Ethics In Business Intelligence A Practical Treatment


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Ethics In Business Intelligence A Practical Treatment

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Ethics In Business Intelligence A Practical Treatment

  1. 1. Ethics of Business Intelligence: A Practical Treatment Biography • Richard Hackathorn Bolder Technology, Inc. Ethics in Business Intelligence: • A Practical Treatment President and founder with thirty years of IT experience. Regular columnist for DM Review. Conducted seminars in eighteen countries. Author of three books: Web Farming for the Data Warehouse, Using the Data Warehouse, Dr. Richard Hackathorn Enterprise Database Connectivity. Professor at the Wharton School, Univ. of Pennsylvania, and at the Univ. of Bolder Technology, Inc. Colorado. BS from Caltech; MS and Ph.D. from Univ. of California, Irvine. • Contact: • Resource Site: TDWI Night School August 2003 © 2003 Bolder Technology, Inc. Slide 2 Abstract Situation #1 • • Ethics in Business Intelligence and Data Warehousing?! Todd is a business analyst for a large Now that's a touchy subject in today's nervous world! bank. At a training class for using your However, every professional engaged in BI today should new query tool with their customer have an understanding of key ethical issues and skills to deal with ethical situations. This is one area where a little database, he was fascinated by the power preparation is invaluable before a situation spins out of of the tool. Seeking the perfect mate, he control. retrieve the names of females between • This presentation will cover: 21-25 within his apartment complex. Definition and basis of ethical situations Ethics in other professional associations The hot ethical issues in BI • Was Todd behaving ethically? Skills for dealing with ethical situations • Suggested next steps for your company As Todd’s manager, what would you do? Resources on ethics © 2003 Bolder Technology, Inc. Slide 3 © 2003 Bolder Technology, Inc. Slide 4 Situation #2 Objectives • Susan manages the data warehouse at a • Focus is on ‘Practical’ Ethics large credit union. She purchases a data …on specific issues impacting your company feed for electronic credit reports on …involving IT and especially BI/DW persons applying for loans. These It’s not about academic or general business ethics reports have proven to be inaccurate in many cases. However, data services • Awareness & sensitivity to issues with higher accuracy are expensive. • Understanding the factors & variables Susan decided against the better data to • Skills for dealing with ethical situations reduce her department’s expenses. • For people involved with.. • Management from the business perspective Was Susan behaving ethically? Technical from the technology perspective • As Susan’s manager, what would you do? © 2003 Bolder Technology, Inc. Slide 5 © 2003 Bolder Technology, Inc. Slide 6 Page 1
  2. 2. Ethics of Business Intelligence: A Practical Treatment Ethics is a Touchy Subject! World is Changing Rapidly • • Most want to avoid the subject A lot of ‘can not’ things are ‘can’ things Stirs up controversy; causes ill will among many We are able to do more with new technology • …and it is constantly changing Confusing, complex, and inconclusive • More polarization between… Resulting in intellectual paralysis Uncertain as to where it will lead - scary! The company and the customer • The company and competitors Myth: Dealing with ethics is always painful …and so on… Surfacing the issues will be expensive & messy • • Enron-era of corporate integrity May become a ‘preachy’ experience Anxiety of being ‘squeaky clean’ Derailed by people on a mission/cause/crusade • • General ‘trust-level’ eroding What benefit is there for our business? Prove it, and show me Is it part of normal professional conduct? One can think of several Dilbert cartoons here! © 2003 Bolder Technology, Inc. Slide 7 © 2003 Bolder Technology, Inc. Slide 8 What is Ethics? Basis of Ethical Judgments • • Definition Religious convictions (I believe…) • Golden rule (Do unto others as you…) Being honest and open • Common sense (logic & reasoning) • Societal good (better for the majority) • • Materialistic goals (impact bottom-line) Comes from the root ‘ethos’ • Popular opinion (everyone is doing