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The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
The perfume industry
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The perfume industry

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  • 3 CNS DEPPRESENTS2 CNS IRRITANTS1 SENSITIZER2 RESPIRATORY CNS2 NARCOTICS 3 CARCINOGENS
  • Transcript

    • 1. The Perfume Industry Presented by: Group# 9
    • 2. Group Members • Sidra Liaqat • Sidra Shakoor • Syeda Mahgul Babar • Anam Talat Mirza • Ambreen Parvaiz • Fatima jinnah women university BES
    • 3. Introduction
    • 4. What Is Perfume? • First time use of perfume • Perfume is Latin word
    • 5. History
    • 6. History Of Perfume • Art of perfumery • Egyptian perfumery influenced the Greeks and the Romans
    • 7. Perfume In Egypt • Considered the most suitable for the manufacture of perfume • Distillation of alcohol • Famous Egyptian perfumes made in city of Mendes in the Delta
    • 8. Perfume In Greek • Greece via the Phoenicians • Old Greek improved the Egyptian techniques • They use different perfume for each part of body
    • 9. Perfume In Romans • The Roman Empire perfume was only used at religious events • They spoiled, even sprinkled perfume on floors and walls • They rubbed horses and dogs with it
    • 10. Perfume In Arab • Perfume use in daily life • Muslims used amber musk and roses • Religious aspect
    • 11. Perfume In The Middle Ages • The knowledge of the perfume production could develop thanks to the increase of the universities in large cities • Ladies sprinkled their fineries and homes with brushes like aspergilla for religious ceremonies
    • 12. Perfume In 20th Century • People working in French perfume industry • The world exhibition of Paris in 1900 became the crown
    • 13. Materials Used In Perfumes For Flavor
    • 14. Materials Used In Perfume For Flavor • Most expensive floral absolutes are so costly because the yield of oil is so low • 1 Kg of Rose Otto for example 10,000 Kg of roses are needed • 95% of chemicals used in fragrances are synthetic compounds derived from petroleum
    • 15. Pinene From Turpentine • Turpentine is one of the volatile oils that can be extracted from pine wood • Volatile amber liquid, with a density of 0.85g cm-3
    • 16. Turpene Sulfur Compunds • Group of hydrocarbons • Oligomers of isoprene, 2-methyl-1, 3-butadiene • Contain cyclic structures and double bonding
    • 17. Citral Extracts • • • • • • • Lemon myrtle (90-98%) Litsea citrata (90%) Litsea cubeba (70-85%) Lemongrass (65-85%) Lemon tea-tree (70-80%) Ocimum gratissimum (66.5%) Lindera citriodora (about 65%)
    • 18. Anasaldehyde from Anethole • Organic compound, commonly encountered in the fragrances • Synthetic and natural • Consists of a benzene ring substituted with an aldehyde and a methoxy group
    • 19. Hotrienol from Linalool • Hotrienol is leaf oil but their enantiomer found in green and black tea • Elder flower, grapes, berry and honey flavors • It can be prepare from linalool obtain from citrus oil but most linalool is obtain
    • 20. SYNTHETIC MATERIALS • 4-tert-butylcyclohexyl acetate (woody note, violet note) • α-amylcinnamaldehyde (jasmine) • 4- tert-butyl-α-methylhydrocinnamaldehyde (cyclamen)
    • 21. SEMI-SYNTHETIC MATERIALS USED IN PERFUME MAKING • Hydroxycitronellal • Geranyl Acetate • Ionones
    • 22. Hydroxycitronellal from Citronellal •. Hydroxycitronella: liquid hydroxy aldehyde (CH3)2C(OH) obtained by hydration of citronellal and used in perfumery to impart an odor. •Sources: Eucalypt Herbs such wormwood.
    • 23. • Properties: Not soluble in glycerin or water Soluble in benzyl alcohol, essential oils, ethyl alcohol, fixed oils and paraffin oil It must be kept in tightly closed containers. • Consumer industry Found in : Shampoos Flavoring Fragrance Laundry detergents Fabric conditioners
    • 24. Geranyl Acetate Natural organic compound •Properties: A colorless liquid with a pleasant floral or fruity rose aroma. Insoluble in water, but soluble in some organic solvents such as alcohol and oil. •Consumer Industries Primarily as a component of perfumes for creams and soaps and as a flavoring ingredient
    • 25. Ionones • Ionones are aroma compounds found in a variety of essential oils, including rose oil. • Important fragrance chemical used in perfumery
    • 26. Fixatives • A substance used to reduce the evaporation rate and improve stability when added to more volatile components
    • 27. Substances of Low Volatility • Cyclopentadecanolide: It is extracted from vanilla bean. It has a very vast use in fragrance/perfume industry and flavoring. • Ambroxide: This material is commonly used in perfumery and it gives a woody flavor or scent to the perfume.
