Fluorine
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Fluorine

Fluorine

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Fluorine Fluorine Document Transcript

  • Fluorine<br />Atomic Weight18.9984032Density1.696 g/l[note]Melting Point-219.6 °CBoiling Point-188.12 °C<br />Full technical data<br />Fluorine is a pale yellow gas that reacts violently with virtually everything, including glass. There's probably some in this fused quartz bulb (if it hasn't eaten its way out yet).<br />Teflon washers.<br />Source: eBay seller rubbermann7<br />Contributor: Theodore Gray<br />Acquired: 31 October, 2009<br />Text Updated: 31 October, 2009<br />Price: $23<br />Size: 0.5" <br />Purity: 76% <br />Teflon burette stopcock.<br />A Teflon stopcock from a burette. Look it up if neither of these words means anything to you.<br />Source: Theodore Gray<br />Contributor: Theodore Gray<br />Acquired: 2 April, 2009<br />Text Updated: 7 April, 2009<br />Price: Donated<br />Size: 2" <br />Purity: 76% <br />Gore-Tex suture.<br />This is lovely Gore-Tex (Teflon) surgical suture, with single-use needle attached. It came packaged very elaborately so you could pull it out and use it immediately without any danger of it tangling. <br />Source: eBay seller camsurg<br />Contributor: Theodore Gray<br />Acquired: 11 March, 2009<br />Text Updated: 17 March, 2009<br />Price: $30<br />Size: 1" <br />Purity: 76% <br /> <br />Zymafluor tablets.<br />These tablets contain sodium fluoride and are meant to be taken to prevent tooth decay by people whose water supply is not fluoridated.<br />Source: eBay seller thaipants<br />Contributor: Theodore Gray<br />Acquired: 11 March, 2009<br />Text Updated: 12 March, 2009<br />Price: $15<br />Size: 3" <br />Purity: <5% <br />Florical tablets.<br />These tablets contain sodium fluoride and are meant to be taken to prevent tooth decay by people whose water supply is not fluoridated.<br />Source: eBay seller alexpharm<br />Contributor: Theodore Gray<br />Acquired: 11 March, 2009<br />Text Updated: 12 March, 2009<br />Price: $12<br />Size: 3" <br />Purity: <5% <br />Fluoridated bottled water.<br />Some people buy non-fluoridated bottled water because they think the near universal fluoridation of municipal water supplies is a plot by the government. And indeed they are right, it may well be a plot by the government to, oh, I don't know, prevent tooth decay? <br />Other people, for example those whose drinking water comes from a private well and thus is not fluoridated, buy special bottled water like this so they or their children can enjoy the benefits of fluoridated water, which may or may not include mind control by the black helicopters.<br />Source: Walmart<br />Contributor: Theodore Gray<br />Acquired: 28 February, 2009<br />Text Updated: 1 March, 2009<br />Price: $3<br />Size: 10" <br />Purity: 0.0001% <br />Fluoride toothpaste.<br />The use of fluoride ions in toothpaste is nearly universal. This brand is not special in containing about 0.1% by weight of fluorine atoms (added in the form of sodium fluoride). Its main distinguishing feature is that it came in a more attractive box than most.<br />Source: Walmart<br />Contributor: Theodore Gray<br />Acquired: 8 February, 2009<br />Text Updated: 8 February, 2009<br />Price: $4<br />Size: 6" <br />Purity: 0.1% <br />HUGE cylinder of Teflon.<br />This is a marvelously huge cylinder of pure solid slick-as-ice Teflon. It's surprisingly heavy: Unlike most plastics, which are typically lighter than water, Teflon is more than twice the density of water. Teflon is very useful stuff because almost nothing sticks to it, and it's impervious to most chemicals. But for purposes of element collecting its main value is that it packs a remarkably high percentage of fluorine into a small space. By weight, Teflon (polytetrafluoroethylene) is nearly 76% fluorine (the remainder being carbon). There are two fluorine atoms for every carbon atom, and each fluorine atom weighs more than the carbon atom.