Kinesics

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Kinesics

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Kinesics

  1. 1. BODY LANGUAGE Kinesics is the scientific study of body movements involved in communication, especially as they accompany speech. This includes gestures, facial expressions, eye behaviour and posture. Commonly called Body Language or Non verbal behaviour. Kinesics was developed by American anthropologists Ray L. Birdwhistell.
  2. 2. BODY LANGUAGE Dr Birdwhistell who has initiated most of the basic work in developing a rotational system for the new science of Kinesics warns that, “No body, position or movement in and of itself, has a precise meaning.” <ul><li>Body language and spoken language are dependent on each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Body movement may mean nothing at all in one context and yet be extremely significant in another context. </li></ul>Dr Birdwhistell says that, “Movements if they are significant they are learned. We pick them as a part of our society.” The most important thing to realize about body language, according to Dr Birdwhistell is that, “No single motion ever stands alone. It is always part of a pattern.”
  3. 3. <ul><li>How you sit, how you walk, how your eyes move across the room-all your movements broadcast messages to the world, instructing others to treat you a certain way. </li></ul><ul><li>Take control of your own signals and start reading the signals of others correctly. </li></ul><ul><li>Body language can help you recognize a dangerous situation and help you get out of one. </li></ul><ul><li>Albert Mehrabian found that the total impact of the message is </li></ul><ul><li>7% verbal(words only) </li></ul><ul><li>38% vocal(tone of voice, inflections, and other sounds) </li></ul><ul><li>55% non-verbal </li></ul><ul><li>Other scholars have given similar estimates. </li></ul>BODY LANGUAGE
  4. 4. <ul><li>Verbal channel is used primarily for conveying information. </li></ul><ul><li>Non-verbal channel is used for negotiating interpersonal attitude and in some cases is used as a substitute for verbal message. </li></ul><ul><li>Regardless of culture, words,movements occur together with such predictability that Birdwhistell says a well trained person should be able o tell what movement a man is making by listening to his voice. </li></ul><ul><li>Humans are still biologically animals. We are dominated by biological rules that control our actions, reactions, body language and gestures- clever and advanced brain. </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptive or Intuitive- from technical point of view, it is the ability to read another person’s non-verbal cues and to compare these with verbal signals. </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic or acquired- some gestures can be traced back to our primitive animal past- baring the teeth. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>The wink alone is called a kine, the smallest measurement in body language. </li></ul><ul><li>Kinesically mature-the difference between maturity and immaturity is often telegraphed by body language. Too much body movement without real meaning is immature. A mature person moves when he has to, and moves purposefully. </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. B divided the body into 8 sections- </li></ul><ul><li>Head ,Face, Trunk and Shoulders, Arm and Wrist area, Hands and Fingers ,Hip, Leg and Ankle area, Foot and Neck. </li></ul>
  6. 6. FACIAL ACTION CODING SYSTEM <ul><li>Psychologists-PAUL EKMAN and TOMKIN- agreed that there was a common set of rules that governed the facial expressions human beings made.We can pick up fleeting micro expressions on our faces that signal what our authentic feelings really are Ekman and Wallace Friesen , created a taxonomy of facial expressions. </li></ul><ul><li>Human face can make 43 distinct muscular movement. </li></ul><ul><li>There are 300 combinations of two muscles, if you add in a third you get over 3000. We took it up to five muscles, which is over 10,000 visible facial configurations. </li></ul><ul><li>Ekman said “ Most of the 10,000 facial expressions do not mean anything. They are the kinds of nonsense faces children make”. </li></ul><ul><li>However Ekman & Friesen identified about 3000 expressions that comprise the essential repertoire of human facial displays of emotions. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>FROM THE INSIDE OUT Expression alone is sufficicient to create marked changes in the autonomic nervous system.-fear, anger,anguish heartbeat would go up,hands get hot etc. </li></ul><ul><li>The process also works in the opposite direction as well.Emotions can also start on the face. </li></ul><ul><li>The face is not a secondary billboard for our feelings.it is a partner in the emotional process. </li></ul><ul><li>FLASHES OF TRUTH Many facial expressions can be made voluntarily but often some part of another emotion that we are trying to suppress leaks out. </li></ul><ul><li>Facial expressions can be reformed and corrected. </li></ul>