it) Distinguishing character or guiding briefs • What is considered acceptable within society? Ignorance, indifference & apathy • Good versus Bad ----- • Moral duty or obligation to society • Internal versus external reasons Tension between the individual and society • Consistency and precedence • ‘Can’ versus ‘Should’ © 2003 Bolder Technology, Inc. Slide 9 © 2003 Bolder Technology, Inc. Slide 10 Myth: If Legal, Then Ethical Every Ethical Judgment Can Be… • Legalist - “We are allowed to do… 1. Ethical - “Yes, we should do this” 2. Unethical - “No, we should not do this” Ethical Unethical 3. Amoral - “It does not matter whether… A C Just an engineering design decision Legal ----- D B Illegal • Ask whether… • Does it have an impact on other persons? …and then what is legal? Will other persons be affected by your action? Criminal statures • If ‘yes’, then #3 can not be an answer Federal and state regulations Commonly accepted professional practices Variations among countries and regions © 2003 Bolder Technology, Inc. Slide 11 © 2003 Bolder Technology, Inc. Slide 12 Page 2
  3. 3. Ethics of Business Intelligence: A Practical Treatment Should IT Professionals Be Involved? Professional Code of Ethics • • Myth: Policy is set by management, and Every established professional objectives are set by line-of-business association struggles with ethics IT just carries out the policies and objectives • BI designs star schemas and creates analytics ACM - Assoc of Computing Machinery Therefore, we have no ethical issues! Right? • DPMA - Data Processing Mgt Assoc • However, we understand the technology! • DAMA - Data Mgt Assoc Intl People on the cutting edge of technology have • AIIP - Assoc of Independent Info Prof the best view of what is possible • IEEE - Inst of Electrical & Electronics Eng • …with ever expanding capabilities • ASIST - American Soc for Info Sci & Tech Involved with outward-facing information delivery • Partner with business people on ethical issues SCIP - Society for Competitive Info Prof … and many more… © 2003 Bolder Technology, Inc. Slide 13 © 2003 Bolder Technology, Inc. Slide 14 ACM Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct SCIP Code of Ethics • • General Moral Imperatives To continually strive to increase the recognition and respect of the profession Contribute to society and human well-being • To comply with all applicable laws, domestic and Avoid harm to others international Be honest and trustworthy • To accurately disclose all relevant information, including Be fair and take action not to discriminate one's identity and organization, prior to all interviews • To fully respect all requests for confidentiality of Honor property rights incl. copyrights and patent information Give proper credit for intellectual property • To avoid conflicts of interest in fulfilling one's duties. Respect the privacy of others • To provide honest and realistic recommendations and Honor confidentiality conclusions in the execution of one's duties • • Other sections are: To promote this code of ethics within one's company, with third-party contractors and within the entire profession More Specific Professional Responsibilities • To faithfully adhere to and abide by one's company Organizational Leadership Imperatives policies, objectives, and guidelines Compliance with the Code © 2003 Bolder Technology, Inc. Slide 15 © 2003 Bolder Technology, Inc. Slide 16 Key Ethical Issues in IT - PAPA Privacy • CRM: making life better for customers • Privacy Less privacy means better service For example, my experience with • Accuracy • Scott McNealy of Sun remarked in 1999: “You have zero privacy anyway; get over it!” • Property ID Cards: “Audit trails deter lots of criminal activity” • • Accessibility Naked in Cyberspace (by Carole Lane) Right to know versus right to privacy • Personal Identifiable Data (PID) Not as obvious as you would expect Date-of-birth + zip-code = YOU Ref: Richard Mason, Four Ethical Issues of the Information Age, Management Information Systems Quarterly, Volume 10, Number 1, March, 1986 © 2003 Bolder Technology, Inc. Slide 17 © 2003 Bolder Technology, Inc. Slide 18 Page 3
