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Communication Conversastion Skills
Communication Conversastion Skills
Communication Conversastion Skills
Communication Conversastion Skills
Communication Conversastion Skills
Communication Conversastion Skills
Communication Conversastion Skills
Communication Conversastion Skills
Communication Conversastion Skills
Communication Conversastion Skills
Communication Conversastion Skills
Communication Conversastion Skills
Communication Conversastion Skills
Communication Conversastion Skills
Communication Conversastion Skills
Communication Conversastion Skills
Communication Conversastion Skills
Communication Conversastion Skills
Communication Conversastion Skills
Communication Conversastion Skills
Communication Conversastion Skills
Communication Conversastion Skills
Communication Conversastion Skills
Communication Conversastion Skills
Communication Conversastion Skills
Communication Conversastion Skills
Communication Conversastion Skills
Communication Conversastion Skills
Communication Conversastion Skills
Communication Conversastion Skills
Communication Conversastion Skills
Communication Conversastion Skills
Communication Conversastion Skills
Communication Conversastion Skills
Communication Conversastion Skills
Communication Conversastion Skills
Communication Conversastion Skills
Communication Conversastion Skills
Communication Conversastion Skills
Communication Conversastion Skills
Communication Conversastion Skills
Communication Conversastion Skills
Communication Conversastion Skills
Communication Conversastion Skills
Communication Conversastion Skills
Communication Conversastion Skills
Communication Conversastion Skills
Communication Conversastion Skills
Communication Conversastion Skills
Communication Conversastion Skills
Communication Conversastion Skills
Communication Conversastion Skills
Communication Conversastion Skills
Communication Conversastion Skills
Communication Conversastion Skills
Communication Conversastion Skills
Communication Conversastion Skills
Communication Conversastion Skills
Communication Conversastion Skills
Communication Conversastion Skills
Communication Conversastion Skills
Communication Conversastion Skills
Communication Conversastion Skills
Communication Conversastion Skills
Communication Conversastion Skills
Communication Conversastion Skills
Communication Conversastion Skills
Communication Conversastion Skills
Communication Conversastion Skills
Communication Conversastion Skills
Communication Conversastion Skills
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Communication Conversastion Skills

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Communication Conversastion Skills

Communication Conversastion Skills

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  • 1. COMMUNICATIONS
    • Nature
    • Process
    • Interpersonal Relations
    • Transactional Analysis
    • Organizational Communication
  • 2.  
  • 3. COMMUNICATION -NATURE
    • Communication is a process by which an idea is transferred from a source to a receiver with the intention of changing his behaviour.(interpersonal situations)
    • It is a mutual exchange of facts , thoughts or perceptions leading to a common understanding of all parties. It does not imply agreement.(encompasses organizational communication.)
    • Intrapersonal communication-the reasoning, analysis or debate that a person carries out within its own mind .
    • NATURE
    • Communication is Perception - is highly personal and has a large component of emotions ,values and needs of individual.Effectiveness of communication thus is limited to the range of perception of the recipient.
  • 4.
    • Communication is Expectation – people perceive only what they expect to-depending upon their own needs, values, motives, background or even the situational context.The unexpected is ignored or misunderstood.
    • Communication makes Demand - are in terms of emotional selection, preferences or rejection on part of the receiver.It has been scientifically established that the words with pleasant association are retained easier and longer in a persons memory than otherwise.
    • Communication differs from Information - logic characterizes information, which is also formal and impersonal in nature.(perception)Information infact presupposes communication, because, unless the latter takes place, the former is of no use to anybody.
  • 5. CHANNELS OF COMMUNICATION VOCAL NON-VOCAL VERBAL SPOKEN WORDS WRITTEN WORDS NON-VERBAL SIGH FACIAL EXPRESSION GRUNT POSTURE GESTURE INFLECTION SPATIAL RELATIONSHIP
  • 6.
    • Three sub sciences
    • Kinesics
    • Proxemics
    • Paralinguistic
    • Have emerged as substantial contributors to the art of communication.
    • Kinesics - is dynamics or movement aspect of NVC as related to gestures,head nods,facial expressions eye movements and the like.
    • Proxemics - deals with roles of bodily contact,physical proximity and body orientation
    • Paralinguistic -deals with the non linguistics aspect of speech-pitch, pauses, modulation ,etc.
  • 7. Communication-Process
  • 8. COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE PROCESSES
    • To act as a speaker,writer,listener or reader,the learner must be able to act out a sequence of skilled actions.
