GREEN BUILDING Refers to a structure and using process that is environmentally responsible and resource efficient throughout a building’s life cycle : from sitting to design, construction, operation, maintenance, re novation, and demolition. Green building – also known as sustainable or high performance building increases the efficiency with which buildings and their sites use and harvest energy, water, and materials.
GREEN BUILDING CONCEPT The ‘GREEN BUILDING’ concept is gaining importance in various countries, including India. These are buildings that ensure waste is minimized at every stage during the construction and operation of the building, resulting in low costs, according to experts in technology. A Green building is a structure that is environmentally responsible and resource efficient throughout it’s life cycle.
OBJECTIVE Green building are designed to reduce the overall impact of the built environment on human health and the natural environment by : Efficiently using energy, water and other resources. Protecting occupant health and improving employee productivity. Reducing waste, pollution and environment degradation.
Goals of green building Green building brings together a vast array of practices and techniques to reduce and ultimately eliminate the impacts of buildings on the environment and human health. It often emphasizes taking advantage of renewable resources, e.g., using sunlight through passive solar, active solar, and photovoltaic techniques and using plants and trees through green roofs, rain gardens, and for reduction of rainwater run- off. Many other techniques, such as using packed gravel or permeable concrete instead of conventional concrete or asphalt to enhance replenishment of ground water, are used as well. Fundamental principles : Structure Design Efficiency, Energy Efficiency, Water Efficiency, Materials Efficiency, Indoor Environmental Quality Enhancement, Operations and Maintenance Optimization, and Waste and Toxics Reduction
Structure design efficiency The foundation of any construction project is rooted in the concept and design stages. The concept stage, in fact, is one of the major steps in a project life cycle, as it has the largest impact on cost and performance. In designing environmentally optimal buildings, the objective is to minimize the total environmental impact associated with all life-cycle stages of the building project. However, building as a process is not as streamlined as an industrial process, and varies from one building to the other, never repeating itself identically. In addition, buildings are much more complex products, composed of a multitude of materials and components each constituting various design variables to be decided at the design stage. A variation of every design variable may affect the environment during all the buildings relevant life-cycle stages.
Energy efficiency To reduce operating energy use, high-efficiency windows and insulation in walls, ceilings, and floors increase the efficiency of the building envelope, (the barrier between conditioned and unconditioned space). Another strategy, passive solar building design, is often implemented in low-energy homes. Designers orient windows and walls and place awnings, porches, and trees to shade windows and roofs during the summer while maximizing solar gain in the winter. In addition, effective window placement (day lighting) can provide more natural light and lessen the need for electric lighting during the day. Solar water heating further reduces energy costs. Onsite generation of renewable energy through solar power, wind power, hydro power, or biomass can significantly reduce the environmental impact of the building. Power generation is generally the most expensive feature to add to a building.
Water efficiency Reducing water consumption and protecting water quality are key objectives in sustainable building. One critical issue of water consumption is that in many areas, the demands on the supplying aquifer exceed its ability to replenish itself. To the maximum extent feasible, facilities should increase their dependence on water that is collected, used, purified, and reused on-site. The protection and conservation of water throughout the life of a building may be accomplished by designing for dual plumbing that recycles water in toilet flushing. Waste-water may be minimized by utilizing water conserving fixtures such as ultra-low flush toilets and low- flow shower heads. Bidets help eliminate the use of toilet paper, reducing sewer traffic and increasing possibilities of re-using water on-site. Point of use water treatment and heating improves both water quality and energy efficiency while reducing the amount of water in circulation. The use of non-sewage and greywater for on-site use such as site-irrigation will minimize demands on the local aquifer.
Materials efficiency Green building materials are composed of renewable, rather than nonrenewable resources. Green materials are environmentally responsible because impacts are considered over the life of the product. Depending upon project-specific goals, an assessment of green materials may involve an evaluation of one or more of the criteria listed below. Green building material/product selection criteria : Resource efficiency Indoor air quality Energy efficiency Water conservation Affordability
Resource Efficiency Recycled Content: Products with identifiable recycled content, including postindustrial content with a preference for post consumer content. Resource efficient manufacturing process: Products manufactured with resource-efficient processes including reducing energy consumption, minimizing waste (recycled, recyclable and or source reduced product packaging), and reducing greenhouse gases. Locally available: Building materials, components, and systems found locally or regionally saving energy and resources in transportation to the project site. Durable: Materials that are longer lasting or are comparable to conventional products with long life expectancies.
Indoor environmental quality enhancement Indoor Air Quality seeks to reduce volatile organic compounds, or VOCs, and other air impurities such as microbial contaminants. Buildings rely on a properly designed ventilation system (passively/naturally- or mechanically-powered) to provide adequate ventilation of cleaner air from outdoors or recirculated, filtered air as well as isolated operations (kitchens, dry cleaners, etc.) from other occupancies. Low or non-toxic: Materials that emit few or no carcinogens, reproductive toxicants, or irritants as demonstrated by the manufacturer through appropriate testing. Moisture resistant: Products and systems that resist moisture or inhibit the growth of biological contaminants in buildings. Systems or equipment: Products that promote healthy IAQ by identifying indoor air pollutants or enhancing the air quality.