<br />This 31-pound cylinder thus contains about 23.5 pounds of fluorine and only 7.5 pounds of carbon, which makes it by far the largest raw quantity of fluorine in my collection. Of course it's not pure fluorine, and the properties of Teflon in no way resemble the properties of fluorine gas, but still, it's a heck of a lot of the element.<br />Source: eBay seller rdr-electronics<br />Contributor: Theodore Gray<br />Acquired: 8 February, 2009<br />Text Updated: 10 February, 2009<br />Price: $100<br />Size: 12" <br />Purity: 76% <br />Gore-Tex filter.<br />The name Gore-Tex is best known for its use in clothing, but there are many technical and medical applications for this Teflon-based fabric as well. This rather large filter bag is one, though I have no idea what it is meant to filter.<br />(The purity figure refers to the percentage of fluorine in pure Teflon.)<br />Source: eBay seller fabriclauncher<br />Contributor: Theodore Gray<br />Acquired: 8 February, 2009<br />Text Updated: 8 February, 2009<br />Price: $7<br />Size: 48" <br />Purity: 76% <br />Gore-Tex fabric.<br />Gore-Tex is a brand name of an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene material. (The raw material is commonly known as Teflon, another brand name in principle, but one that has become essentially generic.) Gore-Text fabrics are used in clothes because it allows water vapor to pass through while blocking liquid water. Thus you can sweat though it in the rain without getting wet. Isn't modern technology wonderful? The white back side of this fabric is the Gore-Tex liner, the purple front is some other material.<br />(The purity figure refers to the percentage of fluorine in pure Teflon.)<br />Source: eBay seller fabriclauncher<br />Contributor: Theodore Gray<br />Acquired: 8 February, 2009<br />Text Updated: 8 February, 2009<br />Price: $7<br />Size: 8" <br />Purity: 76% <br />Teflon coated frying pan.<br />Teflon is a popular stick-resistant coating for pans, because it's resistant to heat and sticking. (The purity figure refers to the percentage of fluorine in pure Teflon.)<br />Source: Walmart<br />Contributor: Theodore Gray<br />Acquired: 8 February, 2009<br />Text Updated: 8 February, 2009<br />Price: $8<br />Size: 8" <br />Purity: 76% <br />Poster sample.<br />This is the same sample as the one from the RGB set above, as it appears in my Photographic Periodic Table Poster. <br />Source: Max Whitby of RGB<br />Contributor: Max Whitby of RGB<br />Acquired: 25 January, 2003<br />Text Updated: 4 May, 2007<br />Price: Donated<br />Size: 0.2" <br />Purity: <5% <br />Real visible fluorine.<br />I used to think that there was no known transparent container that could contain fluorine without getting eaten by it. Then I got this email:<br />Now, respectfully, I must take up a little bit of a qualm with your claim in fluorine...You mention that " There is no transparent container that will hold it." Granted that is true if you're talking a " forever" time scale, but I strongly believe on a " realistic" scale (a few decades) it can be done...albeit with some difficulty and great time placed into it. The way best to do it is first to get yourself a pure, single-crystal quartz tube...Now that means one with an extremely high amount of surface Si-O-Si bonds and VERY few Si-OH end caps. The best way to do this is to take the inside portion of the quartz tube and silylate it. Then anneal it at the highest possible temperature that your annealing oven can stand...This will