  8. 8. APPEARANCE <ul><li>The final area of kinesics is appearance. </li></ul><ul><li>Appearance includes clothes, hair, jewelry, cosmetics and such. It accents our body movements and how we are perceived. </li></ul><ul><li>Appearance tells others how we want to be seen. How we practice the “rules” of the game in an organization. </li></ul><ul><li>If you changed your appearance drastically- from formal to informal, for example- how would others respond? </li></ul><ul><li>When do you give your appearance special attention? These occasions tell you about the importance of appearance. </li></ul><ul><li>Most people indicate they are not influenced by another’s physical appearance,but apparently they are. </li></ul><ul><li>Expect your appearance to a part of the messages you communicate,and should plan your appearance so that it will effectively communicate to others. </li></ul>
  9. 9. BODY SHAPE AND POSTURE <ul><li>Body shape and posture are a part of Kinesics. Body shape and posture affect how we think about ourselves, how we relate to others, and how others relate to us even though body shape is mostly hereditary and largely uncontrollable. </li></ul><ul><li>When we encounter an unfamiliar situation, we become more aware of body shape and posture-interview or a formal speech. </li></ul><ul><li>Posture is part of any relationship, regardless of your degree of awareness. Whether you lean forward/backward ,stand or sit erectly,or slouch ,you tell another person something. </li></ul><ul><li>The others mental filter gives meaning to your posture. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Behaviorists have studied the shapes of our bodies and have identified three types. The ectomorph is thin, youthful, and tall; the mesomorph is strong, athletic, muscular and bony; the endomorph is fat, round, and soft. </li></ul><ul><li>Indeed our physical structures communicate something about us. Perhaps these body types lead to false stereotypes, but the point remains that our physical structures do communicate . </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>You are seen before you are heard. </li></ul><ul><li>Movements if they are significant are learned. We pride them as a part of society. </li></ul><ul><li>Strong and weak body language – examine the slides: </li></ul>BODY LANGUAGE
  12. 12. THE BODY LANGUAGE OF POWER
  13. 13. THE BODY LANGUAGE OF WEAKNESS
  14. 14. GESTURE CLUSTERS <ul><li>Body language consists of word, sentences and punctuation. </li></ul><ul><li>Each gesture is like a single word e.g. Scratching, lying, fleas, dandruff, sweating, uncertainty or forgetfulness. </li></ul><ul><li>Critical – seen by the fact that the legs are tightly cross and arms crosses the body (defensive) head and chin are down (hostility) sentenced - i don’t like what you are saying and i disagree with you. </li></ul><ul><li>Status power or prestige is also directly related to the number of gestures or body movements he uses. </li></ul><ul><li>As a general rule the higher the person on the socio-economic scale, the less gesticulation and body movement he uses. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Gestures are the physical movements of arms, legs, hands, torso and head. </li></ul><ul><li>Common gestures- </li></ul><ul><li>U.K.,USA- OK </li></ul><ul><li>Brazil – insult </li></ul><ul><li>Japan – money </li></ul><ul><li>France – zero </li></ul><ul><li>Speaking and gesturing are linked, we coordinate the two-both are learned. </li></ul>
  16. 16. SHOULDER SHRUG
  17. 17. COMMON CRITICAL EVALUATION CLUSTER
  18. 18. WAY A CHILD TELLS A LIE
  19. 19. ADULT TELLING A LIE
  20. 20. SMOKE DOWN : Negative, secretive, suspicious SMOKE UP : Confident, superior, positive
