Orissa Human Devlopment Report 2004
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Orissa Human Devlopment Report 2004

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Orissa Human Devlopment Report 2004

Orissa Human Devlopment Report 2004

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  • 1. ORISSA HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2004 P & C Department Government of Orissa 29 JULY, 2005 UN Conference Hall, New Delhi
  • 2.
      • First Orissa Human Development Report (HDR)
        • An independent assessment of human development conditions
        • A joint effort of Planning Commission, UNDP, Govt of Orissa, NCDS
        • A benchmark against which future attainments shall be judged
      • The State Planning & Co-ordination Department aims
        • Improved monitoring of outcomes for key HD indicators
        • Publication of periodical HDR at state and district levels
        • Seeking continued support from Planning Commission and UNDP
    ORISSA HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT (2004)
  • 3.
      • Human Development Issues Addressed
        • Growth, Poverty, Livelihood
        • Food Insecurity & Nutritional Status
        • Health
        • Education
        • Gender Issues
        • Natural Disasters
        • Strategies for Financing HD
      • Human Development Measures
        • Human Development Index
        • Gender related Development Index
        • Reproductive Health Index
    ORISSA HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT
  • 4. ECONOMY & GROWTH: CORE STRENGTHS
    • Rich Natural Resource Endowment (Aquaculture, Forests, Marine, Metals, Minerals and Water)
    • Rich Cultural Heritage – Tribal Heritage
    • Excellent base for Textiles, Handloom and Handicrafts
    • Excellent Tourism Opportunities - Eco-tourism, Religious
    • Rich Potential for Industrialization – Steel, Aluminum
    • Presence of Knowledge Industry – Good IT Skill base
  • 5. ECONOMY & GROWTH : CHALLENGES WE FACE
    • Undiversified, Slow Growing Economy (3- 4%)
    • Undeveloped and Stagnant Agriculture (<1%)
      • - Primitive agricultural practices
      • - Low agricultural productivity
    • Slow Growth in Manufacturing and Service Sectors
      • - Inadequate private investment and technical change
    • Poor Infrastructure
      • - Lack of good roads, rails, ports, and airports
      • - Undeveloped markets
    • Small Economic Base
    • Lack of employment opportunities
    • Low employable skills
    • Frequent natural disaster
  • 6. POVERTY
        • Poverty declining at a very slow rate
          • Overwhelmingly rural and regional phenomenon (93% of the poor live in rural areas)
          • About half of the rural poor are 40% or more below poverty line
    • Poverty in Orissa: Some Characteristics
      • 4 out 5 poor persons are farmers or agricultural labourers
    • Core Poverty groups
      • ST (75%), SC (59%)
      • Small & marginal farmers (60%), casual wage labourers (75%)
      • Social Indicators for the Core Poverty Group are significantly worse
  • 7. POVERTY
      • Interior is poorly connected and has a very high incidence of poverty
      • Many of the poor depend on forests for their livelihoods
      • The poor are highly vulnerable to natural shocks, and have limited access to public services
      • They have limited or no voice in decision making
  • 8. LIVELIHOOD CONCERNS & RECOMMENDATIONS
    • Concerns
    • Recurrent droughts and floods (natural disasters)
    • Poor Natural Resource Management
    • Lack of marketing linkage for rural non-farm sectors based on very low levels of household, income and consumption
    • Recommendations
    • Labour intensive growth strategy (small scale and cottage industries) (focus on KBK districts)
    • Watershed management
    • Shift from paddy cultivation to horticulture/fisheries
    • Joint Forest Management
    • Strengthening of rural credit
    • Provision of legal rights for share croppers
    • Promotion of non-farm sector employment
  • 9. FOOD SECURITY AND NUTRITIONAL ISSUES
    • Orissa is a food insecure state
      • 57% population suffer from Chronic Energy Deficiency (CED)
      • 48% women suffer from nutritional deficiency
      • 72.3% of children have some degree of anaemia
    • The State has taken several bold measures
      • A good network of PDS outlets
        • 92% HH access PDS within 2 km of their habitations
