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  1. 1. NAME- Sakshi Saraf CLASS- X SECTION- A SUBJECT- Economics TOPIC- Sustainability Of Ground Water REGISTRATION NUMBERBII4/08414/0033
  2. 2. Groundwater sustainability relates to the development and use of groundwater to meet current and future purposes without causing unacceptable consequences. Ground water is a critical component of the nation’s water resources. Globally, ground water resources dwarf surface water supplies. Approximately 25 percent of the earth’s total fresh water supply is stored as ground water, while less than 1% is stored in surface water resources, such as rivers, lakes, and soil moisture. The rest of the freshwater supply is locked away in polar ice and glaciers (Alley 1999a)
  3. 3. Ground water is, in fact, vital to public health, the environment, and the economy. Approximately 75% of community water systems rely on ground water (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2002a). Nearly all of rural America, as well as large metropolitan areas, use ground water supplied water systems. In many parts of the country, surface water supplies are inadequate or unavailable, and ground water is the only practical source of water supply. Ground water feeds
  4. 4. Twenty-six of 28 state agencies responding to a National Ground Water Association (NGWA) survey perceive current or anticipate ground water supply shortages at a statewide or local level in the next 20 years. A separate NGWA survey of public and private sector ground water professionals adds to the state agency assessment. Ground water professionals in 41 of 43 states believe ground water shortages currently exist or will exist in the next 20 years in their states or
  5. 5. NAME- Sakshi Saraf CLASS- X SECTION- A SUBJECT- Physics TOPIC- Water Energy REGISTRATION NUMBERBII4/08414/0033
  6. 6. Water, like many substances, contains two kinds of energy. The first kind of energy is called kinetic energy. This is energy that is used during the execution of processes, such as movement. Because of kinetic energy water can flow and waves can exist. But water can also contain potential energy. This is energy that is stored in the water. Stored, but not used. This energy can become useful when water starts to flow. It will be transferred to kinetic energy and this will cause movement.
  7. 7. WAVE ENERGY Wave energy is the transport of energy by ocean surface waves, and the capture of that energy to do useful work – for example, electricity generation, water desalination, or the pumping of water (into reservoirs). Machinery able to exploit wave power is generally known as a wave energy converter (WEC). Wave power is distinct from the diurnal flux of tidal power and the steady gyre of ocean currents. Wave-power generation is not currently a widely employed commercial technology, although there have been attempts to use it since at
  8. 8. TIDAL ENERGY Tidal power, also called tidal energy, is a form of hydropower that converts the energy of tides into useful forms of power - mainly electricity. Although not yet widely used, tidal power has potential for future electricity generation. Tides are more predictable than wind energy and solar power. Among sources of renewable energy, tidal power has traditionally suffered from relatively high cost and limited availability of sites with sufficiently high tidal ranges or flow velocities, thus constricting its total availability. However, many recent technological developments and improvements, both in design (e.g. dynamic tidal power, tidal lagoons) and turbine technology (e.g. new axial turbines, cross flow turbines), indicate that the total availability of tidal power may be much higher than previously assumed, and that economic and environmental costs may be brought down to competitive levels
  9. 9. HYDROELECTRICITY Hydroelectricity is the term referring to electricity generated by hydropower; the production of electrical power through the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water. It is the most widely used form of renewable energy, accounting for 16 percent of global electricity generation – 3,427 terawatt-hours of electricity production in 2010, and is expected to increase about 3.1% each year for the next 25 years. Hydropower is produced in 150 countries, with the Asia-Pacific region generating 32 percent of global hydropower in 2010. China is the largest hydroelectricity producer, with 721 terawatthours of production in 2010, representing around 17 percent of domestic electricity use. There are now three hydroelectricity plants larger than 10 GW: the Three Gorges Dam in China, Itaipu Dam across the Brazil/Paraguay border, and Guri Dam in Venezuela.