  21. 21. TERRITORIES AND ZONES <ul><li>Dr. EDWARD T.HALL STUDIED MAN’S PERSONAL SPACE , HE COINED THE WORD PROXEMICS – </li></ul><ul><li>SENSE OF TERRITORY IS INBORN IN ANIMALS. HUMANS LIKE ANIMALS INDICATE THEIR OWNERSHIP OF THIS ESTABLISHED TERRITORY AND WILL CONSEQUENTLY DEFENDED AGAINST ALL INVASION. E.g.- 2 nd SESSION </li></ul><ul><li>SUBSTANCE OF CONVERSATION CAN OFTEN DEMAND HANDLING OF SPACE. E.g.- TELLING A SECRET- NEGATES THE CONFIDENTIALITY OF THE MESSAGE ITSELF. </li></ul><ul><li>THE PROXEMICS OF HOME IS AN INTERESTING STUDY. </li></ul><ul><li>POLICE INTERROGATORS USE TERRITORIAL INVASION TECHNICS TO BREAK DOWN THE RESISTANCE OF THE CRIMINALS. </li></ul><ul><li>CULTURAL FACTORS AFFECTING THE ZONE DISTANCES </li></ul><ul><li>COUNTRY Vs CITY SPATIAL ZONES </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>As the density of the crowd increases, each individual has less personal space and takes a hostile stand, which is why, as the size of the mob increases, it becomes angrier and uglier. This information is used by the police, and they try to break up the crowd so that each person can regain his own personal space and so become calmer. </li></ul>
  23. 24. ACCEPTABLE CONVERSATIONAL DISTANCE - 46 CMS
  24. 25. NEGATIVE REACTION OF A WOMAN WHEN TERRITORY IS ENCROACHED
  25. 26. WOMEN FROM A COUNTRY TOWN GREETING EACH OTHER
  26. 27. WOMEN FROM A TOWN GREETING EACH OTHER
  27. 28. MEN FROM CITY GREET EACH OTHER
  28. 29. FOLKS FROM A SPARSELY POPULATED AREA
  29. 30. GESTURE SHOWING PRIDE OF OWNERSHIP
  30. 32. HAND AND ARM GESTURE <ul><li>RESEARCH BY NIERENBERG AND CALERO ON THE HANDS-CLENCHED POSITION BROUGHT TO THE CONCLUSION THAT THIS WAS A FRUSTRATION GESTURE, SIGNALLING THAT THE PERSON WAS HOLDING BACK A NEGATIVE ATTITUDE. </li></ul><ul><li>STEEPLING - CAN BE AN EXCEPTION TO THESE RULES. IT IS OFTEN USED IN ISOLATION OF OTHER GESTURES. </li></ul>
  31. 33. HANDS CLENCHED IN RAISED POSITION HANDS CLENCHED IN LOWER POSITION
  32. 34. THE UPPER ARM GRIP THE HAND GRIPPING WRIST GESTURE THE SUPERIORITY – CONFIDENCE GESTURE
  33. 35. RUBBING THE PALMS TOGETHER HANDS CLENCHED IN MIDDLE POSITION
  34. 36. THE LOWERED STEEPLE THE RAISED STEEPLE
  35. 37. THUMB DISPLAYS <ul><li>In palmistry, the thumbs denote strength of character and ego and the non verbal use of thumb agrees with this. </li></ul><ul><li>Thumb displays are positive signals, they are secondary gestures, a supportive part of gesture cluster. </li></ul><ul><li>Thumbs protruding from pockets shows dominant attitude. </li></ul><ul><li>Arms folded with thumbs pointing upwards is a double signal, -defensive, negative attitude plus a superior attitude. </li></ul><ul><li>Closed fist thumb gesture can be used as a signal of ridicule and disrespect when it is used to point at a another person. </li></ul>
  36. 38. THUMBS PROTUDING FROM BACK POCKETS IN MY HUMBLE OPINION…
  37. 39. THE THUMBS GESTURE IN COAT THUMBS-UP POSITION
  38. 40. OK GESTURE
  39. 41. THUMB-UP GESTURE
  40. 42. THE V SIGN
  41. 43. HAND TO FACE GESTURES <ul><li>THE MOUTH GUARD THE BRAIN SUB-CONSICOUSLY INSTRUCTS TO TRY AND SUPPRESS THE DECEITFUL WORDS THAT ARE BEING SAID. </li></ul><ul><li>NOSE TOUCHING IS SOPHISTICATED, DISGUISED VERSION OF THE MOUTH GUARD. LYING CAUSES THE DELICATE NERVE ENDING IN THE NOSE TO TINGLE </li></ul><ul><li>THE EYE RUB THIS GESTURE IS THE BRAIN’S ATTEMPT TO BLOCK OUT THE DECEIT, DOUBT OR LIE THAT IT SEES OR TO AVOID HAVING TO LOOK AT THE FACE OF THE PERSON TO WHOM HE IS TELLING THE LIE. </li></ul><ul><li>THE EAR RUB </li></ul><ul><li>AN ATTEMPT BY THE LISTENER TO BLOCK THE WORDS “HEAR NO EVIL” OR THAT A PERSON HAS HEARD ENOUGH OR MAY WANT TO SPEAK. </li></ul>
  42. 44. HAVING NEGATIVE THOUGHTS MAKING A DECISION
  43. 45. EVALUATION, DECISION, BOREDOM CLUSTER THE MOUTH GUARD
  44. 46. THE NOSE TOUCH INTERESTED EVALUATION
  45. 47. THE EYE RUB THE COLLAR PULL
  46. 49. HAND TO FACE GESTURE <ul><li>THE NECK SCRATCH THE PERSON SCRACTHES ABOUT FIVE TIMES - IS A SIGNAL OF DOUBT OR UNCERTAINITY AND IS CHARACTERISTIC OF A PERSON WHO SAYS “ I M NOT SURE I AGREE” </li></ul><ul><li>THE COLLAR PULL </li></ul><ul><li>DESMOND MORRIS RESEARCHED THAT TELLING OF A LIE CAUSED A TINGLING SENSATION IN THE DELICATE FACIAL AND NECK TISSUES. IT IS ALMOST AS IF THE LIE CAUSES A SLIGHT TRICKLE OF SWEAT TO FORM ON THE NECK WHEN THE DECEIVER FEELS THAT YOU SUSPECT HE IS LYING. </li></ul>
  47. 50. THE NOSE TOUCH THE EAR RUB THE NECK SCRATCH
  48. 51. PAIN IN THE NECK GESTURE REASSURANCE IS NEEDED HERE BOREDOM
  49. 52. ARM BARRIERS HIDING BEHIND A BARRIER IS A NORMAL HUMAN RESPONSE THAT WE LEARN AT AN EARLY AGE TO PROTECT OURSELVES. TESTS REVEALTHAT, WHEN A LISTENER FOLDS HIS ARMS,NOT ONLY HE HAS MORE NEGATIVE THOUGHTS ABOUT THE SPEAKER, BUT ALSO PAYS LESS ATTENTION TO WHAT IS BEING SAID-38% IT IS FOR THIS REASON TRAINING CENTERS HAVE CHAIRS WITH ARMS.
