Hamza Bin Aamir
The place where data is stored for a Long
Long term memory is very large!
It is robust.
Information can be encoded, stored, and
Procedural: memory for
skills and procedure.
Semantic : words, concepts, information that can be
described and applied.
Episodic : personal experiences and events.
Emotional : learned emotional responses to various
stimuli (e.g., fear response when seeing spiders etc.).
Anterograde amnesia: the inability to form new
explicit long-term memories for events following
brain trauma or surgery. Explicit memories formed
before are left intact. Cause possibly is damage to
Retrograde amnesia: the disruption of memory for
the past, especially espisodic memory. After brain
trauma or surgery, there often is retrograde amnesia
for events occurring just before.
Infantile/child amnesia: the inability as adults to
remember events that occurred in our lives before
about 3 years of age. Due possibly to fact that
hippocampus is not fully developed.
Recall: Direct retrieval of facts or information
Serial Position Effect:
• Hardest to recall items in the middle of a list
• Primacy effect: easier to remember items first in a list than
items in the middle, because first items are studied the most
• Recency effect: easier to remember items last in a list
than items in the middle, because the last items were last
1. Large capacity
1. Limited capacity
2. Contains sensory
3. Very brief
3. Brief storage (up
retention (1/2 sec
to 30 seconds w/o
for visual; 2 secs for
• Recall: a measure of long-term memory retrieval that
requires the reproduction of the information with essentially no
• Recognition: a measure of long-term memory retrieval that
only requires the identification of the information in the
presence of retrieval cues.
• Relearning: the savings method of measuring long-term
memory retrieval, in which the measure is the amount of time
saved when learning information for the second time.
Encoding failure theory: a theory that proposes that
forgetting is due to the failure to encode the information into
Storage decay theory: a theory that proposes that forgetting
is due to the decay of physical traces of the information in the
brain; periodically using the information helps to maintain it in
The “Use it or lose it” theory!
Interference theory: a theory that proposes that forgetting is
due to other information in memory interfering
Proactive interference: old information interferes with the
retrieval of newly-stored information
Retroactive Interference: newly-stored information interferes
with the retrieval of previously-stored information
Cue-dependent theory: a theory that proposes that
forgetting is due to the unavailability of the retrieval cues
necessary to locate the information in long-term memory.
This is one explanation for why we do not seem to have
many memories from early childhood (ages 3 to 6 or so)
Strengthen existing synapses.
Create new synapses.
Grow new neurons
Strong evidence from primate studies (Gould et
The more we process information, the better it is
The longer we are exposed to information, the
better we remember it.
The more we rehearse a piece of information, the
higher its probability of being remembered
Mnemonics: a memory aid
Method of loci: a mnemonic in which sequential
pieces of information are encoded by
associating them with sequential locations in a
very familiar room or location.
Peg-word system: a mnemonic in which the
items in a list to be remembered are associated
with the sequential items in a memorized jingle
(“Every good boy does fine”)
Spacing (distributed study) effect: long-term
memory is better when spaced study is used
than when massed study (cramming) is used
Changes in the structure of
neurons due to increased use.
Causes both the pre and postsynaptic neuron to become more
Knowledge of Results: Feedback allowing you to check your
Recitation: Summarizing aloud while you are learning
Rehearsal: Reviewing information mentally (silently)
Selection: Selecting most important concepts to memorize
Organization: Organizing difficult items into chunks; a type of
Whole Learning: Studying an entire package of
information at once, like a poem
Part Learning: Studying subparts of a larger body of
information (like text chapters)
Progressive Part Learning: Breaking learning task into a
series of short sections
Serial Position Effect: Making most errors while
remembering the middle of the list
Overlearning: Studying is continued beyond bare mastery
Spaced Practice: Alternating study sessions with brief rest
Massed Practice: Studying for long periods without rest
• Lack of sleep decreases retention; sleep aids consolidation
• Hunger decreases retention
Mnemonics: Memory “tricks”; any kind of memory system
- Using mental pictures
- Making things meaningful
- Making information familiar
- Forming bizarre, unusual or exaggerated mental