Fatima jinnah women university
• The millions of plants, animals, and
microorganisms, the genes
• Web of life
• The sustainable use of its components, and
the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits
from the use of genetic resources
Role Of Microbes In Medicine
BACTERIA AND ITS
IMPORTANCE IN MEDICINE
• Cause of some of the most deadly diseases and
widespread epidemics of human civilization.
• Smallpox and malaria, diseases caused by other
microbes have effected many humans.
• Diseases such as tuberculosis, typhus, plague,
diphtheria, typhoid, cholera, dysentery and
pneumonia have taken a large toll of humanity.
Medicines made from bacteria
• Amikin, Garamycin, Kantrex, are used to
cure infections caused by Gram-negative
• Effective against Aerobic and tularemia. It
has following side effects including hearing
loss, vertigo and kidney damage.
• Zithromax, Xithrone, Erythrocin, are used to
infections, syphilis, upper respiratory tract
infections, .Side effects including Nausea,
vomiting, and diarrhea
Amikin, Garamycin, Kantrex, are used to cure
infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria
Effective against Aerobic and tularemia. It has
following side effects including hearing loss, vertigo
and kidney damage.
Zithromax, Xithrone, Erythrocin, are used to cure
Streptococcal infections, syphilis, upper respiratory
tract infections, .Side effects including Nausea,
vomiting, and diarrhea
• Amoxil, Principen, Floxapen are used to cure wide
range of infections.
• Sulfamylon, Silvadene, Gantanol, are used to cure
Urinary tract infections and mafenide and silver
sulfadiazine, used topically for burns).
• The side effects are Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea,
Allergy (including skin rashes), Crystals in urine, Kidney
failure, Decrease in white blood cell count and
Sensitivity to sunlight.
MEDICINES MADE FROM VIRUSES
• Acyclovir (Zovirax) is used to
treat chickenpox, shingles, and
the symptoms of herpes virus
infections of the genitals, lips,
mouth, skin, and brain.
• Valacyclovir (Valtrex) and
Famciclovir (Famvir) can also be
used to relieve the symptoms of
• Another antiviral, ganciclovir (Cytovene) is prescribed
for cytomegalovirus (CMV) eye infections in people
whose immune systems are weakened.
• Amantadine (Symmetrel) and rimantadine
(Flumadine) are used to prevent or treat certain kinds
of influenza (flu).
• Aspirin (for pain, fever and inflammation)
• Amoxil (antibiotic)
• Procodin (for cough)
• Beserol (muscle relaxant) and
• Ventolin (for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary
• Lipitor and Crestor (both for treating cholesterol),
• Advair Diskus (for asthma),
• Lantus (for diabetes),
• Diovan (for hypertension).
• Abilify (for psychosis and depression)
• Singulair (for asthma),
• Cymbalta (for depression and anxiety)
• Plants that have healing properties are termed as
medicinal plants or herbs.
• Many plants produce special substances in their roots,
leaves, flowers, or seeds that help them to survive.
• Since earliest times, people have gathered these
substances to create herbal medicines to treat certain
• Today’s plant-based drugs treat a range of diseases,
from headaches to cancer.
• Herbal medicine is the oldest form of healthcare.
• Herbs had been used by all cultures throughout history.
• Primitive man observed and appreciated the great diversity of
plants available to him.
• Early humans learned about the usefulness of plants by
• As time went on, each tribe added the medicinal power of
herbs in their area to its knowledgebase.
• They collected information on herbs and developed well-
defined herbal pharmacopoeias.
• Indeed, well into the 20th century much of the
pharmacopoeia of scientific medicine was derived from the
herbal lore of native people.
• Many drugs commonly used today are of herbal origin.
• Indeed, about 25 percent of the prescription drugs are of
• The tendency in modern medicine is to use synthetic drugs, that
eventually were modelled on compounds obtained mainly from
• The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates 80 %of the world
population, presently use herbal medicine for some aspect of
primary health care.
• In 1997 plant-derived anti-cancer drugs such as taxol, saved at
least 30,000 lives per year in the US
• Approximately $ 5 billion were spent in USA on phytoceuticals
• The most significant medicinal plants used for prescription drugs
contain steroids or alkaloids.
• According to the World Conservation Union (IUCN), about
15,000 medicinal plant species may be threatened with
extinction worldwide from overharvesting.
• Scientists and policymakers are proposing new procedures
and policies to safeguard our remaining medicinal treasures in
the wild so that they can protect this and future generations
• Rainforest people possess valuable knowledge about
• With proper research, scientists believe they might find cures
for some of the world’s deadliest diseases.
