Welcome To India Day


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Welcome To India Day

  2. 2. Himalaya Indo Gangetic alluvial plains and Thar Desert Naga-Andaman fold belt Deccan Trap Peninsular India
  3. 3. INDIA HAS A LONG HERITAGE IN MINING. The tell - tale evidences left includes: the old workings, the slag heaps, the retorts used for smelting etc.
  4. 4. World w as introduced to the splendour of diamond by I ndia in 400BC. I ndia the sole supplier to the w orld till discovery of Brazilian( 1728) and South African diamond field( 1870) . Ancient mining areas are confined to the Proterozoic conglomerates and younger alluvial gravel beds. Majhgaw an pipe in Panna, MP is only diamond mine. Recent exploration has located 80 kimberlite pipes of w hich 22 are diamondiferous.
  5. 5. India is known for its world famous diamonds since historical times. The celebrated diamonds of India are : Great Moghul (787.5/289+9/16 ct), the Koh-i-noor, (180 ?/108.93)-Jewel of British Crown Pitt/ Regent (410/141 ct), Lover s Museum, Paris Nizam (440 ct), Hope, blue diamond (112/67 ct), Smithsonian Inst, Washington Orloff(300 ?/189.62 ct),: Kremlin Museum, Moscow Daryia-i- noor(185 ct), Iranian Crown Jewel, Tehran Sha : (95/88.7 cts) : Kremlin, Moscow Great Table (250?/Not known) : Iran
  6. 6. The celebrated diamonds known to have been recovered from the mines along the alluvial tracts of Krishna River, perhaps aptly referred to as Diamond River by Ptolemy.
  7. 7. Kohinoor:180/108.93 ct Dariya I noor:185 ct, Iranian crown Jewel British Crown Jewel Hope: Kremlin, 67/45 Museum Smithsonian Inst. Moscow Washington Orlov:300/189.62
  8. 8. GOLD I ndia has gold mining antiquity and w as a leading producer from 1897-1937. Kolar gold field has produced + 800tones of gold. Current production of gold comes from the Achaean Greenstone belts of Karnataka and Jharkhand. Geological prospectivity exists in : Achaean Granite-greenstone terrain Proterozoic fold belt/ Supracrustal belt Granulite terrain in South I ndia Laterite and Placer gold Recent finds: Dona, Achaean Greenstone Terrain,AP : 19 tonnes Bhukia ,Proterozoic fold belt of Rajasthan: 94 tonnes Parasi, Proterozoic fold belt of Jharkhand: 4tonnes
  9. 9. India India is the biggest consumer of gold. Annual consumption (855 tonnes) outweighs production (~8Tonnes) Huge scope for exploration and exploitation with a ready available market
  10. 10. BASEMETAL Presence of old workings still Indian subcontinent has ancient considered a strong positive clue for history of base metal (copper) base metal prospecting. mining and smelting dating back Major basemetal deposits being to Harappan and Mahenjodaro exploited includes: Khetri (133x1.3), civilization (2000-2300 B.C.) Malanjkhand(236x1.28), Rampura Agucha(61x12-13), Sindheswar (324x4-7), etc Geological environment and Geographical extent: Hosted mainly in late-Archaean to early Proterozoic supracrustal belts and granitoids.
  11. 11. GEOLOGICAL MAP OF RAJASTHAN SHOWING MINERAL DISTRIBUTION 78° 76° 77° 75° 73° 74° 72° 71° 70° 30° 30° GANGANAGAR Copper HANUMANGARH Lead-Zinc GEOLOGICAL MAP OF 0 100km RAJASTHAN Gold 29° 29° (Map outline from 2 million map of GSI) Khetri CHURU JHUNJUNU 28° BIKANER Quaternary 28° Kho-Dariba ALWAR Deccan Trap SIKAR BHARATPUR Mesozoic & Tertiary of Jaisalmer NAGAUR 27° Marwar Supergroup 27° DAUSA JAISALMER DHAULPUR Vindhyan Supergroup Delhi Supergroup AJMER Kayar JODHPUR Khetri belt TONK 26° SAWAIMADHOPUR Pur-Banera, Rajpura-Dariba, Sawar 26° Sawar Jahazpur, Jasma-Bhinder belts PALI BARMER Sawar belt Lunavada Group BUNDI Pur-Banera BHILWARA Agucha Rakhabdev ultramafics JALOR Pur Banera belt KOTA BARAN 25° Aravalli Supergroup 25° Rajpura-Dariba belt CHITTORGARH Hindoli Group Rajpura-Dariba JHALAWAR UDAIPUR Granites & Granulites in Sandmata Berach Granite (2.5 Ga) 24° Pindwara-Watera 24° Sandmata Complex Bhukia DUNGARPUR Untala & Gingla granites (2.9 Ga) Zawar BANSWARA Mangalwar Complex 77° 76° 78° 75° 74° 73° 72° 71° 70° Digitised by: D.J.Das Gupta, Geologist (Sr), W.R., Jaipur
