PERCEPTION

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  • PERCEPTION

    1. 3. WHAT IS PERCEPTION?
    2. 4. PERCEPTION OF ONE INDIVIDUAL DIFFERS FROM ANOTHER
    3. 5. REALITY VS. PERCEPTION
    4. 6. SENSATION VS PERCEPTION….
    5. 7. SUBPROCESSES OF PERCEPTION
    6. 8. SUBPROCESSES OF PERCEPTION CONTD….
    7. 9. PERCEPTUAL SELECTIVITY <ul><li>EXTERNAL ATTENTION FACTORS </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>INTENSITY </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SIZE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CONTRAST </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>REPETITION </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MOTION </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NOVELTY AND FAMILIARITY </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>INTERNAL SET FACTORS </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LEARNING AND PERCEPTION </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MOTIVATION AND PERCEPTION </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PERSONALITY AND PERCEPTION </li></ul></ul></ul>
    8. 12. FACTORS INFLUENCING PERCEPTION <ul><li>PERCEIVER </li></ul><ul><li>ATTITUDE </li></ul><ul><li>MOTIVES </li></ul><ul><li>INTERESTS </li></ul><ul><li>EXPERIENCES </li></ul><ul><li>EXPECTATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>TARGET </li></ul><ul><li>NOVELTY </li></ul><ul><li>MOTIVES </li></ul><ul><li>SOUNDS </li></ul><ul><li>SIZE BACKGROUND </li></ul><ul><li>PROXIMITY </li></ul><ul><li>SITUATION </li></ul><ul><li>TIME </li></ul><ul><li>WORK ENVIRONMENT </li></ul><ul><li>SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT </li></ul>
    9. 13. PERCEPTUAL ORGANIZATION <ul><li>FIGURE GROUND </li></ul><ul><li>PERCEPTUAL GROUPING </li></ul><ul><li>CLOSURE </li></ul><ul><li>PERCEPTUAL CONSTANCY </li></ul><ul><li>PERCEPTUAL CONTEXT </li></ul><ul><li>PERCEPTUAL DEFENSE </li></ul>
    10. 14. SOCIAL PERCEPTION <ul><li>SOCIAL PERCEPTION DEALS WITH </li></ul><ul><li>HOW AN INDIVIDUAL PERCEIVES OTHER INDIVIDUALS </li></ul><ul><li>HOW AN INDIVIDUAL GETS TO KNOW OTHER INDIVIDUALS </li></ul><ul><li>SOCIAL PERCEPTION IS INFLUENCED BY </li></ul><ul><li>CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PERCEIVER </li></ul><ul><li>IF AN INDIVIDUAL UNDERSTANDS HIS OWN PERSONALITY WELL IT HELPS HIM TO UNDERSTAND OTHERS ACCURATELY </li></ul><ul><li>PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF AN INDIVIDUAL MAY AFFECT THE WAY HE PERCEIVES OTHERS </li></ul><ul><li>INDIVIDUALS WITH HIGH SELF ESTEEM IS MORE LIKELY TO PERCEIVE FAVOURABLE ASPECTS IN OTHERS ASWELL </li></ul><ul><li>ACCURACY OF PERCEPTION IS NOT BASED ONE SKILL BUT INVOLVES MANY SKILLS </li></ul><ul><li>CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PERCEIVED </li></ul><ul><li>THE STATUS OF THE PERSON BEING PERCEIVED INFLUENCES THE PERCEPTION OF THE PERCEIVER </li></ul><ul><li>THE WAY A PERSON IS PERCEIVED IS INFLUENCED BY VISIBLE TRAITS OF THE PERSON WHICH OFTEN TENDS TO PREJUDICE THE PERCEIVER </li></ul>
