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Long term memory
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Long term memory


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memory …

and one of the type of a memory is long term memory
further details are in the presentation.
how long term memory works

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  • Hamza
  • Qistaas
  • M.ALI
  • Transcript

    • 1. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Hamza Bin Aamir Sidra Qistaas M.Ali AmaanUllah
    • 2.     The place where data is stored for a Long time. Long term memory is very large! It is robust. Information can be encoded, stored, and retrieved.
    • 3.  Declarative: memory for facts!  Procedural: memory for skills and procedure.
    • 4.  Semantic : words, concepts, information that can be described and applied.  Episodic : personal experiences and events.  Emotional : learned emotional responses to various stimuli (e.g., fear response when seeing spiders etc.).
    • 5. Anterograde amnesia: the inability to form new explicit long-term memories for events following brain trauma or surgery. Explicit memories formed before are left intact. Cause possibly is damage to hippocampus  Retrograde amnesia: the disruption of memory for the past, especially espisodic memory. After brain trauma or surgery, there often is retrograde amnesia for events occurring just before.  Infantile/child amnesia: the inability as adults to remember events that occurred in our lives before about 3 years of age. Due possibly to fact that hippocampus is not fully developed. 
    • 6. Recall: Direct retrieval of facts or information Serial Position Effect: • Hardest to recall items in the middle of a list • Primacy effect: easier to remember items first in a list than items in the middle, because first items are studied the most • Recency effect: easier to remember items last in a list than items in the middle, because the last items were last studied
    • 7. Sensory Short Term 1. Large capacity 1. Limited capacity 2. Contains sensory 2. Acoustically information encoded 3. Very brief 3. Brief storage (up retention (1/2 sec to 30 seconds w/o for visual; 2 secs for rehearsal) auditory) 4. Conscious processing of information Long Term 1.Unlimited capacity 2.Semantically encoded 3.Storage presumed permanent 4.Information highly organized
    • 8. • Recall: a measure of long-term memory retrieval that requires the reproduction of the information with essentially no retrieval cues. • Recognition: a measure of long-term memory retrieval that only requires the identification of the information in the presence of retrieval cues. • Relearning: the savings method of measuring long-term memory retrieval, in which the measure is the amount of time saved when learning information for the second time.
    • 9. Encoding failure theory: a theory that proposes that forgetting is due to the failure to encode the information into long-term memory
    • 10. Storage decay theory: a theory that proposes that forgetting is due to the decay of physical traces of the information in the brain; periodically using the information helps to maintain it in the brain The “Use it or lose it” theory!
    • 11. Interference theory: a theory that proposes that forgetting is due to other information in memory interfering Proactive interference: old information interferes with the retrieval of newly-stored information Retroactive Interference: newly-stored information interferes with the retrieval of previously-stored information
    • 12. Cue-dependent theory: a theory that proposes that forgetting is due to the unavailability of the retrieval cues necessary to locate the information in long-term memory. This is one explanation for why we do not seem to have many memories from early childhood (ages 3 to 6 or so)
    • 13. Strengthen existing synapses. Create new synapses. Grow new neurons     Strong evidence from primate studies (Gould et al (1999).
    • 14. The more we process information, the better it is remembered.  The longer we are exposed to information, the better we remember it.  The more we rehearse a piece of information, the higher its probability of being remembered 
    • 15. Mnemonics: a memory aid Method of loci: a mnemonic in which sequential pieces of information are encoded by associating them with sequential locations in a very familiar room or location.  Peg-word system: a mnemonic in which the items in a list to be remembered are associated with the sequential items in a memorized jingle (“Every good boy does fine”)  Spacing (distributed study) effect: long-term memory is better when spaced study is used than when massed study (cramming) is used  
    • 16.  Changes in the structure of neurons due to increased use.  Causes both the pre and postsynaptic neuron to become more efficient.
    • 17. Knowledge of Results: Feedback allowing you to check your progress Recitation: Summarizing aloud while you are learning Rehearsal: Reviewing information mentally (silently) Selection: Selecting most important concepts to memorize Organization: Organizing difficult items into chunks; a type of reordering
    • 18. Whole Learning: Studying an entire package of information at once, like a poem Part Learning: Studying subparts of a larger body of information (like text chapters) Progressive Part Learning: Breaking learning task into a series of short sections Serial Position Effect: Making most errors while remembering the middle of the list Overlearning: Studying is continued beyond bare mastery
    • 19. Spaced Practice: Alternating study sessions with brief rest periods Massed Practice: Studying for long periods without rest periods • Lack of sleep decreases retention; sleep aids consolidation • Hunger decreases retention
    • 20. Mnemonics: Memory “tricks”; any kind of memory system or aid - Using mental pictures - Making things meaningful - Making information familiar - Forming bizarre, unusual or exaggerated mental associations