      • TPDS, Annapurna and Antodaya Schemes
        • 48.58 lakh HH benefit from these initiatives
      • Involvement of PRI to manage PDS outlets in tribal areas
        • Sarpanches, BDOs, Sub-Collectors and Collectors authorized to extend food support to the most needy
      • Targeted nutritional interventions
        • NCAER appreciates the functioning of ICDS
  • 10. FOOD SECURITY AND NUTRITIONAL ISSUES
    • Recommendations
      • Community based Management of PDS and grain banks
      • Rural employment generation along with food transfer component
      • Universalise PDS instead of TDPS
      • Design and implement supplementary and emergency feeding programmes for very vulnerable
  • 11. HEALTH CONDITIONS
    • Highest Infant Mortality Rate (91 in 2001 & 87 in 2002)
      • Lack of access to safe drinking water; adequate nutrition
      • High percentage of low birth weight babies
      • Early Marriage of Girls; poor female literacy
      • ARI, Diarrhoea, Measles, Malaria
    • Excess Morbidity Burden
      • Increased cases of Malaria, TB, Gastroenteritis, ARI, Diarrhoea
      • Preponderance of infectious and communicable diseases
    • Access to Health Care Facilities
      • Poor physical and economic access affect the utilization of public health care facilities
      • Significant inter-district and gender disparities
      • Perceptible improvement in coverage of health institutions
  • 12. HEALTH CONDITIONS
    • Recommendations
      • Improved physical access to health care institutions
      • Institutional/safe deliveries
      • Promoting mother’s education
      • Strengthened child immunisation programmes
      • Strengthened vector control programmes
      • Involving PRIs, NGOs and SHGs in managing healthcare institutions (remote/tribal districts)
      • More targetted HIV/AIDS programmes
  • 13. EDUCATION
    • Done comparatively well in education
      • Literacy levels increased from 7% (1936) to 63.61% (2001)
      • Resource allocation: 6% of GSDP
    • Increased Enrolment
      • Significant improvement in gender parity index over the years
      • Increased gross enrolment ratio among SC(115.1%) and ST (99.7%) in primary education
    • Regional, Social and Gender disparities
      • Female literacy only 50.97% (vs 75.95% male literacy)
      • Wide inter-district variations – rural areas suffer more
      • Low literacy among ST – very low female tribal literacy
      • Drop out rates still continue to be high – 37% at primary level
  • 14. GENDER
    • Concerns
    • Sex ratio higher than the national average (972 against 933 national average)
    • 0-6 years sex ratio lower than the national average (developed pockets of coastal and central tableland districts)
    • Low BMI, Nutritional deficiency (esp. among SC and ST communities)
    • Economic reform process –downsizing of public sector – may impact on women – removal of social security benefits, flexi-time and child care
    • Recommendations
    • Land reforms – providing joint ownership to both husband and wife
    • Public support for out-of-home child care services
    • Simplifying banking procedures – increasing their accessibility to women
    • Targetted programs for women losing jobs due to downsizing of public sector
  • 15. NATURAL DISASTERS
      • Concerns
      • Recurrent natural disasters -droughts (Western and Southern Orissa),
      • & cyclones and floods (coastal areas)
      • Loss of lives, livelihoods and property
      • Serious fiscal imbalances
      • Recommendations
      • Local communities should form the core of disaster preparedness and mitigation programmes
      • Explore the feasibility of disaster insurance
      • Building of safer houses crucial
  • 16. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX (HDI)
      • HDI is a composite measure
        • Health Index, Education Index and Income Index
      • Orissa HDI – 0.404 (11 th among 15 major States)
        • Kerala (0.638) and Bihar (0.367)
      • Wide Inter-district Variations
        • 16 districts have lower HDI than State average
        • Top Five Districts
          • Khurda, Jharsuguda, Cuttack, Sundergarh, Deogarh
        • Bottom Five Districts
          • Malklanagiri, Kandhamal, Gajapati, Koraput, Nabarangpur
  • 17. HDI – INTER-DISTRICT VARIATION
  • 18. GAINS ACHIEVED DURING 1993-1999
  • 19. ORISSA’S GAINS COMPARED TO ALL-INDIA
  • 20.
