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The perfume industry


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    • 1. The Perfume Industry Presented by: Group# 9
    • 2. Group Members • Sidra Liaqat • Sidra Shakoor • Syeda Mahgul Babar • Anam Talat Mirza • Ambreen Parvaiz • Fatima jinnah women university BES
    • 3. Introduction
    • 4. What Is Perfume? • First time use of perfume • Perfume is Latin word
    • 5. History
    • 6. History Of Perfume • Art of perfumery • Egyptian perfumery influenced the Greeks and the Romans
    • 7. Perfume In Egypt • Considered the most suitable for the manufacture of perfume • Distillation of alcohol • Famous Egyptian perfumes made in city of Mendes in the Delta
    • 8. Perfume In Greek • Greece via the Phoenicians • Old Greek improved the Egyptian techniques • They use different perfume for each part of body
    • 9. Perfume In Romans • The Roman Empire perfume was only used at religious events • They spoiled, even sprinkled perfume on floors and walls • They rubbed horses and dogs with it
    • 10. Perfume In Arab • Perfume use in daily life • Muslims used amber musk and roses • Religious aspect
    • 11. Perfume In The Middle Ages • The knowledge of the perfume production could develop thanks to the increase of the universities in large cities • Ladies sprinkled their fineries and homes with brushes like aspergilla for religious ceremonies
    • 12. Perfume In 20th Century • People working in French perfume industry • The world exhibition of Paris in 1900 became the crown
    • 13. Materials Used In Perfumes For Flavor
    • 14. Materials Used In Perfume For Flavor • Most expensive floral absolutes are so costly because the yield of oil is so low • 1 Kg of Rose Otto for example 10,000 Kg of roses are needed • 95% of chemicals used in fragrances are synthetic compounds derived from petroleum
    • 15. Pinene From Turpentine • Turpentine is one of the volatile oils that can be extracted from pine wood • Volatile amber liquid, with a density of 0.85g cm-3
    • 16. Turpene Sulfur Compunds • Group of hydrocarbons • Oligomers of isoprene, 2-methyl-1, 3-butadiene • Contain cyclic structures and double bonding
    • 17. Citral Extracts • • • • • • • Lemon myrtle (90-98%) Litsea citrata (90%) Litsea cubeba (70-85%) Lemongrass (65-85%) Lemon tea-tree (70-80%) Ocimum gratissimum (66.5%) Lindera citriodora (about 65%)
    • 18. Anasaldehyde from Anethole • Organic compound, commonly encountered in the fragrances • Synthetic and natural • Consists of a benzene ring substituted with an aldehyde and a methoxy group
    • 19. Hotrienol from Linalool • Hotrienol is leaf oil but their enantiomer found in green and black tea • Elder flower, grapes, berry and honey flavors • It can be prepare from linalool obtain from citrus oil but most linalool is obtain
    • 20. SYNTHETIC MATERIALS • 4-tert-butylcyclohexyl acetate (woody note, violet note) • α-amylcinnamaldehyde (jasmine) • 4- tert-butyl-α-methylhydrocinnamaldehyde (cyclamen)
    • 21. SEMI-SYNTHETIC MATERIALS USED IN PERFUME MAKING • Hydroxycitronellal • Geranyl Acetate • Ionones
    • 22. Hydroxycitronellal from Citronellal •. Hydroxycitronella: liquid hydroxy aldehyde (CH3)2C(OH) obtained by hydration of citronellal and used in perfumery to impart an odor. •Sources: Eucalypt Herbs such wormwood.
    • 23. • Properties: Not soluble in glycerin or water Soluble in benzyl alcohol, essential oils, ethyl alcohol, fixed oils and paraffin oil It must be kept in tightly closed containers. • Consumer industry Found in : Shampoos Flavoring Fragrance Laundry detergents Fabric conditioners
    • 24. Geranyl Acetate Natural organic compound •Properties: A colorless liquid with a pleasant floral or fruity rose aroma. Insoluble in water, but soluble in some organic solvents such as alcohol and oil. •Consumer Industries Primarily as a component of perfumes for creams and soaps and as a flavoring ingredient
    • 25. Ionones • Ionones are aroma compounds found in a variety of essential oils, including rose oil. • Important fragrance chemical used in perfumery
    • 26. Fixatives • A substance used to reduce the evaporation rate and improve stability when added to more volatile components
    • 27. Substances of Low Volatility • Cyclopentadecanolide: It is extracted from vanilla bean. It has a very vast use in fragrance/perfume industry and flavoring. • Ambroxide: This material is commonly used in perfumery and it gives a woody flavor or scent to the perfume.
