Communication is a process by which an idea is transferred from a source to a receiver with the intention of changing his behaviour.(interpersonal situations)
It is a mutual exchange of facts , thoughts or perceptions leading to a common understanding of all parties. It does not imply agreement.(encompasses organizational communication.)
Intrapersonal communication-the reasoning, analysis or debate that a person carries out within its own mind .
Communication is Perception - is highly personal and has a large component of emotions ,values and needs of individual.Effectiveness of communication thus is limited to the range of perception of the recipient.
Communication is Expectation – people perceive only what they expect to-depending upon their own needs, values, motives, background or even the situational context.The unexpected is ignored or misunderstood.
Communication makes Demand - are in terms of emotional selection, preferences or rejection on part of the receiver.It has been scientifically established that the words with pleasant association are retained easier and longer in a persons memory than otherwise.
Communication differs from Information - logic characterizes information, which is also formal and impersonal in nature.(perception)Information infact presupposes communication, because, unless the latter takes place, the former is of no use to anybody.
CHANNELS OF COMMUNICATION VOCAL NON-VOCAL VERBAL SPOKEN WORDS WRITTEN WORDS NON-VERBAL SIGH FACIAL EXPRESSION GRUNT POSTURE GESTURE INFLECTION SPATIAL RELATIONSHIP
Perceive the utterance (auditory phonetic skills);
Identify the linguistic message (linguistic skills);
Understand the message (semantic skills);
Interpret the message (cognitive skills);
To read , the reader must be able to :
Perceive the written text (visual skills);
Recognize the script (orthographic skills);
Identify the message (cognitive skills).
Understand the message (semantic skills);
Interpret the message (cognitive skills).
COMMUNICATION PROCESS SOURCE ENCODING MESSAGE DECODING RECEIVER FEEDBACK Ideas Info Intentions and Purpose Necessity of using words, symbols or forms in a precise manner Its final shape and form depends on the channel selected and the speed Interpreting message in terms of background experience and expectation Understood and acted in the light of it
The ways that help to achieve the goal of mutual understanding are :
ASSERTIVE SPEAKING - or the act of expressing yourself directly,positively and with confidence,so that your point comes across clearly and you maintain respect towards others.
ACTIVE LISTENING - or the act of providing non-verbal and verbal feedback to a speaker that allows his or her message to be expressed and shows understanding of the message.
Barriers to communication INITIATION OF MESSAGE Different personalities of sender and receiver Different perceptions of sender and receiver Receiver evaluates credibility of sender Words have different meaning Receiver hears what he wants to hear Code not understood Noise Distorted message
Make something sound better than it is: combine tact and clarity. “This decision by the management is really a good one for you . Remember our jobs are about adapting to change and keeping this business moving forward . If you keep this in mind , the new strategies will work just fine.”
Emphasize what you can do instead of what you can’t. “I will help you”,
“ I will ensure your problems are resolved”.
“ Based on a few other matters I need to handle now, I can take care of your issue by the end of the day”
“ I can give you a status on that item by the end of tomorrow. I first need to check on what happened with it.”
“ I can give you an update in two days. I’ll know more about where that issue stands then.”
The goal of communication process is mutual understanding (no small feat) .Communication involves senders and receivers.They may have differences , but differences aren’t an excuse to have a tug - of-war ; rather differences are issues to work through to reach the desired outcome.
Lack of trust , deceit , self centeredness , non -cooperation , unhappy atmosphere and the like have the beginning in distortion or breakdown of interpersonal communication.
There is a scientific basis to understand the dynamics of communication.Joseph Luft Harry Ingham, behavioural scientists,have developed a model of social interaction known as Johari Window which facilitates understanding of the basis of interpersonal communication that in turn determines the quality of relationship.
This model in a very condensed form states the fact that we
as individuals consciously know some of our strengths and
weaknesses,but are not aware of certain others. Similarly,
other people become aware of our positive qualities and
shortcomings through the type of relationship we develop
Interpersonal styles and relationship
Arena Blind Spot Facade Unknown Known to self Unknown to self Feed Back Known to Others Unknown to Others E X P O S U R E Communication – Johari Window Model
Transactional analysis can be distinctly divided into the following types of analysis:
Structural Analysis : it covers the individuals personality,his mental make up-the frame work which forms the basis of his behaviour.
Transactional analysis : this refers to the analysis of what people say and do to each other or analyzing transaction.
Games analysis : this pertains to analysis of situation where people respectively engage in a pattern of behaviour of saying or acting one thing but implying something different and deriving a psychological pay off from these transaction.
Script analysis : this relates to analysis of life dramas or roles which are determined for us by early developmental process, which we later keep playing more or less compulsively.
Dr. Eric Berne ,a clinical psychologist , helps us in understanding the perspective of human behaviour and that makes the process of communicating smooth and productive. Dr.Berne has identified the basic unit of social interaction as ‘Transaction’.
When two persons encounter each other ,they provide a stimulus and receive a response –termed as ‘Transaction’.
Each person is composed of three different kinds of constituents –PARENT, ADULT and CHILD EGO STATES. Transactional Analysis is the method of analyzing these transactions to identify which constituent of one individual activates which one other.
Structural Analysis :is a method of analysing a person’s thoughts, feelings,and behaviour based on the phenomenon of ego states.
An Ego State : a consistent pattern of feeling and experience which is directly related to a consistent pattern of behaviour can be defined as an ego state.e.g. from a punishing boss he becomes a cajoling subordinate
Parent Ego State :the unquestioned recordings made in early childhood of the messages received from elders.