  12. 12. Mineral Province map of India Archaean - Proterozoic Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe, Mn, Au, W, U, Mo in volcani-sedimentary sequences Fe, Mn, Mg, Base metals, phosphorite in sedimentary environment PGE, Cr, Ni, diamond in ultramafic rocks Base metals, Au, Mo associated with acid- intermediate magmatism Sn, W, mica, rare metals related to late hydrothermal / pneumatolytic processes
  13. 13. RESOURCES OF MAJOR MINERALS ESTIMATED (Resources in million tonnes unless otherwise stated) Sl. Ore/Mineral Resource Resource Resource No Position in Position Position as on 1955 in 1980 2005 1. IRON ORE 5000 11470 14630 (Hematite) (magne.10619) 2. BAUXITE 254 2489 3306 3. LIMESTONE - 72229 170458 4. LEAD-ZINC ORE 4.87 241 522 5. COPPER ORE 3.40 455 1394 6. MANGANESE ORE - 95 380 7. GOLD ORE 9.84 491(metal) tonnes 8. CHROMITE 3.4 17 213 9. DOLOMITE - 3738 7084 10. COAL 25000 111000 247846.85
  14. 14. LIFE INDEX, EXPORT IMPORT OF MINERALS Mineral Resource Life index Production in Export in Import in commodity as on 1.1.2000 thousand tonnes, thousand tonnes thousand (IBM)(UNFC) 2003-04 , 2003-04 tonnes, 2003-04 IRON ORE Hm:11425 (6025MT 100 120601 57.094 520 reserve) Mt :10682 (286 MT reserve) BAUXITE 2925.55 206 10956 1785 44 (524.09 MT reserve) COPPER ORE 1338.38 75 2903 121.173 697.636 (289.57 reserve) (tonnes) (tonnes) LEAD-ZINC 485.11 40 3660 834(Pb)+ 327.68 1059 Pb+ ORE (100.83MT reserve) Zn Conc. 37550 Zn tonnes (tonnes) LIMESTONE 170458 250 154,125 186 1036 DOLOMITE 7084.20 397 3820 78,985 (tonnes) 864 (tonnes) MN-ORE 295.06 42 1738 336 7.6 ( 104.54MT reserve) GOLD ORE 184.47 Not 553 30 Kg 606.662 Kg (10.08MTreserve) estimated CHROMITE 178.72 41 3199 1098 2 (46.66MT reserve)
  15. 15. 500 3500 3000 400 2500 300 2000 200 1500 1000 100 500 0 0 Manganese Chrom ite Gold Coppe r ore L e a d - Z in c o r e B a u x it e 1955 1980 1990 1995 2000 2005 1955 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 250000 100000 200000 80000 150000 60000 100000 40000 20000 50000 0 0 Iron Ore Limestone Coal Lignite 1955 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 1955 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005
  16. 16. INDIA EXPLORATION & MINING MISSION India s ranking in world production of minerals Wollastonite : First Baryte & Chromite : Second Coal & Lignite : Third Iron ore : Fourth Bauxite : Sixth Mica & Mn ore : Eighth Magnesite : Ninth Exploration success comparable to developed countries in terms of Rickad s index. None to match performance in ferrous minerals and bauxite. In base metals exploration, success rate is better or equal to USA, Australia, Canada and Europe
  17. 17. INDIA EXPLORATION & MINING MISSION GROWTH OF MINERAL INDUSTRY IN INDIA India produces 90 varieties of minerals and recorded production value of US $ 16670 million. Mineral share in GDP was 2.11% (2004-05) Fuel mineral account for 76%, Metallic 11% and non- metallic 3%. 9131 ( as on 31.3.2003) Mining leases granted covering 6,20,3.72 sq.km. India exported Diamond (76.4%), iron ore(10.4%), granite (5%), alumina (1.6%) and precious and semiprecious stones minerals worth US $ 11090 million
  18. 18. Resources in ALL INDIA POSITION 000 Tonnes Mineral Total Leasehold Freehold Resources Resources Resources Barytes 73,988 31,830 42,158 Bauxite 3289397 1063496 2225900 Chromite 213063 141277 71785 Copper 11417 6533 4884 (Metal Content) Diamond 4581913 1209599 3372314 (in Carats)
  19. 19. Resources in ALL INDIA POSITION 000 Tonnes Mineral Total Leasehold Freehold Resources Resources Resources Graphite* 159267 6898 152368 Iron Ore 14630387 8953979 5676408 (Haematite) Iron Ore 10619481 506933 10112548 (Magnetite) Limestone* 170458656 19909617 150549039 Lead(Metal) 7207 3500 3707 Zinc(Metal) 24259 15269 8990 Manganese 378569 289938 88631 Ore * Position as on 01.04.2000
  20. 20. I NDI A EXPLORATI ON & MI NI NG MI SSI ON I ndia comfortably placed in resource position and exploitability in several mineral commodities but is import dependent on quite a few minerals. To fulfill the rising demands efforts to augment the resource base through induction of modern technology and adequate fund flow is essential. To convert the needs into reality, significant changes in the National Mineral Policy have been proposed to the Government for consideration.