    • 28. Odorless Solvents with Very Low Vapor Pressures Benzyl benzoate: It is a derivative of benzoic acid and is very vastly used in the making of medicines and in perfumery and cosmetic industry Diethyl phthalate: It shows very low hazardous effects and toxicity. It is also used in plastic industries
    • 29. Raw Materials Used In Perfume Manufacturing
    • 30. Raw Materials • Natural ingredients—flowers, grasses, spices, fruit, wood, roots, resins, balsams as well as resources like alcohol, petrochemicals, are used in the manufacture of perfumes • Some plants, such as lily of the valley, do not produce oils naturally • In fact, only about 2,000 of the 250,000 known flowering plant species contain these essential oils
    • 31. Animal Products • Some perfume ingredients are animal products. For example, castor comes from beavers, musk from male deer, and ambergris from the sperm whale. • Animal substances are often used as fixatives that enable perfume to evaporate slowly and emit odors longer. • Alcohol and sometimes water are used to dilute ingredients in perfumes.
    • 32. Raw Materials From Plant Origin Benzyl Acetate: • Benzyl acetate is an organic compound with the molecular formula C9H10O2. • It is the ester formed by condensation of benzyl alcohol and acetic acid. • It is used widely in perfumery and cosmetics for its aroma and in flavorings to impart apple and pear flavors.
    • 33. Phenethyl Alcohol: • Phenethyl alcohol, or 2-phenylethanol, is an aromatic alcohol. • It occurs widely in nature, being found in a variety of essential oils, including rose, carnation. • It is also an autoantibiotic produced by the fungus Candida albicans.
    • 34. Hexyl Cinnamaldehyde: • Hexyl cinnamaldehyde (hexyl cinnamal) is a common additive in perfume and cosmetic industry as aroma substance • It is found naturally oil of chamomile in the essential • It is a pale yellow to yellow clear liquid to solid, which is nearly insoluble in water but soluble in oils.
    • 35. • INDOLES: • Compounds that contain an indole ring are called indoles. • It has a bicyclic structure, consisting of a sixmembered benzene ring fused to a fivemembered nitrogen-containing pyrole ring. • Indole is a common component of fragrances and the precursor to many pharmaceuticals.
    • 36. ROSE OIL: • Rose oil, meaning either rose otto (attar of rose, attar of roses) or rose absolute, is the essential oil extracted from the petals of various types of rose. • Rose ottos are extracted through steam distillation, while rose absolutes are obtained through solvent extraction. • It acts as an antidepressant, antiphlogistic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antiviral,
    • 37. Jasmine Oil • Jasmine is the ultimate aphrodisiac oil. • They yield their fragrance only by solvent extraction. • Jasmine oil is a necessary ingredient in any aromatic Love Potion. • Jasmine is often recommended for use during childbirth, to strengthen contractions, relieve uterine pain, and aid post-natal recovery
    • 38. Clove Oil • Clove Oil is the volatile oil distilled with steam from the dried flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum. • Clove oil is growing in popularity as an anaesthetic for use on aquarium fish as well as on wild fish.
    • 39. Raw Materials From Animal Origin
    • 40. • Acetone • Benzaldehyde • Benzal Acetate
    • 41. • Benzal Alcohol • Ethanol • Ethyl Acetate • Limonene
    • 42. • Linalool • Methylene Chloride • A-penene • G-terpinene
    • 43. • A-terpineol • B-myrcene
    • 44. Perfume Manufacturing
    • 45. Perfume Manufacturing • Few basic steps, since the old times • Collection and transportation to the manufacturing area • The raw materials used can be of plant origin and of animal origin as well • Specific recipe of every perfume
    • 46. A Few Ingredients For Perfume Making
    • 47. Perfume Manufacturing • 400 plant and 5 animal matters are used for perfume making • Then alcohol is mixed with the oils in different ratios
    • 48. Perfume Manufacturing • Many oils are extracted usually from plants through the following methods: Collection Steam Distillation Solvent Extraction Effleurage Maceration Expression
    • 49. Collection
    • 50. Perfume Manufacturing 1. Collection: • Many plants are harvested, many flowers are gathered just to obtain a few drops of the essence of that flower • Animal extracts are obtained directly • Many aromatic chemicals are prepared in the laboratory by chemists
    • 51. Steam Distillation
    • 52. Perfume Manufacturing 2. Steam Distillation: • Passage of steam, produces oil gas • The gas is then sent to cooled tubes and is liquefied • A lot of flowers for a very small amount of the oil
    • 53. Steam Distillation
    • 54. Solvent Extraction
