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UNDER THE SUPERVISION OFSr. Manager Mr. V.K Sharma&Dy. Manager Mrs. S. SaroajaSUBMITTED BYRoshan Ara06210004601INDIAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGY
I N D I A NB A N K I N GS Y S T E M 0 6 2 1 00 0 4 6 0INDIAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGYCENTRE FORDISTANCE LEARNINGGhaziabadEXECUTIVE SUMMARYBanking in Indiaoriginated in the first decade of 18 century with The General Bank of Indiacoming into existence in1786. This was followed by Bank of Hindustan.Boththese banks are now defunct. The oldest bank in existence in India is the StateBank of India being established as "The Bank of Bengal" in Calcutta in June1806.The Reserve Bank of India formally took on the responsibility ofregulating the Indian banking sectorfrom1935. After Indiasindependence 1947, the Reserve Bank was nationalized and given broaderpowers.Currently (2007), banking in India is generally fairly mature in terms ofsupply, productrange and reach-even though reach in rural India still remains achallenge for the privatesector and foreign banks. In terms of quality of assets andcapital adequacy, Indian banksare considered to have clean, strong andtransparent balance sheets relative to other b a n k s i n c o mp a r a b l ee c o n o mi e s i n i t s r e g i o n . Th e R e s e r v e B a n k o f I n d i a i sa n autonomous body, with minimal pressure from the government. The statedpolicy of theBank on the Indian Rupee is to manage volatility but withoutany fixed exchange rate-and this has mostly been true.2INDIAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGY
I N D I A NB A N K I N GS Y S T E M 0 6 2 1 00 0 4 6 0The Modern Banking Functions are Fund based and Non-Fund basedfunctions. Thesefunctions of a bank are those in which banks extend variousservices to their customersor add their commitments to certain transactionsundertaken by their clients and chargetheir fees/ commissions for the servicesrendered by them / their commitments added tothe transactions undertaken by theclients. The activities popularly known as ‘Non-fundfacilities’ provided byBanks.Thus, we conclude……………………………3INDIAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGY
I N D I A NB A N K I N GS Y S T E M 0 6 2 1 00 0 4 6 0TABLE OF CONTENTS1. INTRODUCTION -•Objectives of the study 5•Scope of study 6•Limitations of study 72.INDIAN BANKS –•Scope of Indian Bank 8•Banking in India 9•Definition of Banks 11•T y p es o fB a n k1 2•Services Provided by Banks 13 3. RESERVE BANK OF INDIA–•Guidelines Provided by the RBI21•Guidelines on Fair Practices Code284INDIAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGY
I N D I A NB A N K I N GS Y S T E M 0 6 2 1 00 0 4 6 0334. STUDY OF HDFC BANK 5 .S T U D YO F P N BB A N K 4 6ACKNOWLEDGEMENTI express my heartiest gratitude to Mr.V.K SHARMA(SENIOR MANAGER-PNB) for giving me an opportunity to prepare a reporton the project assigned tome. I am also thankful to Mrs.S. SAROJA(DEPUTY MANAGER) under their guidance I undertook this project, forextending the advice and direction that isrequired to carry on a study of thisnature, and for helping me with the intricate5INDIAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGYI N D I A NB A N K I N GS Y S T E M 0 6 2 1 00 0 4 6 0details of the project at every step. Without their support and able guidance,itwould have been very difficult to finish this work in the way I have done it.LastlyI would like to thank all the respondents who offered their opinions andsuggestionsthrough the survey that was conducted by me.However, I accept the soleresponsibility of any possible errors of omission.(Roshan Ara )6INDIAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGYI N D I A NB A N K I N GS Y S T E M 0 6 2 1 00 0 4 6 0OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDYTo study broad outline of management of credit, market and operationalrisksassociated with banking sector.