drive off essentially All the Si-OH end caps. Because remember, the real killer in fluorine gas for Si-O's is not the fluorine, but the OH's and their ability to start a chain reaction with small amounts of HF in the fluorine gas. So, the first thing you need to do is get rid of the Si-OH's which that should take care of as best as possible. Now, being absolutely certain that your quartz tube is flamed and ultra-dry, there's another step...There was a fluorocarbon grease that DuPont made many years ago that was ultra-high-purity completely fluorinated, medium-high mol. Weight fluorocarbon grease (like a lower-molecular weight Teflon)...Take that stuff and literally melt it into the tube...It's clear and translucent and won't affect the optics after the next step...So then take a high temperature vacuum oven and turn the tube upside down and melt the grease back out...What this does is leave a very thin, essentially invisible layer of fluorocarbon grease layer on the inside of the tube. This layer acts as a secondary " buffer" layer to the quartz. So IF there are any Si-OH's left on your quartz, they are difficult to get at by the fluorine gas because the fluorine gas has a difficult time penetrating the grease...This step will add years to your fluorine gas display. Then the more difficult thing to do is to make sure the quartz tube has a high-purity Teflon screw-top stopper to it so that it can seal ultra-tightly. (again, pure fluorine gas without any water/HF in it may " trade" fluorine with Teflon, but you still have Teflon; same goes for the grease, the grease may " trade" fluorine as we've seen in some isotopic studies, but it remains a carbon-fluorine bond).<br />Then you should get a sacrificial vacuum line (kind of expensive, but it'll just be fogged up after you're done though it's best to throw it away because the integrity will be damaged) and run your fluorine gas THROUGH A LIQUID NITROGEN FILLED TRAP into your evacuated quartz tube. This is the most important AND DANGEROUS step. This step is the most important because ALLLLL commercial fluorine sources have either water or HF in them. The water and HF are what will start the " chain reaction" of eating away at things. And all it takes are a few atoms of these to get it started...But the N2(l) will definitely remove ALL of them...But the fluorine gas will still have a small amount of volatility to it so as to fill your quartz tube with approximately a quarter-atmosphere of pure F2. Now if you do anything with fluorine and leave ANY HF or H2O in it, fuggetaboutit...You'll get your stuff eaten away promptly. You won't get a full atmosphere of fluorine in your quartz sample tube like I said, but it will be enough to see under the right light and circumstances. And 50 years from now those one or two atoms of HF and H2O that are left in there will eventually have done enough damage to destroy your sample tube, but I don't plan on worrying about it 50 years from now.<br />Sorry if that bored you...But I do say it with utmost respect...I spent 10 years fiddling and trying to perfect the best way to get a fluorine sample, and that's the best way I could get it...So, methinks there are ways to store fluorine safely in a visible specimen tube; it just takes a great amount of patience, diligence, safety-thoughts and equipment.<br />I stand corrected! Not only that, he actually sent me one, it's beautiful, and just for good measure it's the 500th element sample added to my collection. He'll even make you one; if you're willing to pay the price, and based on the description above I'm sure you won't mind paying him the very reasonable couple of hundred dollars he asks. Click the Source link for more information and a link to his eBay auctions.