  50. 53. STANDARD ARM-CROSS GESTURE - IS AN ATTEMPT TO HIDE FROM AN UNFAVOURABLE SITUATION COMMONLY SEEN WHEN THE PERSON IS AMONGST THE STRANGERS, PUBLIC MEETING, QUEUES, CAFETERIAS, ELEVATORS, OR ANYWHERE PEOPLE FEEL UNCERTAIN OR INSECURE. PARTIAL ARM/ BARRIER - IS OFTEN SEEN AT MEETINGS WHERE A PERSON MAY BE A STRANGER TO THE GROUP OR IS LACKING IN SELF-CONFIDENCE. IT ALLOWS A PERON TO RELIVE THE EMOTIONAL SECURITY THAT HE EXPERIENCED AS A CHILD WHEN HIS PARENTS HELD HIS HANDS UNDER FEARFUL CIRCUMSTANCES. ARM BARRIERS
  51. 54. DISGUISED NERVOUSNESS FIST SHOWS A HOSTILE ATTITUDE
  52. 55. ARM BARRIERS SUPERIOR ATTITUDE HOLDING HANDS WITH ONESELF
  53. 56. COLD, NOT DEFENSIVE
  54. 57. PARTIAL ARM BARRIER BOOKS AS A BARRIER
  55. 58. DEFENSIVE STANDING POSITION STANDARD ARM CROSS
  56. 59. LEG BARRIERS <ul><li>THE STANDARD LEG-CROSS POSITION </li></ul><ul><li>MAY BE USED TO SHOW A NERVOUS, RESERVED OR DEFENSIVE ATTITUDE. HOWEVER THIS SHOULD NOT BE INTERPRETED IN ISOLATION OR OUT OF CONTEXT. </li></ul><ul><li>THE AMERICAN FIGURE 4 LEG LOCK POSITION </li></ul><ul><li>INDICATES THAT AN ARGUEMENTATIVE OR COMPETITIVE ATTITUDE EXITS. </li></ul><ul><li>FIGURE 4 LEG CLAMP </li></ul><ul><li>SIGN OF THE TOUGH MINDED, STUBBORN INDIVIDUAL WHO MAY NEED A SPECIAL APPROACH TO BREAK THROUH HIS RESISTANCE. </li></ul><ul><li>STANDING LEG CROSS GESTURE </li></ul><ul><li>GENERALLY MOST PEOPLE STAND LIKE THIS WHEN THEY ARE AMONG PEOPLE WHOM THEY DO NOT KNOW WELL. </li></ul><ul><li>THE ANKLE LOCK GESTURE </li></ul><ul><li>OBSERVATION HAVE REVEALED THAT HE IS TRYING TO HOLD BACK A NEGATIVE ATTITUDE, EMOTION, NERVOUSNESS OR FEAR. </li></ul><ul><li>THE FOOT LOCK </li></ul><ul><li>IT IS ALMOST EXCLUSIVELY USED BY WOMEN. SHOWS THAT SHE HAS BECOME A MENTAL RECLUSE OR HAS RETREATED INTO HER SHELL. </li></ul>
  57. 60. AMERICAN 4 LEG LOCK POSITION ARMS LOCK THE LEG IN PLACE
  58. 61. CLOSED BODY & CLOSED ATTITUDE OPEN BODY & OPEN ATTITUDE
  59. 62. FEMALE – ANKLE LOCK SEATED FOOT LOCK POSITION STANDING FOOT LOCK POSITION
  60. 63. THE STANDARD LEG CROSS WOMAN SHOWING DISPLEASURE
  61. 64. <ul><li>EYES ARE STEELY, KNOWING, MOCKING, PIERCING, GLOWING AND SO ON. </li></ul><ul><li>IS THERE SUCH A THING AS A BURNING GLANCE OR A HURT GLANCE. </li></ul><ul><li>FAR FROM BEING WINDOWS OF THE SOUL EYES ARE PHYSIOLOGICALLY DEAD ENDS, SIMPLY ORGANS OF SIGHT BUT NEVER REALLY CAPABLE OF EXPRESSING EMOTION IN THEMSELVES. </li></ul><ul><li>EYES CAN TRANSMIT THE MOST SUBTLE NUANCES, THE EMOTIONAL IMPACT OF THE EYES OCCUR BECAUSE OF THEIR USE AND THE USE OF THE FACE AROUND THEM. </li></ul><ul><li>THE LENGTH OF GLANCE, BY OPENING OF EYELIDS, BY SQUINTING AND BY A DOZEN LITTLE MANIPULATONS OF THE SKIN AND EYES, ALMOST ANY MEANING CAN BE SENT OUT . </li></ul>EYE SIGNALS
