Political Parties<br />By Mr. SiddharthChandrasekar<br />
Why do we need political parties?<br />To organise elections and to form Governments<br />It is a group of people who come together to contest elections and hold power in the Government<br />What is a political party?<br />
What do political parties do?<br />They agree on policies and programmes to promote collective good<br />Persuade people to know why their policies are better than others<br />They seek to implement policies by winning popular support through elections<br />They reflect fundamental political divisions in a society<br />They are a part of society and involve in partisanship<br />
What are the three components of a political party?<br />Leaders<br />Active Members<br />Followers<br />
Functions of a Political Party...<br />They contest elections, select candidates & puts forward policies <br />They make a decisive role in making laws<br />Parties form and run Governments<br />Opposition checks the Government and preserves democracy<br />Parties shape public opinion<br />Parties provide people access to Government machinery and welfare schemes<br />
What will be the situation without Political Parties ?<br />Independent candidates will be there<br />No promise would be made with regard to policy changes<br />Governmental unity will be at stake<br />Representatives will be accountable to their constituency but not responsible to run it<br />
What are the needs fulfilled by Political Parties ?<br />Representation<br />Parties gather views on various issues and present it to the Government<br />Parties bring various representatives to form responsible Government<br />Parties have the mechanism to support or restrain Government, make policies, justify or oppose them<br />Parties are a necessary condition for democracy<br />
How many parties should we have?<br />One party system<br />Example - China – Communist Party of China <br />Two Party /Bi Party<br />Example - U.S.A. and U.K.<br />Multi Party –several parties compete and more than two parties have a reasonable chance of coming to power on their own strength or in alliance(coalition government)<br />Example - India<br />
What is an Alliance or Front ?<br />Joining of several parties for contesting elections and winning power<br />Political scenario becomes messy<br />Political instability<br />Various interests and opinions to enjoy political representation<br />Social and geographical diversity is not easily absorbed by two or three parties<br />Effects of multi party system...<br />Why has India gone in for a multi party system?<br />
Political Parties...<br />National Parties<br />They have units in various states .Have same policies, programmes and strategy that is decided at national level <br />Secure at least 6% of votes in LokSabha or assembly elections in 4 states and win at least 4 seats in LokSabha<br />Example - Congress I, BharatiyaJanata Party<br />What are recognised political parties?<br />They are recognised by the Election Commission by giving symbols<br />Only official candidates can use these symbols<br />
Political Parties…<br />State Party<br />Must have secured 6% of total votes in an election to legislature of a state and win at least 2 seats<br />Example DMK, Telugu Desam & AIADMK<br />Name some State Parties that have National level political organisations ?<br />Samajwadi Party, Samata Party & RashtriyaJanataDal<br />
What are the challenges to Political Parties ?<br />Lack of Internal Democracy<br />Concentration of power in one or few leaders<br />No membership register, no meetings, no internal elections and insufficient information for ordinary members<br />They do not have scope to influence decisions<br />Dynasty Succession <br />Leaders have unfair advantage to favour people close to them<br />Do not practice open and transparent procedure for functioning<br />Top positions always controlled by family members<br />
What are the challenges to Political Parties ?<br />Money & Muscle Power<br />They focus on elections<br />Use short cut methods to win<br />Moneyed candidates come to power<br />Rich tend to influence<br />Criminals are supported in order to win elections<br />Offering of Meaningful Choice <br />Decline in ideological differences<br />Agreement on fundamental aspects<br />Narrowing down of differences on economic policies<br />No choice of leadership<br />
How can we reform Political Parties?<br />Elected MLA’S & MP’S should not defect<br />Reduction of influence of money<br />Parties to hold their organisational elections & file income tax returns<br />Regulation of internal affairs of political parties<br />Mandatory for political parties to give minimum number of tickets<br />State funding of elections<br />People can petition political parties<br />Political parties can improve if those who want improvement, join parties<br />
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