Herbal medicine

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  • What is Systems Theory?
    Systems Theory: the transdisciplinary study of the abstract organization of phenomena, independent of their substance, type, or spatial or temporal scale of existence. It investigates both the principles common to all complex entities, and the (usually mathematical) models which can be used to describe them.
     
    Systems theory was proposed in the 1940's by the biologist Ludwig von Bertalanffy (: General Systems Theory, 1968), and furthered by Ross Ashby (Introduction to Cybernetics, 1956). von Bertalanffy was both reacting agaInst reductionism and attempting to revive the unity of science. He emphasized that real systems are open to, and interact with, their environments, and that they can acquire qualitatively new properties through emergence, resulting in continual evolution. Rather than reducing an entity (e.g. the human body) to the properties of its parts or elements (e.g. organs or cells), systems theory focuses on the arrangement of and relations between the parts which connect them into a whole (cf. holism). This particular organization determines a system, which is independent of the concrete substance of the elements (e.g. particles, cells, transistors, people, etc). Thus, the same concepts and principles of organization underlie the different disciplines (physics, biology, technology, sociology, etc.), providing a basis for their unification. Systems concepts include: system-environment boundary, input, output, process, state, hierarchy, goal-directedness, and information.
    The developments of systems theory are diverse (Klir, Facets of Systems Science, 1991), including conceptual foundations and philosophy (e.g. the philosophies of Bunge, Bahm and Laszlo); mathematical modeling and information theory (e.g. the work of Mesarovic and Klir); and practical applications. Mathematical systems theory arose from the development of isomorphies between the models of electrical circuits and other systems. Applications include engineering, computing, ecology, management, and family psychotherapy. Systems analysis, developed independently of systems theory, applies systems principles to aid a decisIon-maker with problems of identifying, reconstructing, optimizing, and controlling a system (usually a socio-technical organization), while taking into account multiple objectives, constraints and resources. It aims to specify possible courses of action, together with their risks, costs and benefits. Systems theory is closely connected to cybernetics, and also to system dynamics, which models changes in a network of coupled variables (e.g. the "world dynamics" models of Jay Forrester and the Club of Rome). Related ideas are used in the emerging "sciences of complexity", studying self-organization and heterogeneous networks of interacting actors, and associated domains such as far-from-equilibrium thermodynamics, chaotic dynamics, artificial life, artificial intelligence, neural networks, and computer modeling and simulation.
    Francis Heylighen and Cliff Joslyn
    Prepared for the Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy.(Copyright Cambridge University Press)
     
    Cybernetics, deriving from the Greek word for steersman (kybernetes), was first introduced by the mathematician Wiener, as the science of communication and control in the animal and the machine (to which we now might add: in society and in individual human beings). It grew out of Shannon's information theory, which was designed to optimize the transmission of information through communication channels, and the feedback concept used in engineering control systems. In its present incarnation of "second-order cybernetics", its emphasis is on how observers construct models of the systems with which they interact (see complex systems to maintain, adapt, and self-organize. Such circularity or self-reference makes it possible to make precise, scientific models of purposeful activity, that is, behavior that is oriented towards a goal or preferred condition. In that sense, cybernetics proposes a revolution with respect to the linear, mechanistic models of traditional Newtonian science. In classical science, every process is determined solely by its cause, that is, a factor residing in the past. However, the behavior of living organisms is typically teleonomic, that is, oriented towards a future state, which does not exist as yet.
    Cybernetics has discovered that teleonomy (or finality) and causality can be reconciled by using non-linear, circular mechanisms, where the cause equals the effect. The simplest example of such a circular mechanism is feedback. The simplest application of negative feedback for self-maintenance is homeostasis. The non-linear interaction between the homeostatic or goal-directed system and its environment results in a relation of control of the system over the perturbations coming from the environment.
  • To focus on Herbal materia medica we have to note that, a large and increasing number of patients in all over the world use medicinal herbs or seek the advice of their physician (Developed world) or Traditional Healers and Hakim’s (least developing world), yet patients and(physicians) often lack accurate information about the safety and efficacy of herbal remedies.
    Popular use of medicinal herbs makes it necessary for physicians to became aware of their health benefits, risks, and uncertainties so that they can educate their patients and the public in general .
    Plants have been used medicinally through out the history, you can not ignore this fact specially if you are located in one of the least developing countries, where uses of plants are intensified in proportion with the increase of certain diseases such as AIDS. Even in the most developed countries , many herbs were considered conventional medicines and as such were included in medical curricula (e.g British Pharmacopoeia and the United States). Also a pharmaceutical industry capable of mass production of purified herbs were developed, but unlike the purified herbs in the developed countries, medicinal herbs are not required to demonstrate either safety or efficacy prior to prescription by the traditional healers in the least developed countries, nor are their preparation, time of harvesting and storage condition be identified.
    It is worth to recognize that more than about 25 % of modern pharmaceutical drugs have botanical origins, such as digoxin from foxgloves, morphine from poppies, aspirin from willow bark and tomoxifen from pacific yew tree, and so on…..