  4. 4. Ethics of Business Intelligence: A Practical Treatment Privacy (continued) Accuracy • • Elements of a Privacy Policy Accuracy is costly Notice about how the data is used Adequate accuracy is a decision! • Choice to opt-in and to opt-out Who is responsible for… Security to protect from unauthorized use Accuracy of data Access to one’s data to review & correct Integration of data fragmentation Enforcement of these policies Reliability of the analytics Integrity of the systems • • Security: the flip side of privacy And, who will be held accountable? Inadequate security may imply negligence Legal liability versus ethical liability Adequate security is a moving target © 2003 Bolder Technology, Inc. Slide 19 © 2003 Bolder Technology, Inc. Slide 20 Property Accessibility • • Information as property The Digital Divide Whose data is it anyway? Information is power Ownership and rights Those who control access have power • Who Owns Information? (by Anne Branscomb) Citizens in an Information Society Name & address, phone, medical Skills to understand and manage information history, image, email, govt data… Tools to enable this understanding Access to the information itself • • Intellectual property BI Haves and Have-Nots Trademarks, copyright, patents… Among units within the enterprise Among business partners With your competitors With your customers © 2003 Bolder Technology, Inc. Slide 21 © 2003 Bolder Technology, Inc. Slide 22 Hot Ethical Issues in BI/DW Practical Steps with Ethical Issues • 1. Awareness/Recognition Identity Thief BIG concern among middle class & elderly • Make the issue ‘official’. Give it a name… • Financial Accountability • Define clearly the boundaries and objectives • Homeland Security 2. Research/Understanding Total Information Awareness initiative • • Gather the facts; identify the variables HIPAA for the Healthcare Industry • • Ignorance is not an excuse! US Patriot Act of October 2001 3. Judgment/Decision Reporting detailed financial activities & relations Required to analyze ‘normal’ from ‘suspicious’ • Decide what is and is not ethical for company • CAPPS II (Computer-Assisted Passenger Prescreening System) 4. Resolution (of an incident) Rating each person’s risk potential • Finding the proper balance; learning from it © 2003 Bolder Technology, Inc. Slide 23 © 2003 Bolder Technology, Inc. Slide 24 Page 4
  5. 5. Ethics of Business Intelligence: A Practical Treatment Some Suggestions Some More Suggestions • Preparation is the key! • Stay focused • Be open and honest about the issues Only deal with issues that relate to the company Avoiding issues always magnifies the problem Do not attempt to solve the greater issues • Make ethical discussions acceptable If individuals must pursue the greater issues, Within your group and throughout your company they should do that on their personal time • No correct answers or right opinions Seek qualified legal advice It is ‘good business’ to do so This may be difficult and expensive • Make these discussions ‘professional’ Do not expect a YES-NO answer Provide guidelines for ethical discussions Do not let it dominate the ethical discussion • Purpose is to better the company Plan for an effective corporate initiative Avoid the personal crusades (not on company time) But avoid the Dilbert syndrome… Surface the basis for the should’s © 2003 Bolder Technology, Inc. Slide 25 © 2003 Bolder Technology, Inc. Slide 26 Resources for IT Ethics Toward a Regular TDWI Course • • Check out… In a half-day course, we would… Listing of Code of Ethics by professional assoc. Focus more on BI/DW issues within corporate IT Pointers to literature Expand the PAPA material Links to non-profit ethics groups • More balance with non-privacy issues Links for specific issues Expand the Hot BI Ethical Issues section Incorporate current events (e.g., CW headlines) • • In a full-day course, we would do the above, plus… Submit your ethical dilemmas Incorporate lots of mini-cases Help to focus and evolve this material Plan/discuss corporate initiatives To… • We would conduct a half-day course for several Describe anonymously in a short paragraph times, reevaluate, and maybe expand to full-day © 2003 Bolder Technology, Inc. Slide 27 © 2003 Bolder Technology, Inc. Slide 28 Feedback, please! • Are we on the right track? • Is this material useful to you? Be honest! • Should this subject be a regular course? Length, topics, methods, etc.? • Do you have ethical dilemmas to share? © 2003 Bolder Technology, Inc. Slide 29 Page 5