    11. 15. FACTORS AFFECTING SOCIAL PERCEPTION <ul><li>ATTRIBUTION – THE PROCESS OF SEARCHING FOR CASUAL FACTORS OR ATTRIBUTES BY WHICH PEOPLE INTERPRET THE CAUSE OF THEIR OWN OR OTHERS BEHAVIOR </li></ul><ul><li>HELPS TO MAKE SENSE OF ONE ANOTHER’S BEHAVIOR </li></ul><ul><li>HELPS TO DRAW CONCLUSION ABOUT THE FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE BEHAVIOR </li></ul><ul><li>INFLUENCES HOW ONE EVALUATES OTHER’S PERFORMANCES </li></ul><ul><li>HELPS DETERMINE ONE’S ATTITUDE TOWARD WORK AND JOB SATISFACTION </li></ul><ul><li>ATTRIBUTION CAN BE CLASSIFIED AS </li></ul><ul><li>DISPOSITIONAL ATTRIBUTION – A PERSON’S BEHAVIOR IS ATTRIBUTED TO THE INTERNAL FACTORS THAT CHARACTERIZE THE PERSON SUCH AS PERSONALITY, MOTIVATION AND ABILITY </li></ul><ul><li>SITUATIONAL ATTRIBUTION – A PERSON’S BEHAVIOR IS ATTRIBUTED TO THE FACTORS EXTERNAL TO THE PERSON SUCH AS SOCIAL INFLUENCE, WORK CONDITIONS ETC. </li></ul>
    12. 16. FACTORS AFFECTING SOCIAL PERCEPTION CONTD … <ul><li>STEREOTYPING – IT IS THE TENDENCY OF GENERALISING THE CHARACTERISTICS OF ALL MEMBERS OF A GROUP </li></ul><ul><li>IT SIMPLIFIES THE PROCESS OF MANAGING STIMULI </li></ul><ul><li>IT IS MOST OF THE TIME INACCURATE </li></ul><ul><li>INACCURATE STEREOTYPING LEADS TO BIASED AND PREJUDICED ACTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>IT IS WIDESPREAD DESPITE THE FACT THAT IT MIGHT BE INACCURATE OR IRRELEVENT </li></ul>
    13. 17. <ul><li>THE HALO EFFECT – FORMING PERCEPTIONS ON THE BASIS OF A SINGLE CHARACTERISTIC (DOMINANT TRAIT) LIKE INTELLIGENCE, SOCIABILITY, AGGRESSIVENESS ETC. </li></ul><ul><li>IT IS COMMONLY SEEN IN PERFORMANCE APPRAISALS </li></ul><ul><li>IT IS A COMMON ERROR MADE BY PERFORMANCE APPRAISERS </li></ul><ul><li>THERE ARE TWO COMPONENTS TO HALO EFFECT – TRUE OR ILLUSORY </li></ul><ul><li>IF APPRAISERS GET IMPRESSED BY A PARTICULAR TRAIT OF A PERSON HE TENDS TO GIVE A HIGH RATING TO ALL OTHER TRAITS OF THAT PERSON HENCE MAKING A GENERAL EVALUATION AND SPECIFIC JUDGMENTS WHICH LEADS TO INFLATED CORRELATION AMONG THE RATING PARAMETERS </li></ul><ul><li>IT IS MOST LIKELY TO OCCUR WHEN </li></ul><ul><li>WHEN THE PERCEIVER IS NOT FAMILIAR WITH THE TRAITS OR DOESN’T FREQUENTLY ENCOUNTER THESE TRAITS </li></ul><ul><li>THE TRAITS ARE AMBIGUOUS AND CANNOT BE CLEARLY EXPRESSED IN TERMS OF BEHAVIOR </li></ul><ul><li>WHEN THE TRAITS HAVE MORAL IMPLICATIONS </li></ul>FACTORS AFFECTING SOCIAL PERCEPTION CONTD …