<br />Source: Greg P<br />Contributor: Greg P<br />Acquired: 18 April, 2003<br />Text Updated: 20 November, 2008<br />Price: Donated<br />Size: 7" <br />Purity: >99% <br />Sample from the Everest Set.<br />Up until the early 1990's a company in Russia sold a periodic table collection with element samples. At some point their American distributor sold off the remaining stock to a man who is now selling them on eBay. The samples (except gases) weigh about 0.25 grams each, and the whole set comes in a very nice wooden box with a printed periodic table in the lid.<br />This sample is not marked as being a dummy (as the radioactive ones in the set are), but it obviously is. Elemental fluorine cannot be contained in ordinary glass: It eats the glass. Although it's possible to store fluorine in special containers (see the next sample) it's quite obvious that this is not such a container.<br />Source: Rob Accurso<br />Contributor: Rob Accurso<br />Acquired: 7 February, 2003<br />Text Updated: 20 November, 2008<br />Price: Donated<br />Size: 0.2" <br />Purity: 0% <br />Sample from the RGB Set.<br />The Red Green and Blue Company in England sell a very nice element collection in several versions. Max Whitby, the director of the company, very kindly donated a complete set to the periodic table table. <br />Almost all the samples in the set are very, very nice, but this one I have to tease a little bit. No doubt the glass ampule did at one time contain elemental fluorine: You can tell because it ate the glass on its way out. Glass will actually burn in a stream of pure fluorine (video coming soon). So there may be some silicon fluoride lining the inside of the glass, but there is virtually no chance that there is any element fluorine still inside.<br />The picture on the left was taken by me. Here is the company's version (there is some variation between sets, so the pictures sometimes show different variations of the samples):<br />Source: Max Whitby of RGB<br />Contributor: Max Whitby of RGB<br />Acquired: 25 January, 2003<br />Text Updated: 11 August, 2007<br />Price: Donated<br />Size: 0.2" <br />Purity: <5% <br />Freon-22.<br />Freon-22 is Chlorodifluoromethane, or CHClF2. Not quite as much fluorine as Teflon, but still quite a bit of it. This sample isn't exactly in the table, but it's over the table, in the air-conditioning system on the roof of our building.<br />Source: Ed Pegg Jr<br />Contributor: Ed Pegg Jr<br />Acquired: 11 September, 2002<br />Text Updated: 20 November, 2008<br />Price: $0<br />Size: 18" <br />Purity: 44% <br />Teflon thread seal tape.<br />When you screw together cast iron water or gas line pipe, you have to put thread seal compound or tape on the threads first, or else it will leak. The most popular choice is PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene, otherwise known as Teflon) tape, which is a soft, stretchable material that is very slippery and very resistant to chemical attack. This particular roll is pink, which is not characteristic of Teflon, it's a dye added to indicate that this is thicker-than-usual tape.<br />Amazingly, on a weight-for-weight basis this tape is over 75% fluorine (the other 25% is carbon). Since pure fluorine is violently, explosively dangerous and extremely difficult to store, this was my best fluorine sample for a long time (see below for some real elemental fluorine).<br />PTFE tape is also a curious demonstration of the power of convention. It always comes on a particular kind of plastic spool, with a particular kind of snap-on cover to keep it clean. Every brand, every manufacturer, every store you look in, it's always exactly the same type of container. It would be fascinating to know the story of how this came about, but at this point the convention is so strong that if any manufacturer tried to sell Teflon tape in a different package, they probably wouldn't sell more than a roll or two. Those would be returned as purchasing errors, because anyone who is looking for Teflon tape will be looking for a particular shape of package, and won't even see any that's the wrong shape.