      • GDI is a composite measure
          • - Health Index, Education Index and Income Index
          • - Captures the gender dimensions of human development
      • Orissa GDI – 0.546
      • Wide Inter-district Variations
        • 20 districts have GDI values less than State average
        • Best Five Districts
        • Jharsuguda, Sundergarh, Deogarh, Angul, Khurda,
        • Bottom Five Districts
          • Malkanagiri, Kandhamal, Jajpur, Gajapati, Koraput,
    GENDER DEVELOPMENT INDEX (GDI)
  • 21. GDI – INTER-DISTRICT VARIATION
  • 22.
      • RHI captures impact of six indicators
        • Risks of early pregnancies; pregnancy complications
        • Lack of trained Dhais; 3 rd or higher order babies
        • Reproductive tract infections, contraceptive side effects
      • Orissa RHI – 0.549
      • Wide Inter-district Variations
        • 13 districts have RHI values less than State average
        • Best Five Districts
        • Jharsuguda, Jagatsinghpur, Sundargarh, Keonjhar, Cuttack
        • Bottom Five Districts
        • Kandhamal, Bhadrak, Balangir, Nabarangpur, Nuapada
    REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH INDEX (RHI)
  • 23. RHI – INTER-DISTRICT VARIATION
  • 24. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT: CHALLENGES
      • Specific and target-oriented expenditure programmes
        • Human Expenditure Ratio to increase from 4.43% to 5%
        • Restructure expenditure in favour of social sectors: elementary education, primary and secondary health services, nutrition, rural water supply and sanitation
        • Improve access of ST, SC and Women to quality education, public health and better nutrition
        • Reduce regional and gender disparities
      • Need for broad-based labour intensive economic growth
      • • Mobilisation of higher resources
      • • Diversify livelihood options of the poor and ST
      • • Focus on higher agricultural growth, institutional credit and non-farm employment and income opportunities
      • • Sustainable Management of forests and other NR
  • 25. A DEVELOPMENT PERSPECTIVE FOR ORISSA- POVERTY TASK FORCE
      • Well-diversified, Fast Growing Economy
      • Reduce Poverty Ratio from 47.20% to 15%
      • Reduce Infant Mortality Rate from 87 to less than 41
      • Universal Literacy, High Quality Employable Skills
      • Orissa - Net Exporter to rest of India & the World
            • Free from Regional, Caste and Gender Disparities
            • A Leading State in Human Development
      • A Transparent and Responsive Government
    Key Development Goals
  • 26. OLD DEVELOPMENT PARADIGM
    • Low private investment and narrow base of economic growth
    • Government expansion seen as main source of employment growth
    • Public resources pre-empted by interest payments, pension and salaries of government employees
    • Stagnation and decline in public investment in both quantity and quality
    • Growth in inefficient subsidies such as grants to colleges and high schools with poor or zero output
    • Exploitation of minerals and forest wealth  degradation of environment & displacement of tribals
    • Top down public administration with information hidden from the public eye
  • 27. NEW PARADIGM
    • On a path of fiscal improvement since 2001
        • Revenue Deficit reduced from 40% to less than 15% of Revenue Receipts
        • Salary bill reduced from 150% to 80% of own revenues
    • Orissa is the NUMBER ONE state in terms of revenue collection from the newly introduced VAT
    • Orissa is NUMBER ONE in terms of private investment projects under implementation (source: CMIE)
    • Government of Orissa is committed:
        • To enhance transparency and accountability of public administration
        • To reduce corruption, and
        • To improve the quality of public spending and delivery of services
  • 28. REFORM AGENDA OF THE GOVT OF ORISSA
    • Economic Growth Enhancing Reform  simplify rules & regulation for clearing private investment proposals with adequate safeguards, identify potential growth engines and remove binding constraints in key sub-sectors
    • Power sector reform  electric connectivity  e-connectivity  technology and market information from urban to rural areas
    • Fiscal and admin reform  quantity and quality of public investment  improve operation of economic infrastructure and basic social services
    • Health & Education reforms  Reallocate public expenditure towards priority outcomes + Reorganize departments + Improve service delivery