Operations and maintenance optimization No matter how sustainable a building may have been in its design and construction, it can only remain so if it is operated responsibly and maintained properly.. Every aspect of green building is integrated into the O&M phase of a Ensuring operations and maintenance(O&M) personnel are part of the projects planning and development process will help retain the green criteria designed at the onset of the project buildings life. The addition of new green technologies also falls on the O&M staff. Although the goal of waste reduction may be applied during the design, construction and demolition phases of a buildings life-cycle, it is in the O&M phase that green practices such as recycling and air quality enhancement take place
Waste reduction Green architecture also seeks to reduce waste of energy, water and materials used during construction. For example, in California nearly 60% of the states waste comes from commercial buildings .During the construction phase, one goal should be to reduce the amount of material going to landfills. Well-designed buildings also help reduce the amount of waste generated by the occupants as well, by providing on-site solutions such as compost bins to reduce matter going to landfills. To reduce the impact on wells or water treatment plants, several options exist. "Greywater", wastewater from sources such as dishwashing or washing machines, can be used for subsurface irrigation, or if treated, for non-potable purposes, e.g., to flush toilets and wash cars. Rainwater collectors are used for similar purposes. Centralized wastewater treatment systems can be costly and use a lot of energy. An alternative to this process is converting waste and wastewater into fertilizer, which avoids these costs and shows other benefits.
HOW TO MAKE GREEN HOMES
Cost and payoff The most criticized issue about constructing environmentally friendly buildings is the price. Photo-voltaics, new appliances, and modern technologies tend to cost more money. Most green buildings cost a premium of <2%, but yield 10 times as much over the entire life of the building. The stigma is between the knowledge of up-front cost vs. life- cycle cost. The savings in money come from more efficient use of utilities which result in decreased energy bills. It is projected that different sectors could save $130 Billion on energy bills. Also, higher worker or student productivity can be factored into savings and cost deductions. Studies have shown over a 20 year life period, some green buildings have yielded $53 to $71 per square foot back on investment. Confirming the rentability of green building investments, further studies of the commercial real estate market have found that LEED and Energy Star certified buildings achieve significantly higher rents, sale prices and occupancy rates as well as lower capitalization rates potentially reflecting lower investment risk.
Regulation and operation The Indian building industry is highly de-centralized with people and/ or groups engaged in design, construction, equipment provision, installation, and renovation working together. Each group may be organized to some extent, but there is limited interaction among the groups, thus disabling the integrated green design and application process. Hence, it is very important to define and quantify sustainable building practices and their benefits. It is also important to separate the role of different participants in ensuring that the building consumes minimal resources over its entire life cycle and leaves behind a minimal environmental footprint.
Indian Green Building Council The Indian Green Building Council (IGBC), was formed in the year 2001 by Confederation of Indian Industry (CII). The vision of the council is to usher in a green building movement in India and facilitate India to become one of the global leaders in green buildings by 2015. With a modest beginning of 20,000 sq ft (1,900 m2). green built-up area in the country in the year 2003, today more than 1053 green buildings ( as on April 2011) with a built-up area of over 648,000,000 sq ft (60,200,000 m2). are being constructed all over India, of which 147 green buildings are certified and fully functional LEED India for New Construction LEED India for Core and Shell IGBC Green Homes IGBC Green Factory Building IGBC Green SEZ IGBC Green Townships
Green Ratingfor Integrated Habitat Assessment GRIHA has been developed after a thorough study and understanding of the current internationally accepted green building rating systems and the prevailing building practices in India. The team has researched on several international rating systems. A few team members were also sponsored under a study tour by USAEP (United States Asia Environmental Partnership) to understand the eco-rating systems prevalent in the US. The team has vast experience in providing design assistance to green buildings in the country and long and varied experience in carrying out energy conservation studies in existing hotels, offices, and other commercial building. The team has effectively utilized the several multi-disciplinary strengths and experiences of the colleagues at TERI to arrive at the tools that addresses cross-cutting issues in the design, development, and operation of a green building.
Suzlon Energy Limited - PuneSeveral accolades continue toshower upon Suzlon’s globalheadquarter in Pune - “OneEarth” - ever since the facilityhas been LEED ‘Platinum’rated and certified as an eco-friendly building by the GreenBuilding Council. Built toperfection on an area of 41,000square meters (10.13 acres),One Earth can be counted asamong the largest greenbuilding projects in India andis living proof that our worldcan be replenished with a littlegreen effort, everyday.