  21. 21. INDIA EXPLORATION & MINING MISSION STRENGTH : High geological potential & reliable geo-scientific database. _ Ancient mining activity. Rapidly developing infrastructure. Large technical manpower availability. Political stability & rule of law. Organized banking system & dynamic financial institutions. Investor friendly Govt. policy and new policy initiatives.
  22. 22. Weakness World class deposits exist and are being exploited. Available identified prospects are small and medium sized and have been prospected up to a shallow depth. Resources are much more than reserve. Resources have to be converted to reserve. Inadequate availability of venture capital, developing infrastructure, obsolete technology resulted in low productivity.
  23. 23. Opportunity Large area reconnaissance permit including aerial survey. Exploration and exploitation of thirteen minerals Conversion of resource to reserve for small and medium sized deposits. Deeper probing to augment reserve. Modern technology for discovery of concealed deposit and conceptual oriented exploration in known metallogenic provinces and virgin areas.. India continues to be a net importer of minerals and metals.
  24. 24. INDIA EXPLORATION & MINING MISSION Opportunities for fresh investment Development and augmentation of production of surplus commodities like iron ore, bauxite, coal, beach placers etc. Development of known deposits of economic and marginal deposits of economic and marginal categories awaiting exploitation such as basemetal deposits of Bihar, Rajasthan and some other sectors Cluster mining of small deposits of gold , tungsten, basemetals etc. Concept oriented regional scanning in known metallogenic provinces and virgin areas for locating additional resources of gold, diamond, basemetal, tungsten, tin , molybdenum etc.
  25. 25. INDIA EXPLORATION & MINING MISSION Opportunities for fresh investment Search for mineral commodities which are yet to be located (except in few places): such as PGE, Ni- sulphide, some rare earths and rare metals in conducive metallogenic provinces. Development of placer gold resource located along the frontal belt of Himalaya and other selected sectors of Peninsular India. Exploitation of lateritic nickel in Orissa, molybdenum in Tamil Nadu, Scheelite resource located in various parts of the country and gem stones. Augmentation of recoverable resources of chromite and manganese. Development of offshore placers and coal bed methane.
  26. 26. Threat Uncertainty in the field of mineral exploration and the success rate . Here shall he see no enemy but winter and rough weather .
  27. 27. 16% of the world population inhabiting 2.4% of land area will require natural resources for sustainable development. Shortage of resources of many critical minerals Low per capita consumption today: accelerated growth likely to trigger off tremendous demand for mineral resources including water. Conducive environment being created through liberalized mineral policy. The explorers and miners of this millennium will have to search for natural resources for tangible solutions for the mutual benefits
  28. 28. Technical and scientific manpower available on mutually agreed terms in all the fields of exploration and exploitation from GSI, IBM, MECL. Field visits can be organized as a package deal. Prospect based geochemical maps available. Regional geochemical maps are being generated through Regional geochemical mapping.
  29. 29. Geological map : Quadrangle sheet (1:250,000):India covered by 394 sheets , 282 already available in printed form. Geological map : 1:50,000; India covered by 5014 sheets : 4176 sheets have been compiled and available. Library facility, having a data base of over 155 years is accessible for published material and for unpublished material (reading only). In addition district resource maps and mineral belt maps are also available. Analytical facilities with instruments like ICP-MS, ICP-AES, XRF, GF-AAS etc can be availed.
  30. 30. Derivative maps produced by aero geophysical survey and remote sensing can be available on customized demand. General Information Dossier (GID) giving general picture of the mineral potential of various geological domains/milieu available for : Gold, Diamond, Bauxite, Iron ores, Manganese, Molybdenum, Chromite, Tungsten and Copper-lead-zinc.
  31. 31. Basic data on mineral provinces, belts and known deposits and occurrences available in the form of detailed information dossier (DID): on Gold, Diamond, Bauxite, Iron ores, Manganese, Molybdenum, Chromite, Tungsten and Copper- lead-zinc. DID gives an idea about the potentiality of each block explored so that prospective investors can apply for PL/ML and obtain GSI regional exploration report carried out in various stages (P-I,P-II, E-I & E-II) and MECL detailed exploration report, after getting the mineral concessions.