<br />Source: Hardware Store<br />Contributor: Theodore Gray<br />Acquired: 15 April, 2002<br />Text Updated: 20 November, 2008<br />Price: $2<br />Size: 2" <br />Purity: 75% <br />Mica sheet. <br />This is a sheet of mica, a papery thin mineral that was often used as an electrical insulator. The term mica refers to a range of specific minerals and I don't know which one this is exactly, so the composition is just a guess.<br />Source: Mark Peterson<br />Contributor: Mark Peterson<br />Acquired: 13 January, 2010<br />Text Updated: 13 January, 2010<br />Price: Donated<br />Size: 3" <br />Composition: (KLi2Al (Al, Si) 3O10 (F, OH) 2 <br />Kuliokite. <br />Kuliokite rich in lutetium, thulium, and holmium. <br />Source: Jensan Scientifics<br />Contributor: Theodore Gray<br />Acquired: 25 April, 2009<br />Text Updated: 27 April, 2009<br />Price: Anonymous<br />Size: 0.1" <br />Composition: (YLuTmHo) 4Al (SiO4)2(OH) 2F5 <br />Miserite. <br />Description from the source:<br />Miserite (K (Ca Ce)6 Si8 O22 (OH F)2 tric.), Kipawa Alcalyne Complex, Villedieu Tow., Quebec, Canada. Purple section crystals with granular red Eudyalite and beige Vlasovite. Rich in rare earth elements. 2x1,5x1,5 cm; 6 g.<br />Source: Simone Citon<br />Contributor: John Gray<br />Acquired: 11 March, 2009<br />Text Updated: 3 April, 2009<br />Price: Trade<br />Size: 0.75" <br />Composition: K (Ca, Ce) 6Si8O22 (OH, F) 2 <br />Halothane vaporizer. <br />Halothane is C2HBrClF3, basically a chlorofluorocarbon of the ozone-depleting variety. But surprisingly, it's also a very widely used surgical anesthetic. This vaporizer is used for administering the gas to patients and has controls for carefully adjusting the dose.<br />Source: eBay seller i_sell_tech<br />Contributor: Theodore Gray<br />Acquired: 28 February, 2009<br />Text Updated: 1 March, 2009<br />Price: $100<br />Size: 8" <br />Composition: C2HBrClF3 <br />Topaz. <br />Description from the source:<br />Topaz (Al2 Si O4 (F OH)2 orth.), Perfect, transparent crystals with a bit of matrix. 2, 6x2, 1x1, 5 cm; 10 g with box.<br />Source: Simone Citon<br />Contributor: John Gray<br />Acquired: 28 January, 2009<br />Text Updated: 29 January, 2009<br />Price: Trade<br />Size: 1" <br />Composition: Al2SiO4 (FOH) 2 <br />Fluorite. <br />Description from the source:<br />Fluorite (Ca F2 cub.), Musquiz, Mexico. Crystal cluster. 2, 2x2x0, 6 cm; 2 g.<br />Source: Simone Citon<br />Contributor: John Gray<br />Acquired: 28 January, 2009<br />Text Updated: 29 January, 2009<br />Price: Trade<br />Size: 1" <br />Composition: CaF2 <br />Lepidolite. <br />Description from the source:<br />Lepidolite (K (Li Al) 3 (Si Al) 4 O10 (F OH) 2 mon.), Aracuai`, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Little crystals on clear Quartz. 1, 2x0, 8x0, 8 cm: 1 g.<br />Source: Simone Citon<br />Contributor: John Gray<br />Acquired: 10 January, 2009<br />Text Updated: 10 January, 2009<br />Price: Trade<br />Size: 0.5" <br />Composition: K (Li, Al) 3(Si, Al) 4O10 (F, OH) 2 <br />Apatite from Jensan Set.<br />This sample represents terbium in the " The Grand Tour of the Periodic Table" mineral collection from Jensan Scientifics. Visit my page about element collecting for a general description, or see photographs of all the samples from the set in a periodic table layout or with bigger pictures in numerical order. <br />Source: Jensan Scientifics<br />Contributor: Theodore Gray<br />Acquired: 10 January, 2009<br />Text Updated: 10 January, 2009<br />Price: Anonymous<br />Size: 0.6" <br />Composition: Tb.Ca5 (PO4)3F <br />Lepidolite. <br />Description from the source:<br />Lepidolite (K (Li Al) 3 (Si Al) 4 O10 (F OH)2 mon.), Varutra" sk, Skellefteao, Va" sterbotten, Sweden. Laminar deep purple crystals on matrix. 