Anthrax A deadly disease
Contents... <ul><li>About the disease. </li></ul><ul><li>The causing Bacteria. </li></ul><ul><li>The Bacteria (images) </l...
<ul><li>Anthrax is caused by the spore-forming  bacterium Bacillus anthracis. </li></ul><ul><li>It commonly occurs in wild...
<ul><li>Bacillus anthracis  is a rod-shaped, Gram-positive, aerobic bacterium that is about 1 by 9 micrometers in length. ...
Gram-positive anthrax bacteria (purple rods) in cerebrospinal fluid sample. If present, a Gram-negative bacterial species ...
<ul><li>French scientist  Louis Pasteur  developed the first effective vaccine for anthrax in 1881. </li></ul><ul><li>Baci...
Robert Koch Louis Pasteur
<ul><li>Anthrax cannot be spread directly from person to person, but a patient's clothing and body may be contaminated wit...
In May 1881 Louis Pasteur performed a public experiment to demonstrate his concept of vaccination. He prepared two groups ...
 
 
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Anthrax disease

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Anthrax disease

  1. 1. Anthrax A deadly disease
  2. 2. Contents... <ul><li>About the disease. </li></ul><ul><li>The causing Bacteria. </li></ul><ul><li>The Bacteria (images) </li></ul><ul><li>The discoverer. </li></ul><ul><li>Robert and Louis. </li></ul><ul><li>Spreading of the disease. </li></ul><ul><li>The first Vaccination </li></ul><ul><li>The Sufferers. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Anthrax is caused by the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis. </li></ul><ul><li>It commonly occurs in wild and domestic mammals. </li></ul><ul><li>Anthrax also occurs in humans when they are exposed to infected animals, hides, or tissue from infected animals, or when they are directly exposed to B. anthracis. </li></ul><ul><li>It occurs in three forms - cutaneous, inhalational, and rarely, gastrointestinal. </li></ul>About the disease...
  4. 4. <ul><li>Bacillus anthracis is a rod-shaped, Gram-positive, aerobic bacterium that is about 1 by 9 micrometers in length. </li></ul><ul><li>Bacillus anthracis can form dormant endospores (often referred to as &quot;spores&quot; for short, but not to be confused with fungal spores) that are able to survive in harsh conditions for decades or even centuries. </li></ul><ul><li>Such spores can be found on all continents, even Antarctica. </li></ul><ul><li>When spores are inhaled, ingested, or come into contact with a skin lesion on a host they may reactivate and multiply rapidly. </li></ul>The causing Bacteria...
  5. 5. Gram-positive anthrax bacteria (purple rods) in cerebrospinal fluid sample. If present, a Gram-negative bacterial species would appear pink. (The other cells are white blood cells). Microphotograph of a Gram stain of the bacterium Bacillus anthracis, the cause of the anthrax disease . Color-enhanced scanning electron micrograph shows splenic tissue from a monkey with inhalational anthrax; featured are rod-shaped bacilli (yellow) and an erythrocyte (red).
  6. 6. <ul><li>French scientist Louis Pasteur developed the first effective vaccine for anthrax in 1881. </li></ul><ul><li>Bacillus Anthracis was shown to cause disease by Robert Koch in 1876. </li></ul><ul><li>Louis Pasteur was a French scientist and his period was December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895. </li></ul><ul><li>Heinrich Hermann Robert Koch’s period was 11 December 1843 – 27 May 1910 and born in Prussia. </li></ul><ul><li>He was also awarded the Nobel prize. </li></ul><ul><li>Robert Koch and Louis Pasteur used to work together. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Robert Koch Louis Pasteur
  8. 8. <ul><li>Anthrax cannot be spread directly from person to person, but a patient's clothing and body may be contaminated with anthrax spores. </li></ul><ul><li>Anthrax can enter the human body through the intestines (ingestion), lungs (inhalation), or skin (cutaneous) and causes distinct clinical symptoms based on its site of entry. </li></ul><ul><li>Respiratory infection in humans initially presents with cold or flu-like symptoms for several days, followed by severe (and often fatal) respiratory collapse. </li></ul><ul><li>Inhalational anthrax is also known as Woolsorters' or Ragpickers' disease as these professions were more susceptible to the disease due to their exposure to infected animal products. </li></ul><ul><li>Gastrointestinal infection in humans is most often caused by eating anthrax-infected meat and is characterized by serious gastrointestinal difficulty, vomiting of blood, severe diarrhea, acute inflammation of the intestinal tract, and loss of appetite. </li></ul><ul><li>Cutaneous anthrax is typically caused when bacillus anthracis spores enter through cuts on the skin. </li></ul>
  9. 9. In May 1881 Louis Pasteur performed a public experiment to demonstrate his concept of vaccination. He prepared two groups of 25 sheep, one goat and several cows. The animals of one group were injected with an anti-anthrax vaccine prepared by Pasteur twice, at an interval of 15 days; the control group was left unvaccinated. Thirty days after the first injection both groups were injected with a culture of live anthrax bacteria. All the animals in the non-vaccinated group died, while all of the animals in the vaccinated group survived. The human vaccine for anthrax became available in 1954. This was a cell-free vaccine instead of the live-cell Pasteur-style vaccine used for veterinary purposes. An improved cell-free vaccine became available in 1970.

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