To understand the importance of banking sector.To study the Indian bank scenario and its problem.Long Term and Short Term Finances.To study the role of bank in Indian Market.Different types of services provided by the banks.To study various bank, Corporate and Commercial.To study the Indian bank scenario and its problem.Though the Indian Banking System is very wide and elaborated, still theprojectcovers whole subject in concise manner.The study aims at learning the techniques involved to manage the varioustypesof Banks, various methodologies undertaken.To offer suggestions based upon the findings.7INDIAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGYI N D I A NB A N K I N GS Y S T E M 0 6 2 1 00 0 4 6 0SCOPE OF THE STUDYA healthy banking system is essential for any economy striving toachieveg o o d g r o wt h a n d ye t r e ma i n s t a b l e i n a n i n c r e a s i n g l yg l o b a l b u s i n e s s environment. The Indian banking system, with one ofthe largest bankingnetworks in the world, has witnessed a series ofreforms over the past fewyears like the deregulation of interest rates, dilutionof the government stake in public sector banks (PSBs), and the increasedparticipation of private sector b a n k s . Th e g r o wt h o f t h e r e t a i lf i n a n c i a l s e r v i c e s s e c t o r h a s b e e n a k e y development on the marketfront. Indian banks (both public and private) havenot only been keen to tap thedomestic market but also to compete in the globalmarket place.Studying the increasing business scope of the bank.8
INDIAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGYI N D I A NB A N K I N GS Y S T E M 0 6 2 1 00 0 4 6 0Market segmentation to find the potential customers for the bank.Customers’ perception on the various products of the bank.The corporate sector has stepped up its demand for credit to fund its expansionplans; there has also been a growth in retail banking.The report seeks to present a comprehensive picture of the various types ofbank. The banks can be broadly classified into two categories:-•Nationalise Bank•Private BankWithin each of these broad groups, an attempt has been made to coverascomprehensively as possible, under the various sub-groups.LIMITATIONOFTHE STUDY:Every work has its own limitation. Limitationsare extent to which the processshould not exceed. Limitations of this project are:-1.The project was constrained by time limit of two months.2 . Th e ma j o rl i mi t a t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y s h a l l b e d a t a a v a i l a b i l i t y a s t h e d a t a i sproprietary and not readily shared for dissemination.3. Due to the ongoingprocess of globalization and increasing competition, no onemodel or methodwill suffice over a long period of time and constant up grada tionwill berequired. As such the project can be considered as an overview ofthevarious banks prevailing in Punjab National Bank and in the BankingIndustry.4. Each bank, in conforming to the RBI guidelines, may develop itsown methodsfor measuring and managing risk.9INDIAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGYI N D I A NB A N K I N GS Y S T E M 0 6 2 1 00 0 4 6 05.
The project study is restricted to banking sector used in India only.6. Theconclusion made is based on a sample study and does not apply to alltheIndividuals.7. In India the banks are being segregated in different groups. Eachgroup has their own benefits and limitations in operating in India.8.All banks are not included.PROBLEMS: --The corporate sector has stepped up its demand for credit to funditsexpansion plans, there has also been a growth in retail banking. However,even as theopportunities increase, there are some issues and challenges that Indianbanks will haveto contend with if they are to emerge successful in the medium tolong term.10INDIAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGYI N D I A NB A N K I N GS Y S T E M 0 6 2 1 00 0 4 6 0RESEARCH METHODOLOGY:-The first stage included the introduction of Indian Banks and how they work inIndia. Ichoose five criteria Growth, Credit quality, Strength,Profitability, Efficiency / Profitability. The next stage involved determining theobjectives of the study, drafting aquestionnaire will be designed keeping in mindthe target audience and objectives of thestudy. It will non-disguised in nature andwill include a few open-ended questions.DATA COLLECTIONSThe data from such organization has also been collected.Primary dataThe primary data will be collected through the questionnaire designed. In theprocess of data collection we went to the respective bank to get thequestionnaire filled. The preparation of the project report required me tovisit the various other companies likePunjab National Bank, ICICI bank ,State Bank of India, Central Bank, IDBI bank etc.in order to collect data.Secondary dataT h e P r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e p r o je c t r e p o r t a l s o r e q u i r e d d a t a f r o mv a r i o u s jo u r n a l s , newspapers ( like The Economic Times, Times ofIndia etc.) books ( like WorkingCapital Management written by SarbeshMishra and Financial Service written by M YKhan etc.)11INDIAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGYI N D I A NB A N K I N G