5x3, 5x3 cm; 45 g.<br />Source: Simone Citon<br />Contributor: John Gray<br />Acquired: 19 November, 2008<br />Text Updated: 20 November, 2008<br />Price: Trade<br />Size: 2" <br />Composition: K (LiAl) 3(SiAl) 4O10 (FOH) 2 <br />Fluorite 2. <br />Description from the source:<br />Fluorite (Ca F2 cub.), Musquiz, Mexico. Cubic intergrouwn crysta. 3, 5x2, 5x2, 5 cm; 30 g.<br />This is actually the same crystal as is listed right next to it, only the lighting is different.<br />Source: Simone Citon<br />Contributor: John Gray<br />Acquired: 19 November, 2008<br />Text Updated: 20 November, 2008<br />Price: Trade<br />Size: 1.4" <br />Composition: CaF2 <br />Fluorite. <br />Description from the source:<br />Fluorite (Ca F2 cub.), Musquiz, Mexico. Cubic intergrouwn crysta. 3, 5x2, 5x2, 5 cm; 30 g.<br />Source: Simone Citon<br />Contributor: John Gray<br />Acquired: 19 November, 2008<br />Text Updated: 20 November, 2008<br />Price: Trade<br />Size: 1.4" <br />Composition: CaF2 <br />Photo Card Deck of the Elements.<br />In late 2006 I published a photo periodic table and it's been selling well enough to encourage me to make new products. This one is a particularly neat one: A complete card deck of the elements with one big five-inch (12.7cm) square card for every element. If you like this site and all the pictures on it, you'll love this card deck. And of course if you're wondering what pays for all the pictures and the internet bandwidth to let you look at them, the answer is people buying my posters and cards decks. Hint hint.<br />Source: Theodore Gray<br />Contributor: Theodore Gray<br />Acquired: 19 November, 2008<br />Text Updated: 21 November, 2008<br />Price: $35<br />Size: 5" <br />Composition: HHeLiBeBCNOFNeNaMg AlSiPSClArKCaScTiVCrMn FeCoNiCuZnGaGeAsSeBrKr RbSrYZrNbMoTcRuRhPdAg CdInSnSbTeIXeCsBaLaCePr NdPmSmEuGdTbDyHoErTm YbLuHfTaWReOsIrPtAuHgTl PbBiPoAtRnFrRaAcThPaUNp PuAmCmBkCfEsFmMdNoLrRf DbSgBhHsMtDsRgUubUutUuq UupUuhUusUuo <br />Bastnasite from Jensan Set.<br />This sample represents lanthanum in the " The Grand Tour of the Periodic Table" mineral collection from Jensan Scientifics. Visit my page about element collecting for a general description, or see photographs of all the samples from the set in a periodic table layout or with bigger pictures in numerical order. <br />Source: Jensan Scientifics<br />Contributor: Theodore Gray<br />Acquired: 19 November, 2008<br />Text Updated: 19 November, 2008<br />Price: Anonymous<br />Size: 1" <br />Composition: (La,Ce)[F,CO3] <br />Pyrochlore from Jensan Set.<br />This sample represents niobium in the " The Grand Tour of the Periodic Table" mineral collection from Jensan Scientifics. Visit my page about element collecting for a general description, or see photographs of all the samples from the set in a periodic table layout or with bigger pictures in numerical order. <br />Source: Jensan Scientifics<br />Contributor: Theodore Gray<br />Acquired: 30 October, 2008<br />Text Updated: 31 October, 2008<br />Price: Anonymous<br />Size: 1" <br />Composition: (Ca,Na)2Nb2O6(OH,F) <br />Sulphohalite. <br />Description from the source:<br />Sulphohalite (Na6 (SO4)2 F Cl cub.), Searles Lake, California, USA. Perfect octahedral crystal, much better than the photo, rare. 2x1, 8x1, 5 cm; 12 g with box.