    14. 18. IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT <ul><li>IT IS SOMETIMES REFERRED TO AS ‘SELF – PRESENTATION’ </li></ul><ul><li>IT IS THE PROCESS BY WHICH PEOPLE TRY TO MANAGE OR CONTROL PERCEPTIONS FORMED BY OTHER PEOPLE ABOUT THEM </li></ul><ul><li>IT IS USED BY SOME PEOPLE AS A SHORTCUT TO ACHIEVE SUCCESS </li></ul><ul><li>IT IS ALSO USED TO OBTAIN APPROVAL, TO COMAND RESPECT IN SOCEITY OR TO PROJECT SELF IMAGE AND SATIFY ONE’S NEED FOR SELF ESTEEM </li></ul><ul><li>TECHNIQUES USED FOR IMPRESION MANAGENENT </li></ul><ul><li>SELF PROMOTION – PROJECTION OF COMPETENCE AND EFFECTIVENESS OF INDIVIDUALS TO GAIN RESPECT FROM OTHERS </li></ul><ul><li>SUPPLICATION – PROJECTION OF WEAKNESS AND IRRESPONSIBILITY TO OBTAIN CONCERN AND ATTENTION OF OTHERS </li></ul><ul><li>EXEMPLIFICATION – PROJECTION OF BEING ETHICAL AND SOCIALLY RESPONSIBLE </li></ul><ul><li>INTIMIDATION – PROJECTION OF BEING FIERCE AND POWERFUL IN ORDER TO CREATE FEAR AMONGST OTHERS </li></ul><ul><li>INGRATIATION – PROJECTION OF TRAITS IN A MANNER THAT MAKES ONE LIKABLE </li></ul><ul><li>ORGANISATIONS ALSO ENGAGE IN THESE TECNIQUES TO ESTABLISH THEIR LEGITIMACY AND IMPRESS SHAREHOLDERS </li></ul><ul><li>USING THESE TECHNIQUES PEOPLE OFTEN CONTROL THE INFORMATION PRESENTED TO THE AUDIENCE AND AT TIMES TRY TO DECEIVE THE AUDIENCE </li></ul><ul><li>EXTROVERTS OFTEN POTRAY AN IMAGE THAT CONFORMS WITH THE AUDIENCE IRRESPECTIVE OF THEIR VIEWS ON THAT PARTICULAR ISSUE. INTROVERTS ON THE OTHER HAND MAY RESIST CONFORMITY WITH THE AUDIENCE. </li></ul><ul><li>RESEARCH HAS SHOWN THAT INGRATITIATION HAS THE MOST POSITIVE IMPACT </li></ul>
    15. 19. IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT CONTD … <ul><li>THE PROCESS </li></ul><ul><li>LIKE MANY OTHER COGNITIVE PROCESSES IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT ALSO INCLUDES MANY CONCEPTUAL DIMENSIONS. MANY RESEARCHES HAVE BEEN CONDUCTED ON IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT TO STUDY ITS RELATION TO AGGRESSION, ATTITUDE, ATTRIBUTIONS ETC. </li></ul><ul><li>BEHAVIORAL SCIENTISTS HAVE IDENTIFIED TWO NEW COMPONENTS OF IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>IMPRESSION MOTIVATION – IT IS APPLICABLE IN ORGANIZATIONS WHERE EMPLOYEES TRY TO CONTROL THE PERCEPTIONS FORMED BY THEIR SUPERIORS ABOUT THEM. </li></ul><ul><li>THE EXTENT OF CONTROL DEPENDS ON </li></ul><ul><li>RELEVANCE OF THE IMPRESSION IN HELPING THE INDIVIDUAL REACH HIS GOALS </li></ul><ul><li>THE VALUE OF THE GOALS TO THE INDIVIDUAL </li></ul><ul><li>THE CONTRADICTION BETWEEN THE IMAGE THE INDIVIDUAL WOULD LIKE TO PORTRAY AND THE IMAGE HE BELIEVES OTHERS ALREADY HAVE ABOUT HIM </li></ul><ul><li>IMPRESSION CONSTRUCTION – THIS METHOD IS ADOPTED BY A PERSON TO CREATE A SPECIFIC IMPRESSION. THE IMPRESSION MAY BE RELATED TO VARIOUS FACTORS LIKE PERSONALITY, ATTITUDE, INTERESTS AND VALUES. </li></ul><ul><li>THE FACTORS INVOLVED IN TYPE OF IMPRESSIONS PEOPLE WANT TO CREATE </li></ul><ul><li>SELF CONCEPT </li></ul><ul><li>DESIRED AND UNDESIRED IDENTITY </li></ul><ul><li>ROLE CONSTRAINTS </li></ul><ul><li>VALUE OF THE TARGET </li></ul><ul><li>CURRENT SOCIAL IMAGE </li></ul>