    • To speak , the learner must be able to :
    • Plan and organize a message (cognitive skills);
    • Formulate a linguistic utterance (linguistic skills);
    • Articulate the utterance (phonetic skills);
    • To write , the learner must be able to :
    • Organize and formulate the message (cognitive and linguistic skills);
    • Hand-write or type the text (manual skills)
  • 9.
    • To listen , the learner must be able to :
    • Perceive the utterance (auditory phonetic skills);
    • Identify the linguistic message (linguistic skills);
    • Understand the message (semantic skills);
    • Interpret the message (cognitive skills);
    • To read , the reader must be able to :
    • Perceive the written text (visual skills);
    • Recognize the script (orthographic skills);
    • Identify the message (cognitive skills).
    • Understand the message (semantic skills);
    • Interpret the message (cognitive skills).
  • 10. COMMUNICATION PROCESS SOURCE ENCODING MESSAGE DECODING RECEIVER FEEDBACK Ideas Info Intentions and Purpose Necessity of using words, symbols or forms in a precise manner Its final shape and form depends on the channel selected and the speed Interpreting message in terms of background experience and expectation Understood and acted in the light of it
  • 11. COMMMUNATING EFFECTIVELY
    • Regardless of your job title or the type of organization or industry you work for ,your job requires being able to effectively interact with others-staff, peers, and bosses.
    • Internal customers : fellow employees, inside and outside the department where you work,to whom you provide services or assistance.
    • External customers : people outside your organization who need the product and services, suppliers ,investors.
    • The goal of the communication process is mutual
    • understanding.
    • Interpersonal communication involves senders and
    • receivers.Take turns being senders and
    • receivers,otherwise the tension mounts as the tug-of-
    • war goes on.
  • 12.
    • The ways that help to achieve the goal of mutual understanding are :
    • ASSERTIVE SPEAKING - or the act of expressing yourself directly,positively and with confidence,so that your point comes across clearly and you maintain respect towards others.
    • ACTIVE LISTENING - or the act of providing non-verbal and verbal feedback to a speaker that allows his or her message to be expressed and shows understanding of the message.
  • 13. Barriers to communication INITIATION OF MESSAGE Different personalities of sender and receiver Different perceptions of sender and receiver Receiver evaluates credibility of sender Words have different meaning Receiver hears what he wants to hear Code not understood Noise Distorted message
  • 14. HOLDING ASSUMPTIONS
    • The problem with assumptions is that they can lead to mistakes, misunderstandings, and strained relationships.
    • Jumping to conclusions
    • Finishing people’s sentences
    • Interrupting
    • Tuning out
    • Dismissing new ideas
    • Focusing on intentions: focusing on intentions instead of actions sometimes causes you to interpret inconsequential actions as destructive or of ill will.
    • Thinking you know best: making decisions for someone else without first checking with the person who is affected directly by what you do. Save such surprises for birthdays.
    • Stereotyping: shows your ignorance.
  • 15.
    • Deal with each other as an individual
    • Listen first
    • Avoid generalizations
    • Communicate first ; act second
    • Make the safest assumptions of them all: assume that the other person means well. This assumption allows you to see and deal with the actions and ideas of others at face value.
  • 16. FOUR APPROACHES TO SPEAKING
    • MY WAY OR THE HIGHWAY: THE AGGRESSIVE APPROACH
    • “ You must…”
    • “ Because I said so”
    • “ You idiot!”
    • “ You always/never….”
    • “ Who screwed this up?”
    • There is nothing subtle to the aggressive approach. The following
    • are the common behaviours :
    • Blaming, accusing
    • Intimidating body language
    • Demanding, ordering
    • Raised voice
    • Harsh, personal language
    • Verbal browbeating
  • 17.
    • 2. THE APPEASING WAY: THE NON ASSERTIVE APPROACH
    • “ Uh…..if that’s the way you want to do it….um, that’s fine with me.”
    • “ I don’t know if I could do that.”
    • “ I’ll talk to him soon about that problem; I’ve been really busy.”
    • “ I am sorry to ask you.”
    • “ I hate to bother you.”
    • “ Maybe that’s a good idea”
    • Behaviours:
    • Soft voice
    • Overly agreeable, no point of view expressed
    • Avoidance
    • Withdrawn body language
  • 18.
    • Sounding unsure
    • Beating around the bush
    • Sounding hopeless and helpless
    • 3 . SUBTLE BUT AGGRAVATING: THE PASSIVE -AGGRESSIVE APPROACH
    • “ I knew that wouldn’t work.”