  10. 10. NAME- Sakshi Saraf CLASS- X SECTION- A SUBJECT-Geography TOPIC- Water Conservation
  11. 11. WATER CONSERVATION Water conservation encompasses the policies, strategies and activities to manage fresh water as a sustainable resource to protect the water environment and to meet current and future human demand. BEIJING, Jan. 17 (Xinhua) -- Beijing will adopt tough water management measures in the next five years to ease acute water shortages, according to local water authorities. The measures include setting warning lines for the quantity of water consumption, efficiency of water use and water pollution levels within the metropolitan area, Bi Xiaogang, spokesman with the Beijing Water Authority, was quoted as saying by Monday's Beijing Daily. Local governments would be punished if they missed the targets, he said, adding it was the first time that such measures had been formulated.
  12. 12. WATER CONSERVATION IN INDIA New Delhi, Oct.30 (ANI): Experts attending the India Water Forum 2013 said that conservation of water in agriculture is a key necessity for water security in the country. The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) in association with Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation, and the Ministry of Urban Development organized India Water Forum 2013 on the theme 'water use efficiency'. In the three-day international convention, which began on October 28, it was noted that with future scenarios likely to worsen, it is extremely important to adopt new technologies like drip and sprinkler irrigation at a wider scale. It was noted that there is a strong need for cooperative, basinscale, cross-sectoral approach forintegrated water resources management.
  13. 13. RAINWATER HARVESTING Rainwater harvesting is the accumulation and deposition of rainwater for reuse before it reaches the aquifer. Uses include water for garden, water for livestock, water for irrigation, and indoor heating for houses etc.. In many places the water collected is just redirected to a deep pit with percolation. The harvested water can be used as drinking water as well as for storage and other purpose like irrigation ADVANTAGES• Excellent source of water for landscape irrigation, with no chemicals such as fluoride and chlorine, and no dissolved salts and minerals from the soil. • Promotes both water and energy conservation.
  14. 14. NAME- Sakshi Saraf CLASS- X SECTION- A SUBJECT- Political Development TOPIC- Water Conservation- Popular Movements
  15. 15. WATER MOVEMENT IN GREECE Water privatisation has proved to be a source of fatal vulnerability for governments bent on privatisation. In Latin America victories for water as a human right, against governments assuming they could sell it on the global market, have contributed, for example, to the downfall of right-wing governments in Uruguay, in the late 1990s, and Bolivia, with the Cochabamba ‘water wars’ of 2000. Already the strength of practical commitment to water as a common good is beginning to prove awkward for the EU members of the troika on their home ground.
  16. 16. First initiatives The first initiatives in Greece towards politically decisive resistance over water have come from the country’s second largest city, Thessaloniki. Here the preliminary steps towards privatisation in 2007 were slowed down in part through the resistance of the water workers’ union, which staged a four-day hunger strike during the city’s international trade fair. The first tenders were eventually announced in 2009 and again the union – which, unlike most unions in Greece, had determinedly maintained its autonomy from all political parties – responded with a 12-day occupation of the company’s main building. The reputation that the water workers’ union established with activists in Thessaloniki has proved to be a foundation on which today’s growing campaign has been able to build. Union president George Archontopoulos says that in 2009 he used to invite himself to neighbourhood groups to put the arguments against privatisation. Now, he says, ‘they are always asking us to come to them and there are many more of them.’
  17. 17. A two-front strategy The core idea of our strategy is that water privatization in Greece is in realityEuropean politics. It is part of the loan agreement between Greece and its European creditors, it will benefit French multinationals, and it cannot be stopped only by “lobbying” at the national level. Therefore, in our view, a double pressure on Greek decision-makers both from above and from below was the best starting point for a viable strategy. So, our first front is the European front, where the fight is given by the European Water Movement, an amazing network of collaborating unions, NGOs, and movements from around Europe — an inspiring sincere change from what we usually experience when these actors try to work together across borders, which usually ends in fragmentation and distrust. Our second front is the creation of alliances at the municipal level, pushing for the adoption of resolutions against water privatization in Attica; a more feasible goal now that we approach local elections.
