The Service Encounter

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The Service Encounter

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The Service Encounter

  1. 1. The Service Encounter
  2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Use the service encounter triad to describe a service firm’s delivery process. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the role of organizational control systems for employee empowerment. </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare abstract questions and write situational vignettes. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the role of customer as coproducer. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe how elements of the service profit chain lead to revenue growth and profitability. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Service Encounter Triad Service Organization Efficiency versus satisfaction Efficiency versus autonomy Customer Contact Personnel Perceived control
  4. 4. Definitions of Culture <ul><li>Schwartz and Davis (1981) - Culture is a pattern of beliefs and expectations shared by the organization’s members. </li></ul><ul><li>Mintzberg (1989) - Culture is the traditions and beliefs of an organization that distinguish it from others. </li></ul><ul><li>Hoy and Miskel (1991) - Culture is shared orientations that hold the unit together and give a distinctive identity. </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Service Organization <ul><li>Culture ServiceMaster (Service to the Master) Disney (Choice of language) </li></ul><ul><li>Empowerment Invest in people Use IT to enable personnel Recruitment and training critical Pay for performance </li></ul>
  6. 6. Organizational Control
  7. 7. Contact Personnel <ul><li>Selection 1. Abstract Questioning 2. Situational Vignette 3. Role Playing </li></ul><ul><li>Training Un realistic customer expectations Un expected service failure </li></ul>
  8. 8. Difficult Interactions with Customers <ul><li>Unrealistic customer expectations Unexpected service failure </li></ul><ul><li>1. Unreasonable demands 1. Unavailable service </li></ul><ul><li>2. Demands against policies 2. Slow performance </li></ul><ul><li>3. Unacceptable treatment of 3. Unacceptable service </li></ul><ul><li>employees </li></ul><ul><li>4. Drunkenness </li></ul><ul><li>5. Breaking of societal norms </li></ul><ul><li>6. Special-needs customers </li></ul><ul><li>Use scripts to train for proper response </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Customer <ul><li>Expectations and Attitudes Economizing customer Ethical customer Personalizing customer Convenience customer </li></ul><ul><li>Customer as Co-Producer </li></ul>
  10. 10. Service Encounter Success Factors
  11. 11. Employee Perceptions of Customer Service at a Branch Bank Terrible Terrible Outstanding Outstanding
  12. 12. Satisfaction Mirror Higher Customer Satisfaction              More Familiarity with Customer Needs and Ways of Meeting Them Greater Opportunity for Recovery from Errors Higher Employee Satisfaction Higher Productivity Improved Quality of Service More Repeat Purchases Stronger Tendency to Complain about Service Errors Lower Costs Better Results
  13. 13. Is attitude emphasized? Are job previews utilized? Are customers screened? Are employees encouraged to refer friends?   Are referrals from the “best” employees given priority? Is satisfaction measured periodically?   Are measurements linked to other functions on the cycle? Careful Employee and Customer Selection   (and Self-selection) ) High-Quality Training <ul><li>Well-Designed </li></ul><ul><li>Support Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul><ul><li>Facilities </li></ul>Greater Latitude to Meet Customer’s Needs Clear Limits on, and Expectations of, Employees Appropriate Rewards and Frequent Recognition Satisfied Employees Employee Referrals of Potential Job Candidates Is training for job and life?   Is it an important element of quality of work life? Do they reflect needs of the service encounter? Are they designed to foster relationships? Does it reflect top management “talk”?   Is it enough to allow delivery of results to customers? Do they limit the “right” risks? Are they logical to employees? Cycle of Capability Are they linked to service objectives?   Are they balanced between monetary and non-monetary?  
  14. 14. Service Profit Chain Internal Operating strategy and service delivery system   Service concept Target market Service value Customers Loyalty Productivity & Output quality Service quality Capability Satisfaction Employees Satisfaction Loyalty Revenue growth External Profitability Customer orientation/quality emphasis Allow decision-making latitude Selection and development Rewards and recognition Information and communication Provide support systems Foster teamwork Quality & productivity improvements yield higher service quality and lower cost Attractive Value   Service designed & delivered to meet targeted customers’ needs Solicit customer feedback Lifetime value Retention Repeat Business Referrals                                        
  15. 15. Topics for Discussion <ul><li>How does the historical image of service as servitude affect today’s customer expectations and service employee behavior? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the organizational and marketing implications of considering a customer as a “partial employee”? </li></ul><ul><li>Comment on the different dynamics of one-on-one service and group service. </li></ul><ul><li>How does use of a “service script” relate to service quality? </li></ul><ul><li>If the roles played by customers are determined by cultural norms, how can services be exported? </li></ul>
  16. 16. Interactive Exercise <ul><li>The class breaks into small groups and each group comes up with an example from each of the four organizational control systems (i.e., belief, boundary, diagnostic, and interactive) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Amy’s Ice Cream on Guadalupe
  18. 18. Amy’s Ice Cream <ul><li>Describe the service organization culture at Amy’s Ice Cream. </li></ul><ul><li>What are the personality attribute of the employees who are sought by Amy’s Ice Cream? </li></ul><ul><li>Design a personnel selection procedure for Amy’s Ice Cream using abstract questioning, a situational vignette, and/or role playing. </li></ul>
  19. 19. AMY’S ICE CREAM Abstract Questions <ul><li>What was your most rewarding past experience and why? </li></ul><ul><li>What are you looking for in your next job? </li></ul><ul><li>What have you done in the past to irritate a customer? </li></ul><ul><li>What flavor of ice cream best describes your personality? </li></ul>
  20. 20. AMY’S ICE CREAM Situational Vignette <ul><li>A particular customer has the irritating habit of always showing up about two minutes before closing and staying late. Often this occurs on the night when weekly store meeting are held after closing time. This delays starting the meeting and furthermore employees are on the clock waiting for the customer to leave. What would you do? </li></ul>
  21. 21. AMY’S ICE CREAM Situational Vignette <ul><li>As a new employee at a busy store, you have been routinely performing clean-up tasks (garbage removal and restroom cleaning). Company policy dictates that these are tasks to be shared. It has become clear that two employees consistently avoid these jobs in favor of more pleasant duties. How would you handle this situation? </li></ul>
  22. 22. Enterprise Rent-A-Car <ul><li>How has Enterprise Rent-A-Car (ERAC) defined its service differently than that of the typical national car rental company? </li></ul><ul><li>What features of its business concept allow ERAC to complete effectively with the existing national rental care companies? </li></ul><ul><li>Use the service profit chain to explain the success of ERAC. </li></ul>

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