S Y S T E M 0 6 2 1 00 0 4 6 0SCOPE OF BANKING SECTORBanking business has a history of over 200 years. From the times oftheBank of Bengal (1806) the sector has been witnessing qualitative andquantitativechanges. Main players during the pre-independence period wereCredit Lyonnais,Allahabad Bank, Punjab National Bank and Bank of India. With1935 regulation theReserve Bank of India was proclaimed the Central Bank ofIndia and was vestedwith controlling powers over the commercial banks.Thedrastic development taken place during the first 25 yearssinceindependence was Nationalization of many private banks. With this,the centralgovernment became major policy maker for these nationalizedbanksWith economic liberalization measures many private and foreignbankingcompanies were allowed to operate in the country. Favorable economicclimate anda variety of other factors such as demand for wide range of financialproducts fromvarious sections of the society led to mutually beneficialgrowth to the bankings e c t o r a n d e c o n o m i c g r o w t h p r o c e s s . T h i sw a s c o i n c i d e d b y t e c h n o l o g y development in the bankingoperations. Today most of the Indian cities havenetworked bankingfacility as well as Internet banking facility. A customer is empowered tooperate his account from any part of the country. UTI Bank, ICICI, HDFCBank and Bank of Punjab are the main winners of the race.BANKING IN INDIABanking in Indiaoriginated in the first decade of 18th century with TheGeneral Bank of Indiacoming into existence in 1786. This was followed by Bank of Hindustan. Boththese banks are now defunct. The oldest bank in existence in India is12INDIAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGYI N D I A NB A N K I N GS Y S T E M 0 6 2 1 00 0 4 6 0theState Bank of Indiabeing established as "The Bank of Bengal" inCalcuttainJune1806. A couple of decades later, foreign banks like CreditLyonnaisstarted their Calcuttaoperations in the 1850s. At that point of time,Calcutta was the most activetrading port, mainly due to the trade of theBritishEmpire, and due to which bankingactivity took roots there and prospered. Thefirst fully Indian owned bank was theAllahabad Bank , which was establishedin 1865.By the 1900s, the market expanded with the establishment of banks
such asPunjab National Bank,in 1895 in Lahore andBank of India, in 1906,inMumbai- both of which were founded under private ownership.TheReserve Bank of India formally took on the responsibility of regulating theIndian banking sector from 1935.After Indias independence in 1947, theReserve Bank was nationalized and given broader powers.13INDIAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGYReserve Bank of IndiaScheduled BanksC o m m e r c i a l B a n k s C o -O e r a t i v eB a n k s ForeignBanks(40)RegionalRuralBank Urban Co-operatives(52)State Co-operatives(16)I N D I A NB A N K I N GS Y S T E M 0 6 2 1 00 0 4 6 0INTRODUCTION14INDIAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGYPublic Sector Banks 27Private Sector Bank (30)O l d( 2 2 ) N e w ( 8 ) Other Nationalised Banks(19)StateBank of India &Associate Banks (8)I N D I A NB A N K I N GS Y S T E M 0 6 2 1 00 0 4 6 0Definition of the Bank:-Financial institution whose primary activity is to act as a payment agent forcustomers and to borrow and lend money. Banks are important players of themarket and offer services as loans and funds.Banking was originated in 18thcenturyFirst bank were General Bank of India and Bank of Hindustan,now defunct.Punjab National Bank and Bank of India was the only private bank in 1906.
Allahabad bank first fully India owned bank in 1865. 15INDIAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGYI N D I A NB A N K I N GS Y S T E M 0 6 2 1 00 0 4 6 0Types of bankingCommercial bankhas two meanings:○Commercial bank is the term used for a normal bank to distinguish itfrom aninvestment bank. (After the great depression, the U.S.Congress required that banksonly engage in banking activities,whereas investment banks were limited to capitalmarkets activities.This separation is no longer mandatory.)○Commercial bank can also refer to a bank or a division of a bank thatmostly dealswith deposits and loans from corporations or large businesses, as opposed tonormal individual members of the public(retail banking). It is the most successfuldepartment of banking.•Community development bankare regulated banks that provide financialservices and credit to underservedmarkets or populations.•Private banksmanage the assets of high net worth individuals.•Offshore banksare banks located in jurisdictions with low taxation andregulation. Many offshorebanks are essentially private banks.•Savings banksacceptsavingsdeposits.•Postal savings banksare savings banks associated with national postalsystems.There are some examplesof banks in India:-➢