  62. 66. GAZE BEHAVIOUR <ul><li>IT IS ONLY WHEN YOU SEE EYE TO EYE WITH ANOTHER PERSON THAT A REAL BASIS FOR COMMUNICATION CAN BE ESTABLISH. </li></ul><ul><li>LIKE MOST BODY LANGUAGE AND GESTURE, THE LENGTH OF TIME THAT ONE PERSON GAZES AT ANOTHER IS CULTURALLY DETERMINED . </li></ul><ul><li>NOT ONLY IS THE LENGTH OF THE GAZE SIGNIFICANT; JUST AS IMPORTANT IS THE GEOGRAPHICAL AREA OF THE PERSON’S FACE AND BODY AT WHICH YOU DIRECT YOUR GAZES.THESE SIGNALS ARE TRANSMITTED AND RECEIVED NON-VERBALLY AND ARE ACCURATELLY INTERPRETED BY THE RECIEVER. </li></ul>
  63. 67. THE BUISNESS GAZE
  64. 68. THE SOCIAL GAZE
  65. 69. THE INTIMATE GAZE
  66. 70. OTHER POPULAR GESTURES AND ACTION <ul><li>STRANDDLING A CHAIR - SYMBOLISES THE SAME PROTECTIVE BEHAVIOR TO SHIELD HIMSELF WHEN UNDER PHYSICAL OR VERBAL ATTACK. </li></ul><ul><li>PICKING IMAGINERY LINT - WHEN A PERSON DISAPPROVES OF THE OPINIONS OR ATTITUDES OF OTHERS BUT FEELS CONSTRAINED IN GIVING HIS POINT OF VIEW. THIS IS ONE OF THE MOST COMMON SIGANLS OF DISAPPROVAL AND INDICATES HE DOES NOT LIKE WHAT IS BEING SAID EVEN THOUGH HE MAY BE VERBALLY AGREEING WITH EVERYTHING. </li></ul><ul><li>HEAD GESTURE - HEAD UP IS THE POSITION TAKEN BY A PERSON WHO HAS A NEUTRAL ATTITUDE ABOUT WHAT HE IS HEARING. </li></ul><ul><li>WHEN THE HEAD TILTS TO ONE SIDE IT SHOWS THAT INTEREST HAS DEVELOPED. </li></ul><ul><li>WHEN THE HEAD IS DOWN IT SIGNALS THAT THE ATTITUDE IS NEGATIVE AND EVEN JUDGEMENTAL. </li></ul><ul><li>BOTH HANDS BEHIND THE HEAD “I HAVE ALL THE ANSWERS, “EVERYTHING’S UNDERCONTROL – FEELING CONFIDENT, DOMINANT OR SUPERIOR ABOUT SOMETHING. </li></ul>
  67. 71. THE STRADDLER
  68. 72. THE LINT PICKER ‘ MAY BE SOMEDAY YOU’LL BE AS SMART AS I AM.’
  69. 75. DEFENSIVE DEPRESSED
  70. 76. EXCITED REJECTING
  71. 77. CONFIDENT THOUGHTFUL
  72. 78. I AM JUST AS SMART AS YOU ARE
  73. 79. THIRD PERSON NOT ACCEPTED BY FIRST TWO
  74. 80. BODY POINTING IS USED TO EXCLUDE THE MAN ON THE RIGHT
  75. 81. AGGRESSIVE <ul><li>DESCRIPTION </li></ul><ul><li>Angry, </li></ul><ul><li>Sarcastic , </li></ul><ul><li>Being a bad listener, </li></ul><ul><li>Putting people down , </li></ul><ul><li>Blaming others, </li></ul><ul><li>Shouting , </li></ul><ul><li>Raising one’s voice , </li></ul><ul><li>Overly critical. </li></ul><ul><li>BODY LANGUAGE </li></ul><ul><li>Clenched fists, </li></ul><ul><li>Confrontational pose, </li></ul><ul><li>Tense body posture, </li></ul><ul><li>Hands on hips, </li></ul><ul><li>Head tilted, </li></ul><ul><li>Finger pointing, </li></ul><ul><li>Prolonged eye contact, </li></ul><ul><li>Narrowing eyes, </li></ul><ul><li>Looking down on others. </li></ul>
  76. 83. SUBMISSIVE DESCRIPTION BODY LANGUAGE Apologetic, Self depreciating, Resentful, Low self-esteem, Retreating, Too ready to please. Fidgety, Covering mouth and eyes, Stumped posture, Nervous deposition, Fiddling, Poor eye contact, Quite, Faltering voice, Pleading smile, Tendency towards obsequiousness.