Transcript

  • 1. BySidharth Anand 9582321735
  • 2. WHAT IS HERB? Any plant with leaves, seeds, or flowers used for flavouring, food, medicine, or perfume.
  • 3. HOW TO IDENTIFY HERBS ON THE BASIS OF COLOUR OF ITS FLOWER Yellow flower-it can be for liver,gallbladder,urinary problems.  Reddish –antibiotics,skin disorders.  Purple-stress,blood purifier,treating muscles. ON THE BASIS OF GROWING CONDITION Grow in gravel-Works as a stone breaker in body parts like kidney ,gallbladder..
  • 4. Grow in wet soil-Works in respiratory problems etc.. Grow near fast moving water-clean the toxins and wastes in body system… ONE THE BASIS OF TEXTURESoft texture-for colds and chest disorders. Thorny herbs-for sharp pain,hair… Climbing herbs-for blood system and nervous system.. ON THE BASIS OF ROOT SYSTEMVein like roots- For blood and nerve disorders. Thread like roots- Veins in the skin…. ETC…..ETC……..ETC……..ETC…….
  • 5. HERBAL MEDICINE MEDICINE EXCLUSIVELY MADE FROM PLANTS. It is the oldest still the most widely used systemm of medicine in the world today. 6000 plants have medicinal applications 25% of “modern” prescription drugs have botanical origins
  • 6. WHY HERBAL MEDICINE It is being used by about 80% of the world population primarily in the developing countries for primary health care. SAFETY,EFFICACY, CULTURAL ACCEPTABILITY AND LESSER SIDE EFFECTS. Ancient literature also mentions herbal medicines for age-related diseases namely Memory Loss, Osteoporosis, Diabetic Wounds, Immune And Liver Disorders, etc. for which no modern medicine or only palliative therapy is available.
  • 7. WHY DO PEOPLE USE HERBAL MEDICINES? Because it is natural and everybody believe that nature provides solution to good health. Unlike synthetic pharmaceutical medicine herbs are easily absorbed in body and blood stream leaving minimal residual and side effects. In most cases it is based on the recommedation.
  • 8. PERCEPTION OF NATURAL = SAFE Used in developing countries where cost of drugs is prohibitive, poor accessibility to drugs in rural areas, shortage of physicians.
  • 9. MULTIPLE TARGETS NEED A COMBO Plant A Plant B Plant C Plant D Plant E Plant F Plant G Plant H Pain, Cartilage Inflammation Oxidative stress Osteoporosis Anabolic CNS Immunomodulato Antistress Bioavailability Lubricant
  • 10. TRADITIONAL MEDICINE HISTORICAL BACKGROUND Earliest recorded use of a medicinal plant has been mentioned in ‘Rigveda’ one mentioned in the modern texts is that of the herb called “Ma huang” a species of Ephedra used medicinally in China for over 5000 years Cinchona was used by local south American tribes long before before the isolation of quinine for treating malaria Source of aspirin was used as pain killer for long time before being identified
  • 11. TRADITIONAL MEDICINES Middle of 19th century, 80% of all medicines were herbal Even today 25% of drugs are derived from plant source Most of these drugs came from traditional lead, folk knowledge etc. Some of these still could not substituted despite the enormous advancement in synthetic chemistry eg. Reserpine, taxol, vincristine etc.
  • 12. 15% 33% 40% 25% 25-50% 50-75% 60% 40% >90% 75% >80% 60-70% >80% ~60% 40-70% 60-80% 55% >80% ~50% 70% www.WHO.org