  18. 18. Internal processes and ‘do-ocracy’ On internal processes, our approach is the creation of a “demos” with those we can consent with, building human bonds rather than “rules”. Critique or theory is not considered by our group as “participation”, and unless people do stuff they are not really perceived by others as core members or co-decision makers. This loose “rule” has succeeded in attracting the right kind of people, and the big talkers that usually haunt assemblies luckily left us and sought after other groups, more hospitable to their attitude. In a way, mutual respect and trust is essential to decentralize decisions and workloads, and the practice of an “assembly for the sake of the assembly” is not among our practices since we really convene only to discuss important issues that are known to be debated within the group, or really important strategic milestones to move us ahead.
  19. 19. Sakshi Saraf X-A Biology Water Recycling
  20. 20. Water Recycling Reclaimed water or recycled water, is former wastewater (sewage) that is treated to remove solids and certain impurities, and used insustainable landscaping irrigation or to recharge groundwater aquifers. The purpose of these processes is sustainability and water conservation, rather than discharging the treated water to surface waters such as rivers and oceans. In some cases, recycled water can be used for streamflow augmentation to benefit ecosystems and improve aesthetics. One example of this is along Calera Creek in the City of Pacifica, CA
  21. 21. Process The water recycling process utilizes very basic physical, biological and chemical principles to remove contaminants from water. Use of mechanical or physical systems to treat wastewater is generally referred to as primary treatment. Use of biological processes to provide further treatment is referred to as secondary treatment. Additional purification is called tertiary or advanced treatment. Primary Treatment Primary treatment uses simple mechanical and physical processes to remove approximately half of the contaminants from wastewater. Secondary Treatment or "Bug Farming" Secondary treatment uses biological processes to remove most of the remaining contaminants. Advanced Treatment and Disinfection After the bugs do their work, water is filtered through sand before undergoing chemical disinfection in chlorine contact chambers, used to kill any remaining microorganisms.
  23. 23. Perhaps you have on occasion noticed mineral deposits on your cooking dishes, or rings of insoluble soap scum in your bathtub. These are not signs of poor housekeeping, but are rather signs of hard water from the municipal water supply. Hard water is water that contains cations with a charge of +2, especially Ca2+ and Mg2+. These ions do not pose any health threat, but they can engage in reactions that leave insoluble mineral deposits. These deposits can make hard water unsuitable for many uses, and so a variety of means have been developed to "soften" hard water; i.e., remove the calcium and magnesium ions.
  24. 24. Mineral deposits are formed by ionic reactions resulting in the formation of an insoluble precipitate. For example, when hard water is heated, Ca2+ ions react with bicarbonate (HCO3-) ions to form insoluble calcium carbonate (CaCO3). This precipitate, known as scale, coats the vessels in which the water is heated, producing the mineral deposits on your cooking dishes. In small quantities, these deposits are not harmful, but they may be frustrating to try to clean. As these deposits build up, however, they reduce the efficiency of heat transfer, so food may not cook as evenly or quickly in pans with large scale deposits. More serious is the situation in which industrial-sized water boilers become coated with scale: the cost in heat-transfer efficiency can have a dramatic effect on your power bill! Furthermore, scale can accumulate on the inside of appliances, such as dishwashers, and pipes. As scale builds up, water flow is impeded, and hence appliance parts and pipes must be replaced more often than if Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions were not
  25. 25. For large-scale municipal operations, a process known as the "lime-soda process" is used to remove Ca2+ and Mg2+ from the water supply. Ionexchange reactions, similar to those you performed in this experiment, which result in the formation of an insoluble precipitate, are the basis of this process. The water is treated with a combination of slaked lime, Ca(OH)2, and soda ash, Na2CO3. Calcium precipitates as CaCO3, and magnesium precipitates as Mg(OH)2. These solids can be collected, thus removing the scale-forming cations from the water supply. Household water softeners typically use a different process, known as ion exchange. Ion-exchange devices consist of a bed of plastic (polymer) beads covalently bound to anion groups, such as -COO-. The negative charge of these anions is balanced by Na+ cations attached to them. When water containing Ca2+ and Mg2+ is passed through the ion exchanger, the Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions are more attracted to the anion groups than the Na+ ions. Hence, they replace the Na+ ions on the beads, and so the Na+ ions (which do not form scale) go into the water in their place.
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