    • “ If that’s the way you want it…..”
    • “ How could you even think of that?”
    • “ When was the last time you helped me?”
    • “ The problem with Joe is….”
    • Behaviours:
    • Appears to agree but really does not agree
    • Tells others but not the source of concern
    • Makes subtle digs and sarcastic remarks
  • 19.
    • Keeps score and sets conditions
    • Nonverbal message contradicts the verbal massage
    • Holds back expressing concern or providing assistance
    • Criticizes after the the fact
    • 4 . STRAIGHT AND POSITIVE: THE ASSERTIVE APPROACH
    • “ Yes that was my mistake.”
    • “ As I understand your point…..”
    • “ Let me explain why I disagree with that point.”
    • “ Let’s define the issue and then explore some options to help resolve it.”
    • “ Please hear me out and then work with me to resolve my concern.”
    • Behaviours:
    • Takes responsibility
  • 20.
    • Listens actively
    • Takes initiative
    • Speaks up, is direct and constructive
    • Shows sincerity
    • Is solution focused
    • Assumes confident voice and body language
    • Addresses concerns directly to the source
    • Requests needs
  • 21. DO NOT CONFUSE AGGRESSIVE FOR ASSERTIVE
    • AGGRESSIVE
    • Blunt
    • In conflict situations, a harsh in tone
    • In conflict situations, blame and browbeat the other person
    • Push your own way
    • One way conversation flow
    • ASSERTIVE
    • Direct
    • In conflict situations, a firm tone
    • In conflict situations, collaborate on the solutions
    • Speak up, yet hear what the others have to say
    • Two way conversation
  • 22. POSITIVE IMPACT OF POSITIVE LISTENING
    • Accentuate the positives
    • How do you feel when someone really listens to you?
    • Respected
    • Cared for
    • That you’ve gained rapport
    • Rewarded
    • Satisfied
    • Sense of achievement
    • Positive feelings:
    • Increased productivity
    • Stronger working relationship
    • Better quality of work
    • Greater customer satisfaction
  • 23.
    • Repeat business
    • Easier and better problem solving
    • Greater cooperation and team work
    • Less stress
    • Listening is a powerful means of communication that can increase your effectiveness on the job.
    • THE THREE STAGES OF THE LISTENING PROCESS
    • Stage one - receiving: you take in the speakers message through your senses, hearing and seeing.
    • Stage two - processing: this activity takes place in your mind and involves analyzing, evaluating, and synthesizing. Great deal of concentration is needed. “What does the speaker mean?”
    • Stage three - responding: the speaker sees and hears what the listener does. The speaker feels respected and understood by the listener, connection is made and productivity goes up.
  • 24.
    • PUT A POSITIVE SPIN IN THE MESSAGE
    • Make something sound better than it is: combine tact and clarity. “This decision by the management is really a good one for you . Remember our jobs are about adapting to change and keeping this business moving forward . If you keep this in mind , the new strategies will work just fine.”
    • Emphasize what you can do instead of what you can’t. “I will help you”,
    • “ I will ensure your problems are resolved”.
    • “ Based on a few other matters I need to handle now, I can take care of your issue by the end of the day”
    • “ I can give you a status on that item by the end of tomorrow. I first need to check on what happened with it.”
    • “ I can give you an update in two days. I’ll know more about where that issue stands then.”
  • 25.
    • AVOID LANGUAGE THAT DWELLS ON PROBLEM
    • “ Whose fault is this?”
    • “ You’re wrong about what happened.”
    • “ You never help when I need you.”
    • “ Why can’t you get this right ?”
    • “ Why are you causing such problems here ?”
    • USING LANGUAGE THAT FOCUSES ON SOLUTIONS
    • Option: “Let’s explore some options for resolving this situation.”
    • Idea: “I have an idea that can help solve this problem.”
    • Recommendation: “Here’s what I recommend we do.”
    • Suggestion: “May I offer you a suggestion or two on handling that challenge?”
    • Solution: “Let’s take a look at some possible solutions that can help us.”
    • Proposal: “I have a proposal that can help resolve this issue.”
  • 26. Interpersonal communication
    • The goal of communication process is mutual understanding (no small feat) .Communication involves senders and receivers.They may have differences , but differences aren’t an excuse to have a tug - of-war ; rather differences are issues to work through to reach the desired outcome.
    • Lack of trust , deceit , self centeredness , non -cooperation , unhappy atmosphere and the like have the beginning in distortion or breakdown of interpersonal communication.
  • 27.