• INBio, Costa Rica's National Institute of Biodiversity are carrying
• To complete this ambitious task they train "community
taxonomists" to identify plants and animals.
CELERY (Apium graveolens)
• Beneficial in the treatment of
rheumatism and as diuretic.
BEET (Beta vulgaris)
It used as
• Blood tonic for gastritis piles
and constipation, mildly
• Control cancer
CABBAGE (Brassica oleracea)
• It reduce colonic cancer,
• Stimulates the immune system,
• Kill bacteria
CUCUMBER (Cucumis sativus)
• Cucumber is used by the romans
against scorpion bites and bad eye
SWEET POTATO (Ipomoea batatas)
• Sweet potato and their leaves contain
antibacterial and fungicidal substances and
used in folk medicines.
• Effective in treating nervous tension and
• Lotion for the treatment of sun burn and
rough skin are mad
Lettuce (Lactuca sativa)
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum)
• Reduces the risk of cancer and
• Used to treat dyspepsia ,liver
and kidney complaints
• Used to cure constipation.
Pea (Pisum sativum)
• Reduce fertility
• Prevent appendicitis
• Lower blood cholesterol
• Control blood sugar levels
Medicinal Uses Of Herbs
• Reduce pain both internally and externally
• It also used as self-medication.
Chives (Allium schoenoprasum)
• Stimulate the appetite and promote
ALOE VERA (Aloe barbadensis)
• Applied to wound it forms a clear protection
seal and encourages skin regeneration
• It is also used in cosmetic preparation and
hand creams, lotions and shampoos.
ANGELICA (Angelica sp)
• Anti-bacterial and anti-fungal properties
• Stimulates the circulation
• Reduce tension
• Good for nervous headache, indigestion,
anemia and coughs and cold
HORSE RADISH (Armoracia rusticana)
• Powerful circulating stimulant
• Effective for lung and urinary infections
CHAMOMILE (Matricaria recutita)
• Powerful antiseptic and anti-inflammatory
• Gastric secretions and improves the
• Used to cure skin allergies and rashes.
• Antiseptic, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory,
anti-bacterial, anti-parasitic and a stimulant
• It is useful for gastrointestinal disorders nervous
headache and as a way to increase
Medicines Extracted From Animals
• A variety of medicines are
extracted from microbes and
• Animals also contribute at
• Endangering many animal
• Tigers, Rhinos, Sea-Turtles, & Sun
Medicines from Tigers
• Chinese Traditional Medicine
• Tiger parts and their derivatives
• Makes the tiger species,
Body Part Medicinal Usage
Tiger Claws Used as a sedative for insomnia
Fat Used to treat leprosy and rheumatism
Used as an anti-inflammatory drug to treat rheumatism and
arthritis, general weakness, headaches, stiffness or paralysis in
lower back and legs and dysentery
Bile Used to treat convulsions in children associated with meningitis
Whiskers Used to treat toothaches
Medicines from Rhinoceros
• Killing Rhinos for their medicinal
importance reached its climax in the
• The Rhino horn is used to relieve fever
and high blood pressure
• It became endangered but due to
many community concerns, its species
• However, White and Black Rhinos are
threatened in South Africa once again.
Medicines from Rhinoceros
Ellis, R. (2005). Tiger Bone and Rhino Horn: The Destructionof Wildlife for Traditional Chinese Medicine.
Washington D.C. 20009: Island Press.
• Snake venom is milked, used
to formulate Anfibatide
• Used to remove clots from
• Inhibits the growth of cancer
and the risk of heart attack
Medicines from Snakes
“The concept that we can harness something potentially poisonous in
nature and turn it into a beneficial therapy”
• Guiilinggao, is a jelly-like Chinese
• Positive effects of the jelly include
improving circulation, assisting muscle
growth, relieving itching, reducing
acne and kidney restoration
• Carapax Amydae Sinensis
• It invigorates blood, promotes menses
• Cod liver oil is a fixed oil extracted
from the fresh liver of the cod
• Oils are rich in Vitamin A & D
• Used for the prevention of rickets.
• Children’s DHA is the medicine
completely based on Cod liver oil.
• It is essential for the proper
development of brain, eyes, nervous
and the immune systems.
• The animals are killed for their meat, hide, tusks and other
• Small pieces of elephant foot are turned into a paste to treat
hernias in Myanmar.
• They are killed for its gallbladder for
treating everything from burns to
asthma to cancer
• Their population has declined by more
than 30 percent in the past three
decades due to hunting and loss of
their forest habitat
• Some commercial farms raise bears to
milk their gallbladders for bile restock
by capturing wild bears