    • 28. Odorless Solvents with Very Low Vapor Pressures Benzyl benzoate: It is a derivative of benzoic acid and is very vastly used in the making of medicines and in perfumery and cosmetic industry Diethyl phthalate: It shows very low hazardous effects and toxicity. It is also used in plastic industries
    • 29. Raw Materials Used In Perfume Manufacturing
    • 30. Raw Materials • Natural ingredients—flowers, grasses, spices, fruit, wood, roots, resins, balsams as well as resources like alcohol, petrochemicals, are used in the manufacture of perfumes • Some plants, such as lily of the valley, do not produce oils naturally • In fact, only about 2,000 of the 250,000 known flowering plant species contain these essential oils
    • 31. Animal Products • Some perfume ingredients are animal products. For example, castor comes from beavers, musk from male deer, and ambergris from the sperm whale. • Animal substances are often used as fixatives that enable perfume to evaporate slowly and emit odors longer. • Alcohol and sometimes water are used to dilute ingredients in perfumes.
    • 32. Raw Materials From Plant Origin Benzyl Acetate: • Benzyl acetate is an organic compound with the molecular formula C9H10O2. • It is the ester formed by condensation of benzyl alcohol and acetic acid. • It is used widely in perfumery and cosmetics for its aroma and in flavorings to impart apple and pear flavors.
    • 33. Phenethyl Alcohol: • Phenethyl alcohol, or 2-phenylethanol, is an aromatic alcohol. • It occurs widely in nature, being found in a variety of essential oils, including rose, carnation. • It is also an autoantibiotic produced by the fungus Candida albicans.
    • 34. Hexyl Cinnamaldehyde: • Hexyl cinnamaldehyde (hexyl cinnamal) is a common additive in perfume and cosmetic industry as aroma substance • It is found naturally oil of chamomile in the essential • It is a pale yellow to yellow clear liquid to solid, which is nearly insoluble in water but soluble in oils.
    • 35. • INDOLES: • Compounds that contain an indole ring are called indoles. • It has a bicyclic structure, consisting of a sixmembered benzene ring fused to a fivemembered nitrogen-containing pyrole ring. • Indole is a common component of fragrances and the precursor to many pharmaceuticals.
    • 36. ROSE OIL: • Rose oil, meaning either rose otto (attar of rose, attar of roses) or rose absolute, is the essential oil extracted from the petals of various types of rose. • Rose ottos are extracted through steam distillation, while rose absolutes are obtained through solvent extraction. • It acts as an antidepressant, antiphlogistic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antiviral,
    • 37. Jasmine Oil • Jasmine is the ultimate aphrodisiac oil. • They yield their fragrance only by solvent extraction. • Jasmine oil is a necessary ingredient in any aromatic Love Potion. • Jasmine is often recommended for use during childbirth, to strengthen contractions, relieve uterine pain, and aid post-natal recovery
    • 38. Clove Oil • Clove Oil is the volatile oil distilled with steam from the dried flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum. • Clove oil is growing in popularity as an anaesthetic for use on aquarium fish as well as on wild fish.
    • 39. Raw Materials From Animal Origin
    • 40. • Acetone • Benzaldehyde • Benzal Acetate
    • 41. • Benzal Alcohol • Ethanol • Ethyl Acetate • Limonene
    • 42. • Linalool • Methylene Chloride • A-penene • G-terpinene
    • 43. • A-terpineol • B-myrcene
    • 44. Perfume Manufacturing
    • 45. Perfume Manufacturing • Few basic steps, since the old times • Collection and transportation to the manufacturing area • The raw materials used can be of plant origin and of animal origin as well • Specific recipe of every perfume
    • 46. A Few Ingredients For Perfume Making
    • 47. Perfume Manufacturing • 400 plant and 5 animal matters are used for perfume making • Then alcohol is mixed with the oils in different ratios
    • 48. Perfume Manufacturing • Many oils are extracted usually from plants through the following methods: Collection Steam Distillation Solvent Extraction Effleurage Maceration Expression
    • 49. Collection
    • 50. Perfume Manufacturing 1. Collection: • Many plants are harvested, many flowers are gathered just to obtain a few drops of the essence of that flower • Animal extracts are obtained directly • Many aromatic chemicals are prepared in the laboratory by chemists
    • 51. Steam Distillation
    • 52. Perfume Manufacturing 2. Steam Distillation: • Passage of steam, produces oil gas • The gas is then sent to cooled tubes and is liquefied • A lot of flowers for a very small amount of the oil
    • 53. Steam Distillation
    • 54. Solvent Extraction
    • 55. Perfume Manufacturing 3. Solvent Extraction: Rotation of flowers in a container Waxy substance into alcohol Addition of a solvent Evaporation of alcohol Produces a waxy material Oil of higher concentration
    • 56. Solvent Extraction