  • 13. HERBAL DRUGS IN INDIA More than 70% of INDIA’S 1.1 billion population is still using non-alopathic . In India,nearly 9,500 registered herbal industries and a multitude of unregistered cottage-level herbal units depend upon the continuous supply of medicinal plants for manufacture of herbal medical formulations based on Indian Systems of Medicine. It is estimated that more than 6,000 plant species forming about 40% of the plant diversity of the country are used in its codified and folk healthcare traditions.
  • 14. POPULARITY More than 95 % of the population in the least developing countries use herbs for health and other purposes. More than one third of Americans and Europeans use herbs for health purposes, spending over 7.0 billion annually. More than 25 % of modern pharmaceutical drugs have botanical origins.
  • 15. HOW DO HERBS AND DRUGS DIFFER? Potency Side effects Cost Target
  • 16. HERBAL  Holistic healing science, ALLOPATHY  System of medical practice , treats comprises of two words, Ayu and disease by the use of remedies Veda. Ayu means life and Veda which produce effects different means knowledge or science. So from those produced by the the literal meaning of the word disease under treatment. Ayurveda is the science of life.  The term ‘allopathy’ was coined in Ayurveda is a science dealing not 1842 by C.F.S. Hahnemann to only with treatment of some designate the usual practice of diseases but is a complete way of medicine (allopathy) as opposed life. to homeopathy, the system of  Ayurveda aims at making a therapy that he founded based on happy, healthy and peaceful the concept that disease can be society. The two most important treated with drugs (in minute aims of Ayurveda are: doses) thought capable of 1.to maintain the health of producing the same symptoms in healthy people healthy people as the disease 2.to cure the diseases of sick itself. people.
  • 17. ALLOPATHY OR MODERN MEDICINE Glamorized discipline Pursued by most (influenced and so called ‘Literate’) in India and, in western countries Backed by TECHNOLOGICAL advances - investigations Based on SOUND scientific reasoning – EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE; not anecdotal Thus, Modern Medicine is an EVIDENCE-BASED, techno-savvy science that seems to provide ultimate care to sick patients
  • 18. ALLOPATHY BUT???? The treatment is often SYMPTOMATIC, COSTLY, OUT OF REACH of most in developing countries Exception for incurable diseases, they do not have much to offer except palliation Treatment of CHRONIC LIFESTYLE DISORDERS like NEURODEGENERATIVE disorders is often very disappointing and limited by adverse events It treats the Disease NOT THE PATIENT ‘AS A WHOLE’ (Holistic approach).
  • 19. •DELAY IN EFFECTIVE TREATMENT for serious condition. •Interference with vital treatment •Overloading patient with multiple medications •Unexpected rare but serious liver toxicity •Toxic plants used •Interactions with other medicines •Contamination during manufacturing process •Confusion over standards
  • 20. BE WARE Rule of thumb…Avoid using herbs in infants, children, pregnant women,nursing mothers, patients,daisy allergies, patients on multiple medications Medicines should be prescribed only when they are necessary, and in all cases the benefit of administering the medicine should be considered in relation to the risk involved
  • 21. QUESTIONS?
  • 22. Thank you!