  77. 84. ASSERTIVE DESCRIPTION BODY LANGUAGE Sincere, Open, Honest, Respectful, Sympathetic, Firm but fair, Offering constructive Criticism, Good listener, Offering praise where due, Treating people as equals. Upright, Relaxed posture, Face-to-face eye contact, Calm and open gestures, Relaxed facial expression, Maintaining reasonable distance from subject (not too close for comfort), Resonant speech, Unambiguous hand signals.
  78. 85. MANIPULATIVE DESCRIPTION BODY LANGUAGE Patronizing, Exaggerate gestures (such as open Crafty, palms to indicate deliberate sincerity), Calculating, Overly laid back posture, Insincere, Patronizing touching, Two – faced, Exaggerated eye contact, A “user”, Sugary voice tone, Lacking trust, Patting Overly friendly, Making ends justify means, Contrived
  79. 86. TEN GESTURES THAT USUALLY FAIL <ul><li>Standing rigid with your arms at your sides </li></ul><ul><li>Clutching your chest with both arms </li></ul><ul><li>Gripping the podium or projector with white knuckles showing </li></ul><ul><li>Playing with hair, clothing or face </li></ul><ul><li>Clasping hands behind you </li></ul><ul><li>Mismatching gestures and words </li></ul><ul><li>Shrugging when making assertions </li></ul><ul><li>Shrugging immediately after the talk </li></ul><ul><li>Tugging at clothing </li></ul><ul><li>Moving extraneously in any way </li></ul>
  80. 87. SEVEN GESTURES THAT USUALLY WORK <ul><li>Resting arms comfortably </li></ul><ul><li>Opening arms and palms (if the words match) </li></ul><ul><li>Enumerating with the hand (don’t make this your only gesture and never do it more than once in a presentation) </li></ul><ul><li>Tenting the fingers </li></ul><ul><li>Sweeping arm from one side to the other to show movement or progress </li></ul><ul><li>Chopping from top to bottom side to side to match a parallel series </li></ul><ul><li>Avoiding extraneous movement </li></ul>
  81. 88. WEEK BODY LANGUAGE <ul><li>Looks nervous </li></ul><ul><li>Plays with pencil or notes </li></ul><ul><li>Reads or mumbles talk </li></ul><ul><li>Rustles transparencies </li></ul><ul><li>Whispers to someone nearby </li></ul><ul><li>Slouches with legs apart or scrunches body </li></ul><ul><li>Crosses legs and keeps one moving </li></ul><ul><li>Grips notes with both hands </li></ul><ul><li>Closes fists </li></ul><ul><li>Crosses arms tightly over chest </li></ul>
  82. 89. STRONG BODY LANGUAGE <ul><li>Sits straight , leaning slightly forward </li></ul><ul><li>Attends closely to the previous speakers </li></ul><ul><li>Takes notes (perhaps to refer to when her turn comes) </li></ul><ul><li>Places feet comfortably flat on the floor or crossed </li></ul><ul><li>Rests comfortably (if not taking notes) </li></ul><ul><li>Surveys audience to spot potential problems with line of sight or hearing </li></ul><ul><li>Looks relaxed </li></ul><ul><li>Smiles when appropriate </li></ul><ul><li>Seems to enjoy </li></ul>
  83. 90. SLOUCH, SHAMBLE, TRIP, LEAP, MARCH OR STRIDE It’s pathetic to see a terrified speaker shamble to the podium, shoulders stooped, feet dragging, eyes staring, hands clenched, looking as if she’d rather do anything else than give this talk. The walk to the podium is your gateway to success or failure.
