user </li></ul></ul> / 50
    47. 48. Example analysis SEI (Wimmer e.a.) / 50
    48. 49. Example analysis SEI (Wimmer e.a.) / 50
    49. 50. Questions? [email_address]