History Of Perfume
• Art of perfumery
• Egyptian perfumery influenced the Greeks and the
Perfume In Egypt
• Considered the most suitable for the manufacture
• Distillation of alcohol
• Famous Egyptian perfumes made in city of Mendes
in the Delta
Perfume In Greek
• Greece via the Phoenicians
• Old Greek improved the Egyptian techniques
• They use different perfume for each part of body
Perfume In Romans
• The Roman Empire perfume was only used at
• They spoiled, even sprinkled perfume on floors and
• They rubbed horses and dogs with it
Perfume In Arab
• Perfume use in daily life
• Muslims used amber musk and
• Religious aspect
Perfume In The Middle Ages
• The knowledge of the perfume production could
develop thanks to the increase of the universities in
• Ladies sprinkled their fineries and homes with
brushes like aspergilla for religious ceremonies
Perfume In 20th Century
• People working in French perfume industry
• The world exhibition of Paris in 1900 became
Materials Used In Perfume For Flavor
• Most expensive floral absolutes are so costly
because the yield of oil is so low
• 1 Kg of Rose Otto for example 10,000 Kg of roses are
• 95% of chemicals used in fragrances are synthetic
compounds derived from petroleum
Pinene From Turpentine
• Turpentine is one of the volatile oils that can be
extracted from pine wood
• Volatile amber liquid, with a density of 0.85g cm-3
Turpene Sulfur Compunds
• Group of hydrocarbons
• Oligomers of isoprene, 2-methyl-1, 3-butadiene
• Contain cyclic structures and double bonding
Anasaldehyde from Anethole
• Organic compound, commonly encountered in the
• Synthetic and natural
• Consists of a benzene ring substituted with
an aldehyde and a methoxy group
Hotrienol from Linalool
• Hotrienol is leaf oil but their enantiomer found in
green and black tea
• Elder flower, grapes, berry and honey flavors
• It can be prepare from linalool obtain from citrus oil
but most linalool is obtain
SEMI-SYNTHETIC MATERIALS USED IN PERFUME
• Geranyl Acetate
Hydroxycitronellal from Citronellal
liquid hydroxy aldehyde (CH3)2C(OH)
obtained by hydration of citronellal and used
in perfumery to impart an odor.
Herbs such wormwood.
Not soluble in glycerin or water
Soluble in benzyl alcohol, essential oils, ethyl
alcohol, fixed oils and paraffin oil
It must be kept in tightly closed containers.
• Consumer industry
Found in :
Natural organic compound
A colorless liquid with a pleasant floral or
fruity rose aroma.
Insoluble in water, but soluble in some
organic solvents such as alcohol and oil.
Primarily as a component of perfumes for
creams and soaps and as a flavoring ingredient
• Ionones are aroma compounds
found in a variety of essential
oils, including rose oil.
• Important fragrance chemical
used in perfumery
• A substance used to reduce the
evaporation rate and improve
stability when added to more
Substances of Low Volatility
It is extracted from vanilla bean. It has
a very vast use in fragrance/perfume
industry and flavoring.
This material is commonly used in
perfumery and it gives a woody flavor
or scent to the perfume.
Odorless Solvents with Very Low Vapor
It is a derivative of benzoic acid and is
very vastly used in the making of medicines and
in perfumery and cosmetic industry
It shows very low hazardous effects and
toxicity. It is also used in plastic industries
• Natural ingredients—flowers, grasses, spices, fruit, wood, roots,
resins, balsams as well as resources like alcohol,
petrochemicals, are used in the manufacture of perfumes
• Some plants, such as lily of the valley, do not produce oils
In fact, only about 2,000 of the 250,000 known flowering plant
species contain these essential oils
• Some perfume ingredients are animal products. For
example, castor comes from beavers, musk from
male deer, and ambergris from the sperm whale.
• Animal substances are often used as fixatives that
enable perfume to evaporate slowly and emit
• Alcohol and sometimes water are used to dilute
ingredients in perfumes.
Raw Materials From Plant Origin
• Benzyl acetate is an organic compound with the molecular
• It is the ester formed by condensation of benzyl alcohol
and acetic acid.
• It is used widely in perfumery and cosmetics for its aroma and in
flavorings to impart apple and pear flavors.
• Phenethyl alcohol, or 2-phenylethanol, is
an aromatic alcohol.
It occurs widely in nature, being found
in a variety of essential
oils, including rose, carnation.
• It is also an autoantibiotic produced by
the fungus Candida albicans.
• Hexyl cinnamaldehyde (hexyl cinnamal) is a
common additive in perfume and cosmetic
industry as aroma substance
• It is found naturally
oil of chamomile
• It is a pale yellow to yellow clear liquid to
solid, which is nearly insoluble in water but
soluble in oils.
• Compounds that contain an indole ring are
• It has a bicyclic structure, consisting of a sixmembered benzene ring fused to a fivemembered nitrogen-containing pyrole ring.
• Indole is a common component of fragrances
and the precursor to many pharmaceuticals.
• Rose oil, meaning either rose otto (attar of rose, attar of roses) or rose
absolute, is the essential oil extracted from the petals of various types
• Rose ottos are extracted through steam distillation, while rose
absolutes are obtained through solvent extraction.
• It acts as an antidepressant, antiphlogistic, antiseptic, antispasmodic,
Jasmine is the ultimate aphrodisiac oil.
They yield their fragrance only by solvent
Jasmine oil is a necessary ingredient in any
aromatic Love Potion.
Jasmine is often recommended for use during
childbirth, to strengthen contractions, relieve
uterine pain, and aid post-natal recovery
Clove Oil is the volatile oil distilled
with steam from the dried flower
buds of Syzygium aromaticum.
Clove oil is growing in popularity as
aquarium fish as well as on wild fish.
• Few basic steps, since the old times
• Collection and transportation to the manufacturing
• The raw materials used can be of plant origin and
of animal origin as well
• Specific recipe of every perfume
• Many plants are harvested, many flowers are
gathered just to obtain a few drops of the essence of
• Animal extracts are obtained directly
• Many aromatic chemicals are prepared in the
laboratory by chemists
3. Solvent Extraction:
flowers in a
Addition of a
Oil of higher
• Perfumes do smell good but actually they are
• Many of these chemicals are the same chemicals in
• 95% of the chemicals in fragrances are synthetic
compounds derived from petroleum
• Many of the chemicals in today's modern
fragrances are listed on the EPA's Hazardous Waste
• It stays in the system and accumulates in the fatty
tissues of living organisms.
• Phthalates have a deleterious effect on the
DNA, and restricts lung function in men.
• Synthetic musk can attack living tissues.
• A room containing an air freshener had high levels
of p-dichlorobenzene (a carcinogen) and ethanol:
(EPA’s 1991 study) .
• Contact dermatitis can be caused by contact with
fragrance materials in the air or on surfaces
• Clothing and bedding washed and dried with
fragranced products provide a constant exposure
to chemicals that are absorbed and inhaled
• Manufacturers specifically make fragrances to last
long. They do not break down easily, and their
breakdown products can be more toxic than the
NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS :
• They modify brain blood flow, alter
blood pressure, pulse, and mood and
trigger migraine headaches.
• Musk ambrette, used for decades, was
found to be neurotoxic
Several common fragrances, when
inhaled, have potent sedative effects.
CNS disorders also include Multiple
Disease, Alzheimer's Disease.
• Cause inflammation, and trigger condition such as
asthma, allergies, sinus problems, and other
• Twelve million Americans have asthma. Asthma and
asthma deaths have increased over 30% in the past
• Phthalates, a group of toxic chemicals that are
known oestrogen and testosterone hormone
• A recent study suggests that diethyl phthalate,
commonly used in fragrances and other personal
care products, can cause infertility, and may lead
to cancer in the offspring.
• Fragrances are volatile compounds and are
constantly released into the air. The widespread use
and vast number of fragranced products cause
extensive indoor and outdoor pollution.
• They are persistent and accumulate in different
compartments of the environment.
• Donot use perfume oil internally
• If you have a highly sensitive
skin, please consult with a
physician before use
• Before applying any perfume or
body oils to the skin, always test a
small area of skin for any adverse
• Use caution when using perfume
oil products that contain citrus
oils. They can irritate sensitive skin.
People with high blood pressure should
avoid the more stimulating essential
oils, such as basil, rosemary and thyme.
People with low blood pressure should
avoid the more sedating essential
oils, such as clary sage, ylang ylang and
People with asthma should avoid using
Keep perfume oil out of the reach of
pets and children.
MOST COMMON CHEMICALS IN THIRTY-ONE
FRAGRANCE PRODUCTS [BASED ON A] 1991