  84. 91. NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION <ul><li>TOUCH: Often the swiftest and the obvious type of body language. Touch spells a more vivid and direct message than a dozen of words, but such a touch must come at the right moment and in the right context. Touch varies from culture to culture. </li></ul><ul><li>TYPES OF TOUCH : Compulsive- completely impervious to all messages. Assertive- Gentle, empathy. Passive- minimal. Aggressive- firm, jabbing, pointing without touching. </li></ul>
  85. 92. <ul><li>TWO BASIC GROUP OF BL POSTURES: </li></ul><ul><li>OPEN CLOSED: Accepting or rejecting messages. </li></ul><ul><li>FORWARD BACK : Actively or passively reactive to communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Posture group combine to create four basic modes. </li></ul><ul><li>Responsive mode: open/forward-actively accepting, time to close the sale/deal, ask for agreement, demand a concession. </li></ul><ul><li>Reflective mode: open/back- interested and receptive but not actively accepting. Time to present further facts and incentives, time to keep quiet and let him think. </li></ul><ul><li>Fugitive mode: closed/back- trying to escape physically or mentally into boredom, time to spark interest even if irrelevant. </li></ul>
  86. 93. <ul><li>Combative mode: closed / Forward - there is active resistance, try to soften, defuse anger, avoid contradictions, outright arguments. Steer towards reflective mode. </li></ul>
  87. 94. OPEN FORWARD CLOSED BACK RESPONSIVE REFLECTIVE COMBATIVE FUGITIVE 4 BASIC MODES
  88. 95. FOUR BASIC MODES OF BODY LANGUAGE IN BUISNESS RESPONSIVE REFELECTIVE FUGITIVE COMBATIVE Engaged Listening Bored Let me speak Leaning forward Head tilted Staring into space Finger tapping Open body Lots of eye contact Slumped posture Foot tapping Open arms Nodding Doodling Staring Open hands High blink rate Foot tapping
  89. 96. EAGER EVALUATING LET ME GO AGGRESSIVE Sprint position Sucks glasses/ pencil Feet towards door Leaning forward Open legs Strokes chin Looking around Finger pointing Feet under chair Looks up and right Buttoning jacket Fist clenched On toes Legs crossed in 4 position Leaning forward (Ankle on knee)
  90. 97. GRIPPING THE CHAIR ON YOUR MARK, GET SET…
  91. 98. READY TO AGREE ATTENTIVE REJECTION DEFIANT Closes papers (Standing) Arms behind on hips Smiling, moving back (Standing) Hands back Pen down Smile Arms folded Frown Hands flat on table Open Feet Legs crossed 11 position (Thigh on knee) Head down Frown
  92. 99. READY TO PROCEED READINESS TO END AN CONVERSATION – HANDS ON KNEES
  93. 100. THE INTIMIDATOR
  94. 101. <ul><li>DEFENSIVE </li></ul><ul><li>(Standing) Feet pointing in </li></ul><ul><li>Hands clenched </li></ul><ul><li>LYING </li></ul><ul><li>Touches face </li></ul><ul><li>Hands over mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Pulls ear </li></ul><ul><li>Eyes down </li></ul><ul><li>Glances at you </li></ul><ul><li>Shifts in seat </li></ul><ul><li>Looks down and to left </li></ul>
  95. 102. PARA LANGUAGE <ul><li>Para language or Para linguistics is another type of NVC involves the “how” of a speakers voice rather than the “what” of the words. In Para language we examine the sound of some ones speech- fast, slow, high, deep, smooth, disjointed loud ,forceful or such. e.g.: a vendor and a CEO- how will they talk. </li></ul><ul><li>We expect things from certain voice sounds. We infer about people’s backgrounds, appearances and personalities from their voices. Concentrate on both how the message is sent and the meaning of the words. e.g: I practice good business communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Paralanguage involves those hints and signals in a person’s voice that give us meaning. </li></ul>
  96. 103. <ul><li>What is said and the way it is said must be </li></ul><ul><li>consistent-tone and quality may change the </li></ul><ul><li>meaning of your message. </li></ul><ul><li>Paralanguage includes pauses and insertions, </li></ul><ul><li>such as “oh”, “uh”,you know”, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Listen for “mixed signals”-people saying one thing </li></ul><ul><li>and probably intending another.determine the intended meaning.Look for consistencies and inconsistencies. </li></ul>
  97. 104. TIME LANGAUGE <ul><li>Time language involves the meaning we give to time. </li></ul><ul><li>In order to give meaning to time, we must perceive it, filter it, symbolize about it- not always done with words. </li></ul><ul><li>Time-and-motion study,time management, and such techniques are part of today’s business heritage. </li></ul><ul><li>Culture teaches us the meaning of time. Different cultures will have different time orientations. Pension planning, insurance, meeting agendas and over time compensation are examples in North America. </li></ul><ul><li>Time is communicated subtly as well as explicitly. There appears to be a time language just as there is a body language and a space language. </li></ul>