Child Ego State : manifests itself in feelings of joy, frustration,rejection,playful ,manipulative,etc.
Adult Ego State : starts functioning when the child’s mind starts processing the data from the parent and the child ego states and tests it against reality to make its decision.It relates to objective information and data gathering ,and rational decision making or problem solving based on the data available.
A(P)- Your team can accomplish the task if properly supervised.
A complex transaction where more than two ego states are involved in the stimulus or response itself.
Adult ego state is normally the last to develop and tends to lag behind generally even in later life.parent or child tend to respond automatically when a stimulus is received.it is desirable therefore ,to remain in the adult ego as often as possible to avoid frustration resulting from crossed transaction.
A psychological game has been defined as a recurring set of transaction ,often repetitive,superficially rational,leading to a pay off.
Games are played from all ego states, but the adult ones are most calculative in nature.They are played either to fill time , to reaffirm life positions, to draw attention or to enact a pre-determined life drama.e.g..KICK ME “I have messed up things again ,sir”The pay off is a negative stroke.That is the food of his psychological being.
Now I got you SOB-The initiator plays the game from the parent ego state and the subordinate is generally manipulated into doing something wrong.
The need for filling time, is satisfied through playing games which can be destructive to a varying degree. Certain amount of game playing cannot be avoided, but excessive indulgence can result in tragedy.
In an organisation ,groups, departments,branches and services,tend to develop philosophies,strategies,tactics,and views of their own which promote, sustain,and protect their special interests. At times ,these may sub-optimise the organisational goal thus creating conflict situations
The two channels of communication are:
Formal Structure Informal Structure
Organisational chart Job description Regulations Rumours Grapevine Work group loyalties
To enhance effectiveness in teamwork for productivity and unity:
Make newcomers feel welcome : new members need to go through the learning curve and need to pay attention to the dynamic among all members of the team.Ask others to help in showing new person the ropes.
Keep information flowing : think of the flow of information as a loop.By opening and closing the loop, you keep the flow moving. CLOSING THE LOOP : Following through and getting back to others, informing them of what happened or what you found out about an issue. OPENING THE LOOP : Taking the initiative to let others know something in advance, or passing on information that is helpful for them to know-without being asked.
Teach so that others can learn : Part of what often is needed in teams often involves cross-training or showing team members how to do certain tasks.Explain the process step by step,be receptive to questions ,answer them clearly and directly.
Offer assistance : “ I can help you get that assignment done,if you’d like ”. Speak the language of a valuable team player. People want to know they can count on you.
Ask for help : Asking questions is a sign of interest and assertiveness, not of stupidity.
Speak up in meetings : The more you get involved in team situations, the more you are asked to attend team meetings.
Talk in terms of outcomes : Make outcomes the focus of these discussions.Ask “ what goals are to be met ”,
“ what results do we need to accomplish,” “ what customer needs do we need to meet ”. The outcome needs are often lost in the debate over “ your way versus my way ”.
Give feed back supportively : Doing so enhances teamwork,it opens up honest communication.Describe your observations based on action,not subjective commentary.Give feedback to recognize good performances.
Take problems to the right source : As a team deal with them collectively.
Maintain a sense of humor : An effective team is people laughing with each other.eases the stresses that come with the job.
Actions That Lend Credibility To Your Communications
You can’t buy credibility ; it can only be earned.
Credibility means having others find you are believable, trustworthy and deserving of respect.
Following Through : Do what you agreed to do,and get it done by that time.Forgetfulness and disorganization aren’t acceptable for lack of follow through.Consistency of actions supporting words breeds credibility.
Being Passionate : Passion is about having interest and enthusiasm and puts emotion into your message. “Allow yourself to be emotional enough to provide conviction, but not overly emotional to lose credibility.” Sara Nelson.
Demonstrating Expertise : Be knowledgeable. Know your stuff and share with others. When others come to you for service or assistance, they want your expertise to come out in the interaction.
Disagreeing Without Being Disagreeable : Disagree with ideas and thoughts and make that the focus of what you have to say .Avoid treating opinions as right or wrong.
Staying Calm under Pressure : Deal with stress without getting stressed out.Listen and communicate constructively.Do venting privately.Inflame and distress others ,when you show your stress.
Taking Positive Approaches To Problems : Problems are a part of all jobs.Much of what you are getting paid for has to do with fixing problems.Let people know they will not be shot or tarred and feathered for the problem focus on solutions. Become a positive problem solver.
When you talk through your nose, you twang. Clasp your nose between thumb and forefingers and say “ Mona sang seventeen songs & swooned” Your fingers pick up the vibration caused in your nose by “M”, “N” and “NG” The three legitimate sounds in our language.
The voice finds its way through the nose if your mouth does not open enough when you talk.
There should be at least half an inch gap between your teeth when you talk. Nasal speakers speak with their teeth close – worse are those who speak with their lips closed.
For persuasive and impressive speech bring your resonance from your chest and not your nose .
The clenched jaw speaker emanates tenseness & strain. Tightness in the voice creates the impression you are holding back.
Because of faulty breath support leading to strain. Unsupported voice is like climbing a hill in high gear. It moves slower , jerks and finally stalls altogether..
A person whose lips do not move enough. Fails to project, runs whole words together sometimes omitting whole syllables.
Average voice scales 12 to 20 notes. A professional singer or actor reaches 36.. A bad speaker hits 5 notes. This is the voice like a tap with a faulty washer – it goes drip drip drip – the kind of voice that puts people to sleep.