      • Components of interpersonal communication
    • Perception of self-social self,material self and spiritual self.
    • Person perception-filters we tend to apply to our behaviour when relating to others.
    • Complexities in relationship
    • Self fulfilling Prophecy
    • Spirals
    • Paradoxes
    • Congruence between being and seeming
    • Empathy
    • Positive regard
  • 28.
    • There is a scientific basis to understand the dynamics of communication.Joseph Luft Harry Ingham, behavioural scientists,have developed a model of social interaction known as Johari Window which facilitates understanding of the basis of interpersonal communication that in turn determines the quality of relationship.
    • This model in a very condensed form states the fact that we
    • as individuals consciously know some of our strengths and
    • weaknesses,but are not aware of certain others. Similarly,
    • other people become aware of our positive qualities and
    • shortcomings through the type of relationship we develop
    • with them.
    Interpersonal styles and relationship
  • 29. Arena Blind Spot Facade Unknown Known to self Unknown to self Feed Back Known to Others Unknown to Others E X P O S U R E Communication – Johari Window Model
  • 30. IT ISN’T JUST WHAT YOU SAY BUT HOW YOU SAY IT
    • What you say is important, but how you say it often carries more weight
    • Most people haven’t been taught how to truly listen; therefore, you can’t count on them to listen fully and effectively when you speak to them
    • Make steady eye contact
    • Maintain eye contact
    • Look in the right places
    • Posture
    • Facial expressions-tells all or nothing at all
    • Gestures-use in unison with your speech
    • Project your voice- vary speed and pitch
    • Show inflection in your voice
    • Display sincerity in your tone
  • 31.
    • Enunciate your words clearly
    • Insert pauses occasionally in your message
    • Match your pace with your listener’s pace of speaking
    • AVOID:
    • Staring and glaring
    • Looking away and all round
    • Darting glances
    • Blinking excessively
    • Focusing on one person, not everyone
    • Glazing over
    • Slouching
    • Invading space
    • Hovering over the listener
    • Looking blank
    • Looking stern
    • Folding your arms
      • Displaying threatening gestures
      • Showing no gestures
      • Exhibiting distracting habits
      • Sounding uncertain
      • Being too soft spoken, speaking too slowly
      • Mumbling
      • Being too loud
      • Dropping your voice at the end of the sentence
      • Sounding monotonous
      • Putting people down with your tone
      • Having harshness in your tone
      • Speaking too fast
      • Slurring words
      • Using excessive filler sounds.
      • Sugarcoating
  • 32. Transactional analysis
    • Transactional analysis can be distinctly divided into the following types of analysis:
    • Structural Analysis : it covers the individuals personality,his mental make up-the frame work which forms the basis of his behaviour.
    • Transactional analysis : this refers to the analysis of what people say and do to each other or analyzing transaction.
    • Games analysis : this pertains to analysis of situation where people respectively engage in a pattern of behaviour of saying or acting one thing but implying something different and deriving a psychological pay off from these transaction.
    • Script analysis : this relates to analysis of life dramas or roles which are determined for us by early developmental process, which we later keep playing more or less compulsively.
  • 33. Transactional Analysis
          • Dr. Eric Berne ,a clinical psychologist , helps us in understanding the perspective of human behaviour and that makes the process of communicating smooth and productive. Dr.Berne has identified the basic unit of social interaction as ‘Transaction’.
        • When two persons encounter each other ,they provide a stimulus and receive a response –termed as ‘Transaction’.
    • Each person is composed of three different kinds of constituents –PARENT, ADULT and CHILD EGO STATES. Transactional Analysis is the method of analyzing these transactions to identify which constituent of one individual activates which one other.
    P A C P A C
  • 34.
    • Structural Analysis :is a method of analysing a person’s thoughts, feelings,and behaviour based on the phenomenon of ego states.
    • An Ego State : a consistent pattern of feeling and experience which is directly related to a consistent pattern of behaviour can be defined as an ego state.e.g. from a punishing boss he becomes a cajoling subordinate
    • Parent Ego State :the unquestioned recordings made in early childhood of the messages received from elders.
    • Child Ego State : manifests itself in feelings of joy, frustration,rejection,playful ,manipulative,etc.
    • Adult Ego State : starts functioning when the child’s mind starts processing the data from the parent and the child ego states and tests it against reality to make its decision.It relates to objective information and data gathering ,and rational decision making or problem solving based on the data available.
  • 35.
    • ANALYSING TRANSACTION :
    • A- Have you finished the job?
    • A- No Sir, there is little bit left.
