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  • Transcript

    • 1. Environmental Hazards and Human Health Chapter 17
    • 2. Risk Assessment and Risk Management• Process of Risk Assessment • 1. Hazard identification • 2. Dose-response assessment • 3. Exposure assessment • 4. Risk Characterization
    • 3. Risk Assessment and Risk Management• Risk Management • cost analysis of remediating specific hazard • establishing legal limits for discharge, exposure, and allowable levels of the hazards • EPA makes recommendation. But only the Congress can make the recommendation into law.
    • 4. Types of Hazards• Biological• Chemical• Physical• Cultural
    • 5. Biological Hazards• Non-transmissible diseases • slow development • cardiovascular diseases, most cancers, asthma, diabetes, malnutrition• Infectious diseases • A pathogen (bacterium, virus, or parasite) invades the body and multiplies in its cells and tissues • Diseases can be transmitted from one person to another. • flu, HIV, malaria, tuberculosis
    • 6. Epidemic vs. Pandemic• Epidemic • an outbreak of an infectious disease that is limited to one area or region• Pandemic • an infectious disease spreads globally
    • 7. Diseases to Know• Influenza • Common flu, avian influenza (H5N1), and Swine influenza (H1N1)• HIV• Malaria• Diarrheal diseases• Tuberculosis (TB)• Hepatitis B• Measles• Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)• West Nile Virus
    • 8. Chemical Hazards• Toxic chemicals • Persistence • Solubility • Biomagnification
    • 9. Dose-Response Curve• LD 50 • Median lethal dosage• “response” • negative health effect
    • 10. Types of Chemicals that lead to chemical hazards• Carcinogen• Mutagen• Teratogens• Some chemicals can cause severe damage to human immune system, nervous system, and endocrine system
    • 11. Some Common Chemical Toxins• PCBs • used as electrical insulators, fire retardant materials, pesticides, and as adhesives (banned in the U.S.) • neurotoxin causing brain damage in fetuses • endocrine disruptor causing reproductive
    • 12. Some Common Chemical Toxins• Mercury (cont’d) • Mercury is found in batteries and fluorescent lights. • Inorganic mercury released from coal burning is converted to toxic methylmercury by bacteria. • Enters the food chain and biomagnify
    • 13. Some Common Chemical Toxins• Benzene • Source: emission from burning coal and oil and tobacco smoke • short-term exposure: dizziness and nausea • long-term exposure: damage to the liver and reproductive system, cancer, and
    • 14. Some Common Chemical Toxins• DDT, PCBs, and phthalates • DDT: banned in the U.S. in 1972; but still used in developing countries to control malaria and pests • phthalates: used in the production of plastics • They are known as HAA: Hormonally
    • 15. Legislation to Regulate Chemical Toxins• FIFRA: Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act • Authorize EPA to regulate the sale, packaging, distributing, and disposal of pesticides • May suspend the use of pesticides that are found to pose unreasonable risks to human or wildlife
    • 16. Legislation to Regulate Chemical Toxins• Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 • Outlined requirements for assessing tolerance levels for pesticides • Provides extra funding for the protection of infant and children• Emergency Planning and Community Right- to-Know Act (or simply Right-to-Know
    • 17. Cultural Hazards• Poverty • greatest risk in developing countries • increases the chance of being exposed to infectious disease from living in crowded conditions with inadequate availability to sanitary conditions including clean drinking water
    • 18. Cultural Hazards• In developed countries... • reduce risk of death by avoiding smoking, improving eating habits, getting adequate exercise, and limiting alcohol intake, practicing safe sex

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