    • 57. Perfume Manufacturing 3. Solvent Extraction:
    • 58. Effleurage
    • 59. Perfume Manufacturing 4. Effleurage: • The flowers are spread over glass sheets with grease on it • The grease absorbs the fragrance • Cold effleurage • Warm effleurage
    • 60. Enfleurage
    • 61. Enfleurage
    • 62. Maceration
    • 63. Perfume Manufacturing 5. Maceration: What Is Maceration?? • A lot similar to enfleurage • Instead it uses warm fats dissolved in alcohol • Very much same as the solvent extraction also
    • 64. Maceration
    • 65. Expression
    • 66. Perfume Manufacturing 6. Expression: • The simplest of all, used on citrus plants, their flowers and peels • Manual extraction • Steel Pick Expression • ‘Through Sponge’ Expression
    • 67. Blending
    • 68. Perfume Manufacturing 7. Blending: • Mixing of the components according to the specific recipe • What is a “NOSE” ?? • Difference between a: ► Perfume ► Cologne ► Eau de toilette
    • 69. Aging
    • 70. Perfume Manufacturing 8. Aging: • The perfumes when are made they are kept for a few years or more in the shelves • The “nose” tests whether the perfume has the specific smell or not
    • 71. Hypercritical CO2 Extraction of Essential Oils for Perfume Making: A Modern Way of Oil Extraction
    • 72. Perfume Manufacturing 8. Hypercritical CO2 Extraction: • A new way of extraction of oils • An expensive way though • CO2 is used in this method
    • 73. Hypercritical CO2 Extraction
    • 74. Flow Sheet
    • 75. Hazards Related To Perfume Industry
    • 76. HAZARDS • Perfumes do smell good but actually they are poisonous. • Many of these chemicals are the same chemicals in cigarette smoke. • 95% of the chemicals in fragrances are synthetic compounds derived from petroleum (petrochemicals). • Many of the chemicals in today's modern fragrances are listed on the EPA's Hazardous Waste List.
    • 77. CONT’D • It stays in the system and accumulates in the fatty tissues of living organisms. • Phthalates have a deleterious effect on the DNA, and restricts lung function in men. • Synthetic musk can attack living tissues. • A room containing an air freshener had high levels of p-dichlorobenzene (a carcinogen) and ethanol: (EPA’s 1991 study) .
    • 78. SKIN ALLERGIES • Contact dermatitis can be caused by contact with fragrance materials in the air or on surfaces • Clothing and bedding washed and dried with fragranced products provide a constant exposure to chemicals that are absorbed and inhaled • Manufacturers specifically make fragrances to last long. They do not break down easily, and their breakdown products can be more toxic than the original substances.
    • 79. NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS : • They modify brain blood flow, alter blood pressure, pulse, and mood and trigger migraine headaches. • Musk ambrette, used for decades, was found to be neurotoxic • Several common fragrances, when inhaled, have potent sedative effects. • CNS disorders also include Multiple Sclerosis, Parkinson's Disease, Alzheimer's Disease.
    • 80. RESPIRATORY DISORDERS • Cause inflammation, and trigger condition such as asthma, allergies, sinus problems, and other respiratory disorders. • Twelve million Americans have asthma. Asthma and asthma deaths have increased over 30% in the past 10 years.
    • 81. HORMONAL DISRUPTIONS • Phthalates, a group of toxic chemicals that are known oestrogen and testosterone hormone disrupters. • A recent study suggests that diethyl phthalate, commonly used in fragrances and other personal care products, can cause infertility, and may lead to cancer in the offspring.
    • 82. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS • Fragrances are volatile compounds and are constantly released into the air. The widespread use and vast number of fragranced products cause extensive indoor and outdoor pollution. • They are persistent and accumulate in different compartments of the environment.
    • 83. PRECAUTIONS • Donot use perfume oil internally • If you have a highly sensitive skin, please consult with a physician before use • Before applying any perfume or body oils to the skin, always test a small area of skin for any adverse reactions. • Use caution when using perfume oil products that contain citrus oils. They can irritate sensitive skin.
    • 84. CONT’D • People with high blood pressure should avoid the more stimulating essential oils, such as basil, rosemary and thyme. • People with low blood pressure should avoid the more sedating essential oils, such as clary sage, ylang ylang and lavender. • People with asthma should avoid using essential oils. • Keep perfume oil out of the reach of pets and children.
    • 85. MOST COMMON CHEMICALS IN THIRTY-ONE FRAGRANCE PRODUCTS [BASED ON A] 1991 EPA STUDY ACETONE LINALOOL BENZYL ALCOHOL LIMONENE CAMPHOR METHYLENE CHLORIDE a-TERPINEOL ETHANOL BENZELDEHYDE a-PINENE BENZYL ACETATE g-TERPINENE ETHYL ACETATE
    • 86. THANK YOU

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