Private sector bank•HDFC, ICICI, Axis bank, Yes bank, Kotak Mahindra bank, Bank ofRajasthan16INDIAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGYI N D I A NB A N K I N GS Y S T E M 0 6 2 1 00 0 4 6 0➢Rural bank•United bank of India, Syndicate bank, National bank for agricultureandrural development (NABARD)➢Commercial bank•State Bank,Central Bank, Punjab National Bank, HSBC, ICICI,HDFC etc.➢Retail bank• B O B , P N B➢Universal bank•Deutsche bankServices provided by the bankBanks provide two types of services1 . F u n d B a s e d 2 . N o n - F u n dB a s e d 17INDIAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGYBanking ServicesFund BasedServicesNon-Fund BasedServicesI N D I A NB A N K I N GS Y S T E M 0 6 2 1 00 0 4 6 0FUND BASED AND NON-FUND BASED FUNCTIONSThe difference between fund-based and non-fund based credit assistance liesmainlyin the cash outflow. While the former involves all immediate cash outflow,the latter may or may not involve cash outflow from a banker. In otherwords, a fund basedcredit facility to a borrower would result in depletion of
actual liquidity of a banker immediately whereas grant of non-fund based creditfacilities to a borrower may or may not affect the banker’s liquidity.Fund Based Services18INDIAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGYI N D I A NB A N K I N GS Y S T E M 0 6 2 1 00 0 4 6 0FUND BASED FACILITYFund based functions of a bank are those in which banks make deployment of theirfunds either by granting advances or by making investments for meetinggaps infunds requirements of their customers/ borrowers. Fund -basedfunctions of a bank may be classified into two parts:-Granting of Loans and AdvancesMaking Investments in shares/ debentures/ bonds.FUND BASED SREVICESI . L O A N S A N D A D V A N C E S1. Commercial Loans SegmentA. Working Capital :-Working Capital is Current assetsminus current liabilities. Workingcapitalmeasureshow much inliquid assets acompany hasa v a i l a b l e t o b u i l d i t sbusiness.Th e n u mb e r c a n b e p o s i t i ve o r n e g a t i v e , depending on howmuch debt the company is carrying. In general, companiesthat have alotofworking capital will be more successful since they can expandand improve theiroperations. Companies with negative working capital may lack thefundsnecessaryfor growth, also callednet current assetsor current capital.19INDIAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGYI N D I A NB A N K I N GS Y S T E M 0 6 2 1 00 0 4 6 0A loan whose purpose is to finance everyday operation of a company. Aworkingcapital loan is not used to buy long term assets or investments. Instead itsused to clear up accounts payable, wages, etc.I.Cash Credit
:- This facility is given by the banker to the customer by way of acertainamount of credit facility. Its limit is fixed on the basis of security ofthecompany`s current assets.II. Overdraft:-Banksallow selected customers to writechequesin excess of the balance in theircurrent account, ie, to overdraw. Overdrafts are arranged up tolimitswhich depend on the customers creditstanding and the bankmanagershumour. The arrangements allow flexibility in the amount spent and,equally, allowflexibility in repayments (although technically a bank can demandrepayment of anoverdraft within 24 hours). In that respect overdrafts areunlike personal loans,which are structured with regular repayments.Interestonoverdrafts is charged onthe fluctuating daily balance.III. Bills Finance:-IV. Bills Purchase:-V. Bills Discounting:-T h i s i s t h e mo s t i mp o r t a n t f o r m i n wh i c h a b a n k l e n d s without anycollateral security. The seller draws bills of exchange on the buyer of 20INDIAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGYI N D I A NB A N K I N GS Y S T E M 0 6 2 1 00 0 4 6 0goods on credit. Such a bill may either be a clean bill or documentary bill whichisa c c o mp a n i e d b y d o c u me n t s o f t i t l e t o g o o d s ,v i z r a i l wa yr e c e i p t s . Th e b a n k purchase bills payable on demand and credit thecustomer`s account with theamount of bills less the discount. On maturity ofthe bills, the bank present them toits acceptor for payment. In case thediscounted bill is dishonored by the non - payment, the bank can recoversthe full amount from the customer along with theexpense in that connection.B. Tem Loans:-A bank loan to a company, with afixed maturityand oftenfeaturingamortizationof principal. If this loan is in theformof aline of credit,the funds aredrawn down shortly after the agreementis signed. Otherwise, theborrower usuallyuses the funds from the loan soon after they becomeavailable. Bank term loansare very acommon kind of lending.I. Capital Expenditure:-Moneyspent to acquire or upgradephysicalassetssuch as buildingsand machinery.also calledcapital spendingor capital expense.II. Fixed Assets Finance:-III. Project Finance:-
Financing arrangements where thefundsare made available for aspecific purpose(the project), with the loan repayments geared to the projectscashflow.Projectfinance is used in connection with raising large amounts of moneyfor big-ticket,energy-related facilities. The term has come to be loosely applied tovarious forms of financing. A financing of a particular economic unit inwhich a lender is satisfied to21INDIAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGYI N D I A NB A N K I N GS Y S T E M 0 6 2 1 00 0 4 6 0look initially to thecashflowsand earnings of that economic unit as the source offundsfrom which a loanwillbe repaid and to theassetsof the economic unitascollateralfor the loan.IV. Consumer Loans Advance against Shares:-V. Housing Loans:-VI. EducationLoans:-3.Personal Loans Segment:-Loan