QUALITY TOOLS
If we did not make use of quality tools, we would soon find ourselves unable to serve our
community well in ...
Decision matrix: Evaluates and prioritizes a list of options, using pre-determined weighted
criteria.
Multivoting: Narrows...
Data Collection and Analysis Tools
Use the following tools to collect or analyze data:
Check sheet: A generic tool that ca...
Gantt chart: a bar chart that shows the tasks of a project, when each must take place, how
long each will take and complet...
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Quality Tools

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Quality Tools

  1. 1. QUALITY TOOLS If we did not make use of quality tools, we would soon find ourselves unable to serve our community well in terms of adding value to learning experience. Dr Frank K Toda Cause Analysis Tools Tips and tools for the first step to improvement: identifying the cause of a problem or situation. Evaluation and Decision-Making Tools Making informed decisions and choosing the best options with a simple, objective rating system, and determining the success of a project. Process Analysis Tools How to identify and eliminate unnecessary process steps to increase efficiency, reduce timelines and cut costs. Seven Basic Quality Tools These seven tools get to the heart of implementing quality principles. Data Collection and Analysis Tools How can you collect the data you need, and what should you do with them once they’re collected? Idea Creation Tools Ways to stimulate group creativity and organize the ideas that come from it. Project Planning and Implementing Tools How to track a project’s status and look for improvement opportunities. Seven New Management and Planning Tools Ways to promote innovation, communicate information and successfully plan major projects. Cause Analysis Tools Evaluation and Decision-Making Tools Use evaluation and decision-making tools when you want to narrow a group of choices to the best one, or when you want to evaluate how well you’ve done something. This includes evaluating project results.
  2. 2. Decision matrix: Evaluates and prioritizes a list of options, using pre-determined weighted criteria. Multivoting: Narrows a large list of possibilities to a smaller list of the top priorities or to a final selection; allows an item that is favored by all, but not the top choice of any, to rise to the top. Process Analysis Tools When you want to understand a work process or some part of a process, these tools can help: Flowchart: A picture of the separate steps of a process in sequential order, including materials or services entering or leaving the process (inputs and outputs), decisions that must be made, people who become involved, time involved at each step and/or process measurements. Failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA): A step-by-step approach for identifying all possible failures in a design, a manufacturing or assembly process, or a product or service; studying the consequences, or effects, of those failures; and eliminating or reducing failures, starting with the highest-priority ones. Mistake-proofing: The use of any automatic device or method that either makes it impossible for an error to occur or makes the error immediately obvious once it has occurred. Seven Basic Quality Tools These are the most fundamental quality control (QC) tools. They were first emphasized by Kaoru Ishikawa, professor of engineering at Tokyo University and the father of “quality circles.” This list is sometimes called the “seven quality control tools,” the “seven basic tools” or the “seven old tools.” 1. Cause-and-effect diagram (also called Ishikawa or fishbone chart): Identifies many possible causes for an effect or problem and sorts ideas into useful categories. 2. Check sheet: A structured, prepared form for collecting and analyzing data; a generic tool that can be adapted for a wide variety of purposes. 3. Control charts: Graphs used to study how a process changes over time. 4. Histogram: The most commonly used graph for showing frequency distributions, or how often each different value in a set of data occurs. 5. Pareto chart: Shows on a bar graph which factors are more significant. 6. Scatter diagram: Graphs pairs of numerical data, one variable on each axis, to look for a relationship. 7. Stratification: A technique that separates data gathered from a variety of sources so that patterns can be seen (some lists replace "stratification" with "flowchart" or "run chart").
  3. 3. Data Collection and Analysis Tools Use the following tools to collect or analyze data: Check sheet: A generic tool that can be adapted for a wide variety of purposes, the check sheet is a structured, prepared form for collecting and analyzing data. Control chart: A graph used to study how a process changes over time. Comparing current data to historical control limits leads to conclusions about whether the process variation is consistent (in control) or is unpredictable (out of control, affected by special causes of variation). Design of experiments: A method for carrying out carefully planned experiments on a process. Usually, design of experiments involves a series of experiments that start by looking broadly at a great many variables and then focus on the few critical ones. Histogram: The most commonly used graph for showing frequency distributions, or how often each different value in a set of data occurs. Scatter diagram: A diagram that graphs pairs of numerical data, one variable on each axis, to look for a relationship. Stratification: A technique that separates data gathered from a variety of sources so that patterns can be seen. Survey: Data collected from targeted groups of people about their opinions, behavior or knowledge. Idea Creation Tools Use tools like these when you want to come up with new ideas or organize many ideas: Affinity diagram: Organizes a large number of ideas into their natural relationships. Benchmarking: A structured process for comparing your organization’s work practices to the best similar practices you can identify in other organizations, and then incorporating the best ideas into your own processes. Brainstorming: A method for generating a large number of creative ideas in a short period of time. Nominal group technique: A structured method for group brainstorming that encourages contributions from everyone. Project Planning and Implementing Tools These tools can help you manage an improvement project:
  4. 4. Gantt chart: a bar chart that shows the tasks of a project, when each must take place, how long each will take and completion status. PDCA Cycle (plan-do-check-act) or PDSA (plan-do-study-act): a four-step model for carrying out change that can be repeated again and again for continuous improvement. Seven New Management and Planning Tools In 1976, the Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers (JUSE) saw the need for tools to promote innovation, communicate information and successfully plan major projects. A team researched and developed the seven new quality control tools, often called the seven management and planning (MP) tools, or simply the seven management tools. Not all the tools were new, but their collection and promotion were. The seven MP tools, listed in an order that moves from abstract analysis to detailed planning, are: 1. Affinity diagram: organizes a large number of ideas into their natural relationships. 2. Relations diagram: shows cause-and-effect relationships and helps you analyze the natural links between different aspects of a complex situation. 3. Tree diagram: breaks down broad categories into finer and finer levels of detail, helping you move your thinking step by step from generalities to specifics. 4. Matrix diagram: shows the relationship between two, three or four groups of information and can give information about the relationship, such as its strength, the roles played by various individuals, or measurements. 5. Matrix data analysis: a complex mathematical technique for analyzing matrices, often replaced in this list by the similar prioritization matrix. One of the most rigorous, careful and time-consuming of decision-making tools, a prioritization matrix is an L- shaped matrix that uses pairwise comparisons of a list of options to a set of criteria in order to choose the best option(s). 6. Arrow diagram: shows the required order of tasks in a project or process, the best schedule for the entire project, and potential scheduling and resource problems and their solutions. 7. Process decision program chart (PDPC): systematically identifies what might go wrong in a plan under development.

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