<br />Source: Simone Citon<br />Contributor: John Gray<br />Acquired: 26 October, 2008<br />Text Updated: 26 October, 2008<br />Price: Trade<br />Size: 0.75" <br />Composition: Na6 (SO4)2FCl <br />Apatite. <br />Description from the source:<br />Apatite (Ca5 (PO4)3 F hex.), Otter Lake, Quebec, Canada. Isolated well formed crystal with high lustre. 4, 5x2, 5x1, 5 cm; 35 g.<br />Source: Simone Citon<br />Contributor: John Gray<br />Acquired: 30 September, 2008<br />Text Updated: 1 October, 2008<br />Price: Trade<br />Size: 1.75" <br />Composition: Ca5 (PO4)3F <br />Wavellite. <br />Description from the source:<br />Wavellite (Al3 (PO4)2 (OH, F) 3x5H2O orth.), Maulding, Montgomery, Arkansas, USA. Nice spherical crystal clusters on matrix with green color, better than the photo. 7, 2x4x3, 5 cm; 63 g.<br />Source: Simone Citon<br />Contributor: John Gray<br />Acquired: 30 September, 2008<br />Text Updated: 1 October, 2008<br />Price: Trade<br />Size: 2.8" <br />Composition: Al3 (PO4)2(OH, F) 3.5H2O <br />Cerite. <br />Description from the source:<br />Cerite ( (Ce Ca)10 (Si O4)6 (OH F)5 trig.), Mine of Bastnaes near Riddarhytta, Westmanland, Sweden. Pinkish masses on matrix. Rare. 2x1,7x0,8 cm; 8 g with box.<br />Source: Simone Citon<br />Contributor: John Gray<br />Acquired: 30 September, 2008<br />Text Updated: 1 October, 2008<br />Price: Trade<br />Size: 0.75" <br />Composition: (CeCa) 10(SiO4)6(OH.F)5 <br />Wavellite. <br />Description from the source:<br />Wavellite (Al3 (PO4)2 (OH,F)3x5H2O orth.), Tom's Quarry, Kapunda, South Australia, Australia. Radiating colorless crystals on limonitic matrix, from a rich in phosphates locality. 1,9x1x0,8 cm; 3 g.<br />Source: Simone Citon<br />Contributor: John Gray<br />Acquired: 30 September, 2008<br />Text Updated: 1 October, 2008<br />Price: Trade<br />Size: 0.75" <br />Composition: Al3 (PO4)2(OH, F) 3.5H2O <br />Fluellite.<br />Description from the source:<br />Fluellite (Al2 (PO4) F2 (OH).7H2O orth.), Tom's Quarry, Kapunda, South Australia, Australia. Rare crystals on the phosphatic matrix. 3x2, 7x2 cm; 15 g.<br />Source: Simone Citon<br />Contributor: John Gray<br />Acquired: 26 September, 2008<br />Text Updated: 28 September, 2008<br />Price: Trade<br />Size: 1.2" <br />Composition: Al2 (PO4) F2 (OH).7H2O <br />RbMnF3 crystal. <br />I don't even know what you'd call this other than by its chemical name: It's a pretty pinkish little bar of what is probably a single crystal, crudely cut and roughly surfaced, but not polished to any significant degree. It came from a batch of old samples and research materials being discarded by Ethan's university. The fact that it's translucent and colored makes me think it might be intended as some kind of laser material, whether it worked or not I have no idea. The fact that they threw it away may or may not indicate something about its usefulness.<br />Source: Ethan Currens<br />Contributor: Ethan Currens<br />Acquired: 16 March, 2007<br />Text Updated: 14 October, 2008<br />Price: Donated<br />Size: 1" <br />Composition: RbMnF3 <br />Vicanite.<br />This small mineral is from the Vica Complex, Tre Croci, Italy, says the label. I bought it for its thorium content.<br />Source: eBay seller ley646<br />Contributor: Theodore Gray<br />Acquired: 20 September, 2005<br />Price: $15.50<br />Size: 0.5" <br />Composition: (Ca, Ce, La, Th) 15As (AsNa) FeSi6B4O40F7 <br />Fluorite. <br />This crystal is one I bought years ago but only recently found in a box. It's probably from southern Illinois but I don't really know, having long ago lost the tags.<br />Source: Theodore Gray<br />Contributor: Theodore Gray<br />Acquired: 15 January, 2005<br />Price: Unknown<br />Size: 5" <br />Composition: CaF2 <br />Fluorite. <br />This crystal is one I bought years ago but only recently found in a box. It's probably from southern Illinois but I don't really know, having long ago lost the tags.