Biodiversity and medicines
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Biodiversity and medicines






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Biodiversity and medicines Biodiversity and medicines Presentation Transcript

  • Group Members Fatima jinnah women university Environmental sciences
  • Biodiversity • The millions of plants, animals, and microorganisms, the genes • Web of life • The sustainable use of its components, and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits from the use of genetic resources
  • Role Of Microbes In Medicine
  • BACTERIA • Cause of some of the most deadly diseases and widespread epidemics of human civilization. • Smallpox and malaria, diseases caused by other microbes have effected many humans. • Diseases such as tuberculosis, typhus, plague, diphtheria, typhoid, cholera, dysentery and pneumonia have taken a large toll of humanity.
  • Medicines made from bacteria • Amikin, Garamycin, Kantrex, are used to cure infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria • Effective against Aerobic and tularemia. It has following side effects including hearing loss, vertigo and kidney damage. • Zithromax, Xithrone, Erythrocin, are used to cure Streptococcal infections, syphilis, upper respiratory tract infections, .Side effects including Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea Amikin, Garamycin, Kantrex, are used to cure infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria Effective against Aerobic and tularemia. It has following side effects including hearing loss, vertigo and kidney damage. Zithromax, Xithrone, Erythrocin, are used to cure Streptococcal infections, syphilis, upper respiratory tract infections, .Side effects including Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea
  • • Amoxil, Principen, Floxapen are used to cure wide range of infections. • Sulfamylon, Silvadene, Gantanol, are used to cure Urinary tract infections and mafenide and silver sulfadiazine, used topically for burns). • The side effects are Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, Allergy (including skin rashes), Crystals in urine, Kidney failure, Decrease in white blood cell count and Sensitivity to sunlight.
  • MEDICINES MADE FROM VIRUSES • Acyclovir (Zovirax) is used to treat chickenpox, shingles, and the symptoms of herpes virus infections of the genitals, lips, mouth, skin, and brain. • Valacyclovir (Valtrex) and Famciclovir (Famvir) can also be used to relieve the symptoms of shingles.
  • • Another antiviral, ganciclovir (Cytovene) is prescribed for cytomegalovirus (CMV) eye infections in people whose immune systems are weakened. • Amantadine (Symmetrel) and rimantadine (Flumadine) are used to prevent or treat certain kinds of influenza (flu).
  • Brief Overview • Aspirin (for pain, fever and inflammation) • Amoxil (antibiotic) • Procodin (for cough) • Beserol (muscle relaxant) and • Ventolin (for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease • Lipitor and Crestor (both for treating cholesterol), • Advair Diskus (for asthma), • Lantus (for diabetes), • Diovan (for hypertension). • Abilify (for psychosis and depression) • Singulair (for asthma), • Cymbalta (for depression and anxiety)
  • MEDICINAL PLANTS • Plants that have healing properties are termed as medicinal plants or herbs. • Many plants produce special substances in their roots, leaves, flowers, or seeds that help them to survive. • Since earliest times, people have gathered these substances to create herbal medicines to treat certain diseases. • Today’s plant-based drugs treat a range of diseases, from headaches to cancer.
  • HISTORY • Herbal medicine is the oldest form of healthcare. • Herbs had been used by all cultures throughout history. • Primitive man observed and appreciated the great diversity of plants available to him. • Early humans learned about the usefulness of plants by observing animals. • As time went on, each tribe added the medicinal power of herbs in their area to its knowledgebase.
  • Cont’d • They collected information on herbs and developed well- defined herbal pharmacopoeias. • Indeed, well into the 20th century much of the pharmacopoeia of scientific medicine was derived from the herbal lore of native people. • Many drugs commonly used today are of herbal origin. • Indeed, about 25 percent of the prescription drugs are of plant origin.
  • MODERN MEDICINE • The tendency in modern medicine is to use synthetic drugs, that eventually were modelled on compounds obtained mainly from plants. • The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates 80 %of the world population, presently use herbal medicine for some aspect of primary health care. • In 1997 plant-derived anti-cancer drugs such as taxol, saved at least 30,000 lives per year in the US • Approximately $ 5 billion were spent in USA on phytoceuticals (1998). • The most significant medicinal plants used for prescription drugs contain steroids or alkaloids.
  • THREATS • According to the World Conservation Union (IUCN), about 15,000 medicinal plant species may be threatened with extinction worldwide from overharvesting. • Scientists and policymakers are proposing new procedures and policies to safeguard our remaining medicinal treasures in the wild so that they can protect this and future generations
  • PHYTOMEDICINAL PROSPECTING • Rainforest people possess valuable knowledge about medicinal plants. • With proper research, scientists believe they might find cures for some of the world’s deadliest diseases. • INBio, Costa Rica's National Institute of Biodiversity are carrying huge projects. • To complete this ambitious task they train "community taxonomists" to identify plants and animals.