    • P- No excuses. Get the job done quickly.
    • C (showing fear)-Yes Sir.
    • C- I feel like flinging these papers out.
    • A- You mean things are a bit tough here?
    • Take a break!
    • COMPLEMENTARY TRANSACTION
    P A C P A C P A C P A C P A C P A C
  • 36.
    • CROSSED TRANSACTION
    • A- What time is it ?
    • C -You better buy a good watch…
    • P- You behaved terribly today.
    • P- Were you any better?
    • C- I will go and play table tennis today.
    • P- Can’t you be ever serious about studies.
    A C P P A C P A C P A C P A C P A C
  • 37.
    • ULTERIOR TRANSACTIONS
    • A(P)- Your team can accomplish the task if properly supervised.
    • A complex transaction where more than two ego states are involved in the stimulus or response itself.
    • Adult ego state is normally the last to develop and tends to lag behind generally even in later life.parent or child tend to respond automatically when a stimulus is received.it is desirable therefore ,to remain in the adult ego as often as possible to avoid frustration resulting from crossed transaction.
    P A C P A C
  • 38.
    • GAMES ANALYSIS
    • A psychological game has been defined as a recurring set of transaction ,often repetitive,superficially rational,leading to a pay off.
    • Games are played from all ego states, but the adult ones are most calculative in nature.They are played either to fill time , to reaffirm life positions, to draw attention or to enact a pre-determined life drama.e.g..KICK ME “I have messed up things again ,sir”The pay off is a negative stroke.That is the food of his psychological being.
    • Now I got you SOB-The initiator plays the game from the parent ego state and the subordinate is generally manipulated into doing something wrong.
    • The need for filling time, is satisfied through playing games which can be destructive to a varying degree. Certain amount of game playing cannot be avoided, but excessive indulgence can result in tragedy.
  • 39.
    • We should avoid getting involved in game playing by adopting the following measures:
    • Be alert to stimuli which are likely to result in game playing.
    • Refusing to play complementary parts in games.
    • Increase involvement in fruitful activities.
    • Develop more open and intimate relationship with people.
    • Have positive regard for others and accept them for what they are.
  • 40. Script Analysis
    • Shakespeare says:
    • All the world’s a stage.
    • All men and women are merely players.
    • They have their exit and entrances
    • Each man in his time plays many parts.
    • This symbolises the concept of script which gets embedded in our psyche in the early years of our life,and plays the role of –hero, persecutor,victim or rescuer.
    • Consider this: We Americans love our freedom’.
    • We Rajputs will rather die in battle than be taken prisoner.
    • In our company ,if two of us take a bet,only one checks up;
    • The other takes his word for it.
    • These are samples of national character,racial ethos and organisational
    • Culture which become scripts and determine how each player should enact his part.
  • 41. Organisational Communication
    • In an organisation ,groups, departments,branches and services,tend to develop philosophies,strategies,tactics,and views of their own which promote, sustain,and protect their special interests. At times ,these may sub-optimise the organisational goal thus creating conflict situations
    • The two channels of communication are:
    • Formal Structure Informal Structure
    Organisational chart Job description Regulations Rumours Grapevine Work group loyalties
  • 42.
    • Distortions in organizational communications
    • Chain of command .
    • Information hoarding.
    • Specialization.
    • Sycophancy
    • Staff screen
    • Feed back- Lack of it and Lack of cognizance.
    • Breakdown of information:
    • Division to brigade - On no account must hamlets be burned down (written order)
    • Brigade to battalion - Do not burn down any hamlets unless you are absolutely convinced that Vietcongs are in them.(on radio)
    • Battalion to company - If you think there are any Vietcongs in the hamlets ,burn them down.(on radio)
    • Company commander to troops - Burn down the hamlets! (verbal order)
  • 43.
    • Mass communication
    • Effectiveness of mass communication
    • Com.eff = F(message x situation x personality x group norms)
    • Effective communication has been described as a function of above factors.
    • How to reach the individual?
    • Fraction of selection = Expectation of Reward Effort Required
    • In order to increase the receptivity of an individual ,the communicator can resort to :
    • Increase the receiver’s expectation of reward.This pertains to what is his expectation of gain from grasping your message.
    • Reduce the effort required for him to grasp.
    • Feedback : will always get feedback in one form or the other, direct or indirect.
  • 44. ENHANCE TEAMWORK
    • To enhance effectiveness in teamwork for productivity and unity:
    • Make newcomers feel welcome : new members need to go through the learning curve and need to pay attention to the dynamic among all members of the team.Ask others to help in showing new person the ropes.