<br />Source: Theodore Gray<br />Contributor: Theodore Gray<br />Acquired: 15 January, 2005<br />Price: Unknown<br />Size: 6" <br />Composition: CaF2 <br />Medium fluorite. (External Sample)<br />This is a medium-sized chunky fluorite crystal from the (now closed) mines in Southern Illinois. <br />Location: John Gray's Collection<br />Photographed: 9 December, 2004<br />Size: 5" <br />Composition: CaF2 <br />Large fluorite. (External Sample)<br />This is a large chunky fluorite crystal from the (now closed) mines in Southern Illinois. <br />Location: John Gray's Collection<br />Photographed: 7 December, 2004<br />Size: 8" <br />Composition: CaF2 <br />Very large fluorite. (External Sample)<br />This is a huge, flat slab of fluorite crystals from the (now closed) mines in Southern Illinois. It is illuminated from the opposite side to show the translucence of the crystals.<br />Location: John Gray's Collection<br />Photographed: 3 December, 2004<br />Size: 24" <br />Composition: CaF2 <br />Fluorite Crystals. <br />The tag that came with sample reads as follows:<br />Fluorite Crystals, Kendall Mtn. near Silverton, San Juan County, Colorado.<br />This specimen was found in the steep section of tailings of an abandoned mine. These crystals fluoresce a nice vibrant powder blue or purplish blue in ultra-violet light.<br />I traded this sample for a few of my strange copper nodules.<br />Source: Calvin Webb<br />Contributor: Calvin Webb<br />Acquired: 1 September, 2003<br />Price: Donated<br />Size: 1" <br />Composition: CaF2 <br />Banded Fluorite. <br />The tag that came with sample reads as follows:<br />Banded Fluorite, Sierra County, New Mexico<br />This specimen was found in the steep section of tailings of an abandoned mine. Also included with some specimens are quartz, barite, granite and/or jasper. It fluoresces a nice vibrant purplish blue in both short & long wave ultra-violet light.<br />I traded this sample for a few of my strange copper nodules.<br />Source: Calvin Webb<br />Contributor: Calvin Webb<br />Acquired: 1 September, 2003<br />Price: Donated<br />Size: 1" <br />Composition: CaF2 <br />Fluorite from Jensan Set. <br />This sample represents fluorine in the " The Grand Tour of the Periodic Table" mineral collection from Jensan Scientifics. Visit my page about element collecting for a general description, or see photographs of all the samples from the set in a periodic table layout or with bigger pictures in numerical order. <br />Source: Jensan Scientifics<br />Contributor: Jensan Scientifics<br />Acquired: 17 March, 2003<br />Price: Donated<br />Size: 1" <br />Composition: CaF2 <br />Apophyllite from Jensan Set.<br />This sample represents oxygen in the " The Grand Tour of the Periodic Table" mineral collection from Jensan Scientifics. Visit my page about element collecting for a general description, or see photographs of all the samples from the set in a periodic table layout or with bigger pictures in numerical order. <br />Source: Jensan Scientifics<br />Contributor: Jensan Scientifics<br />Acquired: 17 March, 2003<br />Price: Donated<br />Size: 1" <br />Composition: KCa4Si8O20 (F, OH).8H2O + KCa4Si8O20 (OH, F).8H2O <br />Lepidolite from Jensan Set. <br />This sample represents lithium in the " The Grand Tour of the Periodic Table" mineral collection from Jensan Scientifics. Visit my page about element collecting for a general description, or see photographs of all the samples from the set in a periodic table layout or with bigger pictures in numerical order. <br />Source: Jensan Scientifics<br />Contributor: Jensan Scientifics<br />Acquired: 17 March, 2003<br />Price: Donated<br />Size: 1" <br />Composition: K (Li, Al) 3(Si, Al) 4O10 (F, OH) 2<br />