  • DRUG/ CHEMICAL CLINICAL USE SOURCE/ PLANTS Aesculetin Anti-dysentery Frazinus rhychophylla Cocaine Local anesthetic Erythroxylum coca Digitoxin Cardiotonic Digitalis purpurea Ephedrine Sympathomimetic, antihistamine Ephedra sinica Quinine Antimalarial Cinchona Vinblastine Antitumor Catharanthus roseus Vincristine Antitumor Catharanthus roseus
  • Medicinal Use of Vegetables
  • CARROT (Daucus carota) • Therapeutic against asthma, nervousness and skin disorders • Slows cancerous growth • Prevents diarrhea
  • ONION (Allium cepa) • Antiseptic and diuretic • Juice is good for coughs and colds • The bulbs and stems were applied as dressings to sores.
  • GARLIC (Allium sativum) Effective for • digestive complaints • bowel disorders • insects strings • Reduces blood cholesterol levels • Reduces chance of heart attack
  • CELERY (Apium graveolens) • Beneficial in the treatment of rheumatism and as diuretic.
  • BEET (Beta vulgaris) It used as • Blood tonic for gastritis piles and constipation, mildly cardio tonic. • Control cancer
  • CABBAGE (Brassica oleracea) • It reduce colonic cancer, • Stimulates the immune system, • Kill bacteria
  • CUCUMBER (Cucumis sativus) • Cucumber is used by the romans against scorpion bites and bad eye sight
  • SWEET POTATO (Ipomoea batatas) • Sweet potato and their leaves contain antibacterial and fungicidal substances and used in folk medicines.
  • • Effective in treating nervous tension and insomnia • Lotion for the treatment of sun burn and rough skin are mad Lettuce (Lactuca sativa)
  • Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) • Reduces the risk of cancer and appendicitis • Used to treat dyspepsia ,liver and kidney complaints • Used to cure constipation.
  • Pea (Pisum sativum) • Reduce fertility • Prevent appendicitis • Lower blood cholesterol • Control blood sugar levels
  • Medicinal Uses Of Herbs
  • Monkshood aconitum • Reduce pain both internally and externally • It also used as self-medication.
  • Chives (Allium schoenoprasum) • Antiseptic • Stimulate the appetite and promote digestion
  • ALOE VERA (Aloe barbadensis) • Applied to wound it forms a clear protection seal and encourages skin regeneration • It is also used in cosmetic preparation and hand creams, lotions and shampoos.
  • ANGELICA (Angelica sp) • Anti-bacterial and anti-fungal properties • • Stimulates the circulation • Reduce tension • Good for nervous headache, indigestion, anemia and coughs and cold
  • HORSE RADISH (Armoracia rusticana) • Powerful circulating stimulant • Effective for lung and urinary infections
  • CHAMOMILE (Matricaria recutita) • Powerful antiseptic and anti-inflammatory properties • Gastric secretions and improves the appetite • Used to cure skin allergies and rashes.
  • MINT (Mentha) • Antiseptic, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-parasitic and a stimulant • It is useful for gastrointestinal disorders nervous headache and as a way to increase concentrations
  • Medicines Extracted From Animals • A variety of medicines are extracted from microbes and plants • Animals also contribute at greater level • Endangering many animal species • Tigers, Rhinos, Sea-Turtles, & Sun Bear/Black Bear
  • Medicines from Tigers • Chinese Traditional Medicine • Tiger parts and their derivatives are used • Makes the tiger species, critically endangered Body Part Medicinal Usage Tiger Claws Used as a sedative for insomnia Fat Used to treat leprosy and rheumatism Bones Used as an anti-inflammatory drug to treat rheumatism and arthritis, general weakness, headaches, stiffness or paralysis in lower back and legs and dysentery Bile Used to treat convulsions in children associated with meningitis Whiskers Used to treat toothaches
  • Medicines from Rhinoceros
  • • Killing Rhinos for their medicinal importance reached its climax in the 20th century • The Rhino horn is used to relieve fever and high blood pressure • It became endangered but due to many community concerns, its species are recovering • However, White and Black Rhinos are threatened in South Africa once again. Medicines from Rhinoceros Ellis, R. (2005). Tiger Bone and Rhino Horn: The Destructionof Wildlife for Traditional Chinese Medicine. Washington D.C. 20009: Island Press.
  • • Snake venom is milked, used to formulate Anfibatide • Used to remove clots from the blood • Inhibits the growth of cancer and the risk of heart attack Medicines from Snakes “The concept that we can harness something potentially poisonous in nature and turn it into a beneficial therapy”
  • • Guiilinggao, is a jelly-like Chinese medicine • Positive effects of the jelly include improving circulation, assisting muscle growth, relieving itching, reducing acne and kidney restoration • Carapax Amydae Sinensis • It invigorates blood, promotes menses
  • Cod Fish
  • Cod Fish • Cod liver oil is a fixed oil extracted from the fresh liver of the cod • Oils are rich in Vitamin A & D • Used for the prevention of rickets. • Children’s DHA is the medicine completely based on Cod liver oil. • It is essential for the proper development of brain, eyes, nervous and the immune systems.
  • Asian Elephant
  • Asian Elephant • The animals are killed for their meat, hide, tusks and other body parts. • Small pieces of elephant foot are turned into a paste to treat hernias in Myanmar.
  • Sun Bear
  • Sun Bear • They are killed for its gallbladder for treating everything from burns to asthma to cancer • Their population has declined by more than 30 percent in the past three decades due to hunting and loss of their forest habitat • Some commercial farms raise bears to milk their gallbladders for bile restock by capturing wild bears
  • Conclusion