BiodiversityConservation IndiaLtd (BCIL) -BangaloreAs a green builder who strives forthe conservation of diversity invegetation, forests, culture andurban lifestyles, BCIL has createdsome of the most energy-efficientresidential homes India has everset eyes upon. The company’s TZed No home at BCIL TZed Homes useshomes in Whitefield, Bangalore incandescent lamps, halogens andhas been certified as the first fluorescent tubelightsresidential apartment in the worldto be rated ‘Platinum’ under LEED.TZed, which means “TowardsZero Energy Development” is a2,49,000 sq.ft. green projectspread across 5.5 acres and isdesigned to reduce lighting andenergy by nearly 70 per cent.
ITC Green Centre -GurgaonRenowned as one of the earlyadopters of the green buildingmovement in India, the ITC GreenCentre is still considered abenchmark for green buildings. Itwas the first Platinum ratedbuilding in India and hasendeavored to adopt greenpractices that go beyond recycled More than 10% of the building materials arewaste and day-lit offices. Within abuilt-in area of 180,000 sq.ft., the refurbished from other sites and 40% arebuilding features alternative from within 500 miles of the project sitetransportation facilities, stormwater managementsystem, solar thermaltechnology, reflective high-albedo roof paint, minimalexterior lighting, separatesmoking rooms with exhaustsystem and zero-waterdischarge
The Druk WhiteLotus School -LadakhIn this desert landscape of severeclimatic conditions, 3,500 metersabove sea level, was born a modestschool that is adjudged as anoutstanding example ofsustainable, green, cost effectivebuilding development. This multi-award winning structure is therecipient of the Best AsianBuilding, Best EducationBuilding and Best Green Traditional mud brick masonry is usedBuilding awards. It combines internally to provide increased thermalthe best of traditional Ladakhi performance and durabilityarchitecture with 21st centuryengineering excellence and isbuilt with traditional materialssuch as locally excavatedstone, mud bricks, timber andgrass.
La Cuisine Solaire -AurovilleOne of the most innovativegreen buildings in the countryis the solar kitchen atAuroville that bestdemonstrates the use of solarenergy to produce steam. This1700 sq. m. kitchen isnamed thus because of thehuge 15 diameter solar bowlthat has been fixed at thetop of the structure toharvest solar energy. On aclear day, this greenstructure can generate This building puts to use appropriateenough steam at a technologoes and passive solar concepts totemperature of 150°C that achieve energy-efficiencycan be used to cook mealsfor 1000 people, three timesa day.
Doon School -DehradunAuthorities can rightfullyclaim that this establishmentis one of Indias first greenschool campuses that optedfor recycling measures andsuccessfully achieved centper cent self-sufficiency inenergy, water and organicfertilizer. Several oldbuilding blocks that were Doon school drastically reduced the need forpart of the 69 acre school artificial heating/cooling air conditioningwere redesigned and solar through solar thermal systems and cross-thermal systems, waste ventilationmanagement processes aswell as biomass gasificationsystems were introduced aspart of its green initiatives.
Raintree Hotels -ChennaiHere is an eco-sensitive hotel forthe eco-savvy traveler. The entirechain of Raintree business hotelsacross Chennai city are the firsteco-sensitive hotels in South India.Everything about this hospitalityrange is green: right from therubber wood, bamboo andmedium-density fiber used forconstruction down to thePortland Pozzalana cementcontaining 15 to 20 per cent fly Setting new standards of environmentalash. The George Fisher responsibility without compromising onconcealed cistern installed at guest experiencethe hotel controls the waterused in toilet flushes and thesewage treatment plant recycleswater for use in air conditioners.
Rajiv GandhiInternationalAirport -HyderabadIndia’s first Greenfield airport isundeniably among the top 10 greenbuildings in India and the firstairport in Asia to be awarded theLEED ‘Silver’ rating certification byUS Green Building Council.Featuring 100,005 sq. m. of glass This greenfield airport has been built at aencased terminal, this greenbuilding ensures optimal use of cost of Rs 2,478 crorenatural light and minimalwastage of electricity or energyconsumption. Yet another of itsgreen features includes therecycling of treated wastewaterfor landscaping, airconditioning and flushingrequirements.
Patni KnowledgeCentre* Climate responsive architecture* Over 50% green area* 75% of the area receives naturaldaylight* 95% of the occupants get accessto outside views* Zero discharge building; 100%recycling of sewage* Drip water irrigation and solarwater heating* Interior materials with lowvolatile organic compound (VOC)emissions* Healthy air quality with CO2 Set up with an investment of Rs.. 175 crores,sensors for adding fresh air on this Green IT-BPO centre is spread over 5demand acres of land and seats over 3,500 people.* Maximum use of eco-friendlyrecyclable material.
Nokia - GurgaonAmong India’s most sustainablebuildings is the corporate office ofNokia in Gurgaon which has beengranted accreditation as one of theworld’s leading green buildings bythe U.S. Green Building Council(USGBC). This is the first time thata commercial interior fit-outproject in India is being awardedthe Green Building Award andprestigious LEED ‘Gold’ rating.What makes this green office standout from the rest is its smartlighting and ventilationsystems, high-efficiencychillers, high-performancedouble glazing, heat recoverywheel, green guard certifiedfurniture and online CO2monitoring system.