  98. 105. <ul><li>NLP AND MIND’S EYE </li></ul><ul><li>Neurolinguistic Programming suggested that we think in terms of oursenses, i.e the information we draw from the world around us is </li></ul><ul><li>represented in our minds in the form of pictures,sounds, </li></ul><ul><li>feelings,smells, and tastes. </li></ul><ul><li>Visuals - thinking in pictures- 35% </li></ul><ul><li>“ I see what you mean”, “Can we get that in focus” </li></ul><ul><li>Auditory - thinking in sounds- 20% </li></ul><ul><li>“ I hear what you are saying”, “That sounds strange to me”. </li></ul><ul><li>Kinesthetic - thinking in feelings - 45% </li></ul><ul><li>“ It doesn’t feel right to me”, “ My gut reaction is to say No”, “I can’t </li></ul><ul><li>grasp that idea”. </li></ul><ul><li>Olfactory - thinking in terms of smell </li></ul><ul><li>Gustatory - thinking in terms of taste </li></ul>
  99. 106. <ul><li>Eyes are especially indicative of what we are thinking. </li></ul><ul><li>Eye movements convey different kinds of thought processes,thereby enhancing their interpersonal skills-thinking in visual images, thinking in sounds etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Research in NLP has shown that we condition ourselves to succeed or fail by our thought processes–self conditioning-confident words should be used with confident postures and gestures. </li></ul><ul><li>Stand upright,maintain an open stance,smile,walk with upright posture,keep head up. </li></ul><ul><li>Research shows the information relayed to a persons brain, 87% comes via the eyes, 9% via ears, 4% via other senses. </li></ul>
  100. 107. INTRODUCTION TO NEURO LINGUISTIC PROGRAMMING
  101. 108. CONTENTS <ul><li>INTRODUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>NEED </li></ul><ul><li>NLP IN ACTION </li></ul><ul><li>NLP PRESUPPOSITIONS </li></ul>
  102. 109. NLP (Neuro Linguistic Programming) <ul><li>It`s the study of Human Excellence. </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to be best more often </li></ul><ul><li>Powerful and Practical Approach to Personal change </li></ul><ul><li>New Technology of Achievement </li></ul>
  103. 110. NLP( Neuro means) <ul><li>Our Nervous System i.e. mental pathway to five senses; </li></ul><ul><li>See. </li></ul><ul><li>Hear. </li></ul><ul><li>Feel. </li></ul><ul><li>Taste. </li></ul><ul><li>Smell. </li></ul>
  104. 111. Linguistic <ul><li>Our ability to use it as language & specific words. </li></ul><ul><li>Silent Language of postures, gestures & Habit. </li></ul><ul><li>The Automata which is specific. </li></ul>
  105. 112. Programming. <ul><li>Computer Science Simulation. </li></ul><ul><li>Suggesting our Thought ,Feeling and Actions. </li></ul><ul><li>Up Grading our Mental Software. </li></ul><ul><li>Thought Process ,Mental Maps ,Intuition. </li></ul>
  106. 113. Need…… <ul><li>Creating Change – Making new possibilities of Thinking,Feeling & Acting for yourself. </li></ul><ul><li>Change / Pain-Pain-n-pleasure theory. </li></ul><ul><li>It happens in an Instant. </li></ul><ul><li>Pain is a sign “Its Time to Change”. </li></ul><ul><li>Pain is sign of usage of Poor Approach </li></ul>
  107. 114. Software for Brain: <ul><li>Brain being the Super Computer. </li></ul><ul><li>Thought and Action are Like Software. </li></ul><ul><li>Change be difficult is due to version conflict. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Human being are the only Supercomputer that can be produced or rather reproduced. </li></ul><ul><li>With Unskilled Labour,don`t come with instruction manuals. </li></ul>
  108. 115. NLP in Actions <ul><li>NLP allows you to have the kinds of Experience you want. </li></ul><ul><li>Put you in change of your own Motivation. </li></ul><ul><li>Help you create a compelling future and a personal pathways to it. </li></ul><ul><li>Clear up past negative experience that may have held you back. </li></ul>
  109. 116. The NLP Presuppositions : <ul><li>The map is not the territory. </li></ul><ul><li>Experience has a structure. </li></ul><ul><li>If one person can do something,anyone can learn to do it. </li></ul><ul><li>The mind and the body are the parts of the same system </li></ul><ul><li>You cannot NOT Communicate . </li></ul>
  110. 117. NLP Emergence and Scope <ul><li>Newly developed modeling skills by talented hypnotist R.Bandler & Dr, Erickson,populated by Anthony Robbins </li></ul><ul><li>Confirmed as a skill “Understanding & reproducing Human Excellence” </li></ul><ul><li>Psychology Today entitled as “People Who Read People ” </li></ul>

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