    16. 20. IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT CONTD … <ul><li>STRATEGIES </li></ul><ul><li>DEMOTION PREVENTIVE STRATEGIES – USED BY EMPLOYEES WHO WANT TO MINIMIZE RESPONSIBILITY FOR A NEGATIVE OUTCOME OR TO STAY OUT OF TROUBLE </li></ul><ul><li>ITS CHARACTERISTICS ARE </li></ul><ul><li>ACCOUNTS – WHEN AN EMPLOYEE GIVES JUSTIFICATION OF A NEGATIVE OUTCOME BY GIVING EXCUSES TO HIS SUPERIOR </li></ul><ul><li>APOLOGIES – WHEN AN EMPLOYEE IS UNABLE TO COME UP WITH AN EXCUSE TO SUPPORT HIS ACTIONS AND SEEKS APOLOGY TO HIS SUPERIOR INSTEAD, GIVING AN IMPRESSION OF REGRET </li></ul><ul><li>DISASSOCIATION – WHEN AN EMPLOYEE IS DIRECTLY NOT RESPONSIBLE FOR A NEGATIVE OUTCOME, THEY MAY TRY TO DISASSOCIATE THEMSELVES FROM THOSE WHO WERE RESPONSIBLE FOR THE OUTCOME </li></ul>
    17. 21. IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT CONTD … <ul><li>STRATEGIES CONTD … </li></ul><ul><li>PROMOTION ENHANCING STRATEGY – USED BY EMPLOYEES WHO WANT TO MAXIMIZE THEIR RESPONSIBILITY FOR A POSITIVE OUTCOME OR TO IMPROVE THEIR IMAGE </li></ul><ul><li>ITS CHARACTERISTICS ARE </li></ul><ul><li>ENTITLEMENTS – PERCEPTION OF AN EMPLOYEE THAT HE HAS NOT GOT HIS DUE CREDIT FOR A POSITIVE OUTCOME AND MAY TRY TO MAKE THIS KNOW TO HIS SUPERIOR THROUGH FORMAL OR INFORMAL CHANNELS </li></ul><ul><li>ENHANCEMENTS – SOMETIMES THE EFFORT OF AN EMPLOYEE MAY RESULT IN AN OUTCOME THAT DELIVERS MUCH MORE THAT WHAT WAS EXPECTED. ALTHOUGH THE EMPLOYEE MIGHT HAVE BEEN REWARDED FOR A POSITIVE OUTCOME BUT HE MIGHT THINK THAT HE DESERVES MUCH MORE THAT WHAT HE RECEIVED </li></ul><ul><li>OBSTACLE DISCLOSURE – UNDER THIS STRATEGY THE EMPLOYEE TRIES TO IMPRESS HIS SUPERIOR BY MAKING HIM AWARE OF THE PERSONAL AND THE ORGANIZATIONAL HURDLES HE HAD TO OVERCOME TO ACHIEVE A POSITIVE OUTCOME </li></ul><ul><li>ASSOCIATION – AN EMPLOYEE TRIES TO BE SEEN WITH THE RIGHT PEOPLE AT THE RIGHT TIME AND BY DOING SO HE GIVES THE IMPRESSION THAT HE IS ASSOCIATED WITH SUCCESSFUL PEOPLE </li></ul>
    18. 22. LINKAGE BETWEEN PERCEPTION AND INDIVIDUAL DECISION - MAKING <ul><li>DICISION MAKING FORMS AN IMPORTANT AND IS AN ON GOING ACTIVITY IN OUR LIVES </li></ul><ul><li>DECISION MAKING BY AN INDIVIDUAL IS IN RESPONSE TO A PROBLEM </li></ul><ul><li>THE NEED FOR DECISION MAKING ARISES WHEN THERE IS A DISCREPENCY BETWEEN THE CURRENT STATE AND THE DESIRED STATE </li></ul><ul><li>THE AWARENESS OF THE EXISTANCE OF A PROBLEM AND THE REALIZATION OF THE NEED TO MAKE A DECISION DEPENDS ON ONES’S PERCEPTION </li></ul><ul><li>PERCEPTION PLAYS AN IMPORTANT ROLE AS IT INFLUENCES THE PROCESS OF DECISION MAKING AND ITS QUALITY </li></ul>
    19. 23. <ul><li>“ If the doors of perception were cleansed every thing would appear to man as it is, infinite. For man has closed himself up, till he sees all things through narrow chinks of his cavern.“ </li></ul><ul><li>~ WILLIAM BLAKE </li></ul>

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