    • Keep information flowing : think of the flow of information as a loop.By opening and closing the loop, you keep the flow moving. CLOSING THE LOOP : Following through and getting back to others, informing them of what happened or what you found out about an issue. OPENING THE LOOP : Taking the initiative to let others know something in advance, or passing on information that is helpful for them to know-without being asked.
  • 45.
    • Teach so that others can learn : Part of what often is needed in teams often involves cross-training or showing team members how to do certain tasks.Explain the process step by step,be receptive to questions ,answer them clearly and directly.
    • Offer assistance : “ I can help you get that assignment done,if you’d like ”. Speak the language of a valuable team player. People want to know they can count on you.
    • Ask for help : Asking questions is a sign of interest and assertiveness, not of stupidity.
    • Speak up in meetings : The more you get involved in team situations, the more you are asked to attend team meetings.
  • 46.
    • Talk in terms of outcomes : Make outcomes the focus of these discussions.Ask “ what goals are to be met ”,
    • “ what results do we need to accomplish,” “ what customer needs do we need to meet ”. The outcome needs are often lost in the debate over “ your way versus my way ”.
    • Give feed back supportively : Doing so enhances teamwork,it opens up honest communication.Describe your observations based on action,not subjective commentary.Give feedback to recognize good performances.
    • Take problems to the right source : As a team deal with them collectively.
    • Maintain a sense of humor : An effective team is people laughing with each other.eases the stresses that come with the job.
  • 47. Actions That Lend Credibility To Your Communications
    • You can’t buy credibility ; it can only be earned.
    • Credibility means having others find you are believable, trustworthy and deserving of respect.
    • Following Through : Do what you agreed to do,and get it done by that time.Forgetfulness and disorganization aren’t acceptable for lack of follow through.Consistency of actions supporting words breeds credibility.
    • Returning Phone Calls : Responsiveness builds credibility.
    • Being Passionate : Passion is about having interest and enthusiasm and puts emotion into your message. “Allow yourself to be emotional enough to provide conviction, but not overly emotional to lose credibility.” Sara Nelson.
  • 48.
    • Demonstrating Expertise : Be knowledgeable. Know your stuff and share with others. When others come to you for service or assistance, they want your expertise to come out in the interaction.
    • Disagreeing Without Being Disagreeable : Disagree with ideas and thoughts and make that the focus of what you have to say .Avoid treating opinions as right or wrong.
    • Staying Calm under Pressure : Deal with stress without getting stressed out.Listen and communicate constructively.Do venting privately.Inflame and distress others ,when you show your stress.
    • Taking Positive Approaches To Problems : Problems are a part of all jobs.Much of what you are getting paid for has to do with fixing problems.Let people know they will not be shot or tarred and feathered for the problem focus on solutions. Become a positive problem solver.
  • 49. S
    • Listening First ,Acting Second : Making snap judgments, jumping to conclusions ,and reacting before gathering all the facts don’t inspire confidence from others.
    • Showing Sincerity : is a quality of coming across as genuine and honest.Have good intentions matched by your tone of voice.
    • Being Straightforward : means being direct ,candid,and clear.
    • Direct : “ The numbers on page 4 of your report do not add up correctly”
    • Blunt : ‘The numbers on this report are all screwed up and show you nothing about using data.’
    • Being clear, respectful, and forthright in your communications are universally appreciated.do it consistently,you definitely have credibility.
  • 50. CONVERSATION SKILLS
  • 51. CONVERSATION MUTUAL EXCHANGE OF IDEAS AND THOUGHTS
  • 52. CONVERSATION SKILLS
    • MAGIC KEY TO PERSONAL AND SOCIAL POPULARITY
    • BUSINESS MEETINGS PAY OFF
    • EXPRESS YOUR POTENTIAL
    • KNOW A SENSE OF PERSONAL HAPPINESS
    • DEVELOP NEW FRIENDSHIPS
    • STRENGTHEN OLD ONES
  • 53. BEING A GOOD LISTENER WILL MAKE YOU A WINNER
  • 54. INITIATE CONVERSATION
    • ASK QUESTIONS
    • MAKE A STATEMENT FOLLOWED BY A QUESTION ON:
    • the party, food,weather, current news, books, movies or pay a compliment
  • 55. WITH ONE PERSON
    • Provide a topic that:
    • Appeals to his interest
    • Leads to discussing his hobby
    • Gets him talking about his job
    • Pays a compliment to him
  • 56. IN A GROUP:
    • SPