Design for Sustainability




                            Dr. A. H. Segars, RBC Centura Distinguished Professor
          ...
Sustainable Enterprise and Design
                     Strategy                          Leadership


                    ...
Four Key Aspects of Sustainable Design




                              Methods and Tools

           Design Processes


...
The Designer and the Sphere of Influence


                                         Point of
 Distribution                ...
Approaches to Lessening Environmental Impact

• Design for Recycling



• Increase Energy Efficiency



• Extend Product L...
Design for Recycling
•Specify High-Recycled Content
•Make Products Easy to Disassemble & Recycle


Mirra Work Chair from H...
Design for Energy Efficiency
•New Technology
•Supplemental Power Sources


Whirlpool Duet Front-Loading Washer -
No agitat...
Design to Reduce Toxicity
• Reduce Chemical Waste over PLC
• Avoid Substances with Bad Properties

Phillips Alto Fluoresce...
Design Durability and Multiple Use
• Design Products that can be Converted
• Design for Durability and Repair

           ...
Design For Service
• Product as a Service
• Digital Service for Product
                                 Grameen Phone - S...
Ideas, Design and Invention:
The Wright Brothers




                               Dr. Albert H. Segars, RBC Centura Dist...
Innovation in Action:
 Comparing Innovation Processes of the Wrights and Langley*
 Wright Brothers                        ...
Comparing Innovation Processes of the Wrights and Langley



                                     The Wright Brothers
    ...
Keystones of Design
Beware of “Conventional Wisdom”….some of the best
designs defy prevailing logic.

Observe the way thin...
Eco-Efficiency: BASF




                       Dr. Albert H. Segars, RBC Centura Distinguished Professor
                ...
Developing the Ecological Fingerprint


Central Questions of the Analysis:
• How much of our product does the customer nee...
Weighting of Criteria
Values are weighted by relevance factors. These state how strongly individual
criteria flow into ove...
Scenario Analysis: The Second Step of Eco Analysis



              Environmental Impact (Normalized)

                   ...
Eco Analysis: Dyeing Denim for Blue Jeans (BASF)



                                              Define
Demand Specific  ...
Eco Analysis: Dyeing Denim for Blue Jeans (BASF)
                    Energy Consumption
                           1.0



...
Scenario Analysis: BASF

             Environmental Impact (Normalized)
                                                  ...
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Design For Sustainability

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Design For Sustainability

  1. 1. Design for Sustainability Dr. A. H. Segars, RBC Centura Distinguished Professor The Kenan-Flagler Business School Kenan-Flagler The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill al.segars@unc.edu
  2. 2. Sustainable Enterprise and Design Strategy Leadership Eco Efficiency & Sustainable Design Social Financial Environmental Technology Innovation Eco Efficiency: The reconciliation of financial and environmental impacts in corporate decision making regarding products, services, and business operations.
  3. 3. Four Key Aspects of Sustainable Design Methods and Tools Design Processes Philosophy & Knowledge Decision making Management
  4. 4. The Designer and the Sphere of Influence Point of Distribution Purchase Production Use Acquisition of Product Disposal Raw Material Concept
  5. 5. Approaches to Lessening Environmental Impact • Design for Recycling • Increase Energy Efficiency • Extend Product Life • Reduce Toxins • Offer Innovative Service
  6. 6. Design for Recycling •Specify High-Recycled Content •Make Products Easy to Disassemble & Recycle Mirra Work Chair from Herman Miller. 42% recycled aluminum and steel, minimum number of parts, 96% recylcable by weight. Dawn - An environmentally conscious lamp made from recycled miniblinds. The idea came from thinking about discarded miniblinds and if reincarnated, what their next life would resemble. In their first life they were used to block out natural light and could expand and collapse. Here, in their new life, they selectively block out and let in artificial light.
  7. 7. Design for Energy Efficiency •New Technology •Supplemental Power Sources Whirlpool Duet Front-Loading Washer - No agitator for more capacity, saves 68% more water and 67% energy. Saves up to $150 in utility bills per year. Toyota Prius - instrument panel provides driver with constant feedback on amount and type of energy use.
  8. 8. Design to Reduce Toxicity • Reduce Chemical Waste over PLC • Avoid Substances with Bad Properties Phillips Alto Fluorescent Lamps - Low mercury content, lead-free solder, passes EPA TCLP test, relieves customers of disposing of hazardous waste. Climatex - Uses 16 chemicals screened for environmental and health impacts, water released from factory is cleaner than water coming in, developed a market among high-end furniture manufactures.
  9. 9. Design Durability and Multiple Use • Design Products that can be Converted • Design for Durability and Repair Zippo Lighter - Life span of 40 years, durable, refillable, serviceable, smaller footprint over disposable lighters and matches.. Entrophy Carpets from Interface - Design imitates nature, recycle on tiles that get worn, carpet reentry program. Timeless Timber - Reclaim logs from the Great Lakes and create fine furniture, flooring and woodcrafts from the “mined” timber. During the 1800’s when most of the old growth timber was ripped from the North Woods, a lot of the timber was lost overboard, or sank in the many wrecks that occurred on the notoriously rough waters of Gitchi Gummi.
  10. 10. Design For Service • Product as a Service • Digital Service for Product Grameen Phone - Selling phones to poor women and encouraging them to sell airtime to farmers, fishermen and other members of the rural poor. Digital Music and Photos - Reduction of CDs and environmentally harmful chemicals and processes. Aravind Eye Care - Aravind's innovative eye care delivery system is recognized as a model for developing countries. All patients are accorded the same care and high quality service, regardless of their economic status. As a result of a unique fee system and effective management, Aravind is able to provide free eye care to two-thirds of its patients from the revenue generated from the other third of its paying patients.
  11. 11. Ideas, Design and Invention: The Wright Brothers Dr. Albert H. Segars, RBC Centura Distinguished Professor The Kenan-Flagler Business School Kenan-Flagler The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill al.segars@unc.edu al.segars@unc.
  12. 12. Innovation in Action: Comparing Innovation Processes of the Wrights and Langley* Wright Brothers Langley Bicycle Makers Renowned Scientist Government ($70,000) Funding: Funding: Personal ($2,000) Focused on Flyer Full-Time Time Management: Worked on Flyer in Spare Time The problem of flight is one of The Problem of flight is one of Problem Definition: achieving significant lift. properly controlling the aircraft. Bureaucratic: Innovation Process: Scientific: • Prove our theory of flight. • Research how things fly. • Experiment with Scale Models • Test Theories (Wind tunnels, gliders) • Top Down, Commander in charge, hands off. • Informal network of knowledge, shared data. • Stifle creativity of subordinates. • Simplicity of design. Control. • Complexity of Design. • Develop test pilot skills. • Limited network of knowledge. Unshared data. • Develop propulsion systems. *Segars, A.H., Innovation and Invention: Lessons From the Wright Brothers, 2004, UNC Chapel Hill Working Paper Series.
  13. 13. Comparing Innovation Processes of the Wrights and Langley The Wright Brothers Heavier than Air Flight….. Flight… Langley An unceremonious plunge into the Potomac….. Potomac… ….our efforts were undermined by inadequate federal funding (Dr. S. Langley)
  14. 14. Keystones of Design Beware of “Conventional Wisdom”….some of the best designs defy prevailing logic. Observe the way things work….experience is worth a million data points. Design for Simplicity….drive out complexity!! Draw from Nature (Biomimicry)….some of the best designs are all around us, in nature. Search for Design Analogies….chances are it has been designed before! Enlightened Trial and Error….succeeds over the plan of the lone genius. Be systematic….good design is a structured process. Be open….some of the best designs are accidents and are not in the form we first intended.
  15. 15. Eco-Efficiency: BASF Dr. Albert H. Segars, RBC Centura Distinguished Professor The Kenan-Flagler Business School Kenan-Flagler The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill al.segars@unc.edu
  16. 16. Developing the Ecological Fingerprint Central Questions of the Analysis: • How much of our product does the customer need as input into the production of their product? • How much energy is required for this process? • What emissions and wastes arise from this process? • How long does the effect last before the customer requires more of our product? • What are the economic costs of the process “cradle to grave”? grave”
  17. 17. Weighting of Criteria Values are weighted by relevance factors. These state how strongly individual criteria flow into overall pollution. Examples: • Ozone destruction is weighted relative to the greenhouse warming potential. • Importance society places on different types of pollution. • Availability and natural occurrence of raw materials.
  18. 18. Scenario Analysis: The Second Step of Eco Analysis Environmental Impact (Normalized) Low Reduce Bring to Costs Market Depending on the position of the analyzed product, different strategic 1.0 recommendations are developed. Reduce Environmental Develop Impact Alternatives High High Low 1.0 Costs (Normalized)
  19. 19. Eco Analysis: Dyeing Denim for Blue Jeans (BASF) Define Demand Specific Select BASF Comparable Benefit Product Products Indigo powder from plants. Synthetic Dyeing of Blue Biotechnological Indigo Denim for the indigo granules Granules Production of 1000 Jeans. Synthetic indigo solution Synthetic indigo solution and electrochemical dyeing
  20. 20. Eco Analysis: Dyeing Denim for Blue Jeans (BASF) Energy Consumption 1.0 Material Emissions Solution, Consumption 0.5 Electrochemical Solution Granules 0.0 Synthetically Granules Biotechnologically Powder from Risk Plants Toxicity Potential Potential
  21. 21. Scenario Analysis: BASF Environmental Impact (Normalized) High Eco-Efficiency Low Electrochemical Benefit to the Solution customer, 1,0000 Biotechnological jeans dyed with indigo. 1.0 Granules Plants Low High Eco-Efficiency High Low 1.0 Costs (Normalized) Implications: • Construct a plant for the production of solution based dyeing. • Increase R&D spending for electrochemical process (pilot plant) • Exit plant technology from product portfolio.
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