    • Empowerment of poor and tribal people  Establish farmer groups and women’s self-help groups to enable the poor to benefit from growing market opportunities
  • 29. BUILDING BLOCKS FOR INCLUSIVE DEVELOPMENT
    • Improved connectivity -- road, electric power, electronic connectivity, modern ports
    • Easy market access so that farmers receive competitive prices for crops
    • Easy entry for private investment with effective social & environmental safeguards
    • Literate and skilled human resources
    • Effective food security through enhanced productivity of agriculture and strengthened PDS with local oversight
    • Effective targeting of wage employment and self-employment programs aligned with seasonality of demand
    • District level planning  convergence of services
  • 30. INCLUSIVE DEVELOPMENT …
    • Empowered rural communities with active self-help groups  voice to the voiceless
    • Devolution to local bodies  power to the powerless
    • Consultative process of decision making
    • Transparency of programs and accountability of service providers
  • 31. RE-THINKING GROWTH
    • Build on Orissa’s natural advantages
    • Diversify agriculture and non-farm activities
    • Identify potential growth engines – horticulture, mineral-based manufacturing, tourism and traditional hand skills, fisheries, forests, and IT
    • Base policies and decisions on objective analysis, not on anecdotal impression
    • Improve overall climate for private investment – Single Window, R&R Policy, Credit arrangements, Land & Water, etc.
    • Win public support for private investment – negotiate for social investment from private entrepreneurs, advertise ‘win-win’ cases, allocate share of mining revenue to social development in mineral rich districts
  • 32. ENHANCE RETURNS TO FARMERS
    • Increase density of agricultural markets  improve price realization by farmers in Orissa through access to markets and to price information
    • Amend Agricultural Marketing Act to permit private investment alongside public investment in marketing yards and storage facilities
    • Establish framework for contract farming  e ncourage agro-processing and value addition
    • Encourage sustainable and comprehensive water management through  Pani Panchayats  Water harvesting and re-cycling  Measures to combat droughts and control floods
  • 33. FISHERIES & FORESTS
    • Both salt water and inland fisheries have potential
    • Need to avoid adverse effects on natural environment
    • Need for a policy framework and transparent guidelines
    • Sustainable harnessing of, and value addition to, biomass resources  bamboo, medicinal plants and other species
    • Maintain ecological stability and sustainability of land-based production systems  higher growth possible from forests and fisheries resources
  • 34. RE-THINKING APPROACH TO TAP THE STATE’S MINERAL WEALTH
    • How to give back what is taken from the tribal districts?
    • Sensitive R&R Policy
    • Public investment in technical training to enhance employment prospects in the interior districts
  • 35. TOURISM HAS A GREAT POTENTIAL
    • Enormous tourism resources
        • Natural (tigers, elephants, Chilika, Simlipal)
        • Cultural (sculpture, dance, handicrafts)
        • Religious (Hindu, Buddhist, Jain)
    • Need for high quality infrastructure
        • Airports, roads, hotels
  • 36. FUTURE PROSPECTS
    • Large-scale private investments expected to boost job creation and urbanization over the next 15 years
    • Revenue Deficit will be eliminated by 2008-09 and the Government of Orissa will become creditworthy, borrowing only for investments
    • Mineral based industry + Tourism, Handlooms, Handicrafts, Fisheries, Horticulture and forests  Accelerated growth in wage employment and self-employment
    • Rapid economic Growth + Decline in Inequality  Rapid decline in Poverty and more employment opportunities
    • Improved health and education  Food, health and social security  Education as a means of empowerment, value addition and knowledge creation  Improved quality of life
  • 37. CONVERGENCE OF EFFORTS, IDEAS & INVESTMENT
    • Transforming Orissa requires:
        • Convergence of efforts, ideas and investment
        • Concerted action by all stakeholders
    • State Govt., Central Govt., External Donors, Private Sector, Non Resident Oriyas, NGOs and the poor people themselves
    THANK YOU