granted for personal, family, or household use,as distinguished from a loanfinancing a business. Though in some situations thelender may require a co-signeror guarantor. If unsecured, the loan is made on the basis of the borrowersintegrity andability to Pay. Generally, these loans areused for debtconsolidation, or to pay for vacations, education expenses, or medicalbills, and are amortized o ver a fixed term with regular payments ofprincipal and interest.Non-Fund based services22INDIAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGYI N D I A NB A N K I N GS Y S T E M 0 6 2 1 00 0 4 6 0It is generally perceived that the non-fund based business is veryremunerative to bank and the borrowers. The banks, besides gettinghandsome commission or feeand some other service charges, also get thelow cost deposits in the shape of margin and ancillary business. Thefunds of the borrower are not blocked in theadvances to be given to the
suppliers or beneficiaries and this keeps his liquidity position comfortable,production smooth and costs low.PURPOSE FOR NON-FUND BASED FACILITIES:-The borrowers need such facilities not only for purchases of currentassets or financing there of or take benefit of certain services with the help ofnon-fund basedfacilities. They also need the facilities for acquisition of fixed assetsincluding their financing.23INDIAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGYI N D I A NB A N K I N GS Y S T E M 0 6 2 1 00 0 4 6 0RBI NORMS:Prudential exposure norms as per extant guidelines of Reserve Bank of Indiaprovidesthat the maximum exposure of a bank for all itsFund basedandNon-fund basedcreditfacilities, investments, underwriting, investments in Bonds andcommercial paper andany other commitment should not exceed 25percent of its (banks) net worth to an individual borrower and 50 percentof its, net worth to a group. It may however, berioted that while calculatingexposure, theNon-fund basedfacilities are to be taken at50 percentof the sanctioned limit. To illustrate the point let us consider thefollowingexample:-Example1.P a r t i c u l ar s R s . R s .I n croresNet worth of the bankMaximum exposure permitted for an individualborrower(25% of net worth of the bank) WorkingCapital Control and Banking Policy17570024INDIAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGYI N D I A NB A N K I N GS Y S T E M 0 6 2 1 00 0 4 6 0
Maximum exposure permitted for all borrowersunder the same group (50% ofnet worth of thebank)350657Example1.P a r t i c u la r s R s .25INDIAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGYI N D I A NB A N K I N GS Y S T E M 0 6 2 1 00 0 4 6 0Limits sanctioned to borrowerFund BasedNon-Fund Based 100Total 200Total ExposureFor Fund Based limits@ 50% of limitsFor Non-Fund based limits 50@ 50% oflimits10010020010050Total15026INDIAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGYI N D I A NB A N K I N GS Y S T E M 0 6 2 1 00 0 4 6 0Total credit limits to the above borrower are Rs.200 crores which are inexcess of themaximum exposure norm of Rs. 175 crores. but for the purpose ofdetermining exposurewe have taken non-fund based limits at 50 percent of itsvalueand total exposure is takenat 150 crores which is well within the norm.FUNDS REMITTANCE/ TRANSFER FACILITIES• I s s u e o f d e m a n d d r a f t •Collection of bills and chequesESTABLISHMENT OF LC/ BGLetter of credit:-A Letter of Credit (L/C) is a written document issued by the BuyersBanker(BBK), at a request of the Buyer (B), in favour of the Seller(S), wherebytheBuyers Banker (BBK) gives an undertaking to the Seller(S) that, in theevent of theSeller tendering the Bill of Exchange to the Sellers Banker(SBK), along with all therequired documents, in strict compliance of all theterms and conditions stipulated in theL/C, the entire amount of the bill will bepaid to the Seller (S) by the Sellers Banker (SBK), on behalf of the
Buyers Banker (BBK) immediately, as has been, in turn, undertaken bythe buyer to his own Banker(BBK).Bank guarantee: -It is customary for the Bank, in normal course of business, to issueand executeguarantees in favor of third parties on behalf of the customers. The Bankguarantees are governed by various provisions as contained in the Indian ContractAct,1872. The commercial transactions, bank’s customers are sometimes requiredto give aBank Guarantee. This is mostly as an alternate to keep cash as a securitydeposit. Thethird party who seeks the guarantee, not being aware of the customer’sfinancialstanding prefers a bank guarantee. In turn the Bank, which very wellunderstands thefinancial standing of the customer, undertakes the guarantee of thecustomer’s financialcommitments or performance of contracts by him. The bankcharges commission for this27INDIAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGYSearchSearch History:Searching...Result 00 of 0000 results for result for p.Project Report on Indian Banking SystemDownload or PrintAdd To Collection10.8KReads269Readcasts14Embed ViewsPublished byhjghjghj
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Leave a CommentSubmitCharacters: 400Sumit TokasVery good projectreply05 / 02 / 2012Chandrakala Jadhavhow to download this project reportreply09 / 26 / 2011
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