    • 55. Perfume Manufacturing 3. Solvent Extraction: Rotation of flowers in a container Waxy substance into alcohol Addition of a solvent Evaporation of alcohol Produces a waxy material Oil of higher concentration
    • 56. Solvent Extraction
    • 57. Perfume Manufacturing 3. Solvent Extraction:
    • 58. Effleurage
    • 59. Perfume Manufacturing 4. Effleurage: • The flowers are spread over glass sheets with grease on it • The grease absorbs the fragrance • Cold effleurage • Warm effleurage
    • 60. Enfleurage
    • 61. Enfleurage
    • 62. Maceration
    • 63. Perfume Manufacturing 5. Maceration: What Is Maceration?? • A lot similar to enfleurage • Instead it uses warm fats dissolved in alcohol • Very much same as the solvent extraction also
    • 64. Maceration
    • 65. Expression
    • 66. Perfume Manufacturing 6. Expression: • The simplest of all, used on citrus plants, their flowers and peels • Manual extraction • Steel Pick Expression • ‘Through Sponge’ Expression
    • 67. Blending
    • 68. Perfume Manufacturing 7. Blending: • Mixing of the components according to the specific recipe • What is a “NOSE” ?? • Difference between a: ► Perfume ► Cologne ► Eau de toilette
    • 69. Aging
    • 70. Perfume Manufacturing 8. Aging: • The perfumes when are made they are kept for a few years or more in the shelves • The “nose” tests whether the perfume has the specific smell or not
    • 71. Hypercritical CO2 Extraction of Essential Oils for Perfume Making: A Modern Way of Oil Extraction
    • 72. Perfume Manufacturing 8. Hypercritical CO2 Extraction: • A new way of extraction of oils • An expensive way though • CO2 is used in this method
    • 73. Hypercritical CO2 Extraction
    • 74. Flow Sheet
    • 75. Hazards Related To Perfume Industry
    • 76. HAZARDS • Perfumes do smell good but actually they are poisonous. • Many of these chemicals are the same chemicals in cigarette smoke. • 95% of the chemicals in fragrances are synthetic compounds derived from petroleum (petrochemicals). • Many of the chemicals in today's modern fragrances are listed on the EPA's Hazardous Waste List.
    • 77. CONT’D • It stays in the system and accumulates in the fatty tissues of living organisms. • Phthalates have a deleterious effect on the DNA, and restricts lung function in men. • Synthetic musk can attack living tissues. • A room containing an air freshener had high levels of p-dichlorobenzene (a carcinogen) and ethanol: (EPA’s 1991 study) .
    • 78. SKIN ALLERGIES • Contact dermatitis can be caused by contact with fragrance materials in the air or on surfaces • Clothing and bedding washed and dried with fragranced products provide a constant exposure to chemicals that are absorbed and inhaled • Manufacturers specifically make fragrances to last long. They do not break down easily, and their breakdown products can be more toxic than the original substances.
    • 79. NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS : • They modify brain blood flow, alter blood pressure, pulse, and mood and trigger migraine headaches. • Musk ambrette, used for decades, was found to be neurotoxic • Several common fragrances, when inhaled, have potent sedative effects. • CNS disorders also include Multiple Sclerosis, Parkinson's Disease, Alzheimer's Disease.
    • 80. RESPIRATORY DISORDERS • Cause inflammation, and trigger condition such as asthma, allergies, sinus problems, and other respiratory disorders. • Twelve million Americans have asthma. Asthma and asthma deaths have increased over 30% in the past 10 years.
    • 81. HORMONAL DISRUPTIONS • Phthalates, a group of toxic chemicals that are known oestrogen and testosterone hormone disrupters. • A recent study suggests that diethyl phthalate, commonly used in fragrances and other personal care products, can cause infertility, and may lead to cancer in the offspring.
    • 82. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS • Fragrances are volatile compounds and are constantly released into the air. The widespread use and vast number of fragranced products cause extensive indoor and outdoor pollution. • They are persistent and accumulate in different compartments of the environment.
    • 83. PRECAUTIONS • Donot use perfume oil internally • If you have a highly sensitive skin, please consult with a physician before use • Before applying any perfume or body oils to the skin, always test a small area of skin for any adverse reactions. • Use caution when using perfume oil products that contain citrus oils. They can irritate sensitive skin.
    • 84. CONT’D • People with high blood pressure should avoid the more stimulating essential oils, such as basil, rosemary and thyme. • People with low blood pressure should avoid the more sedating essential oils, such as clary sage, ylang ylang and lavender. • People with asthma should avoid using essential oils. • Keep perfume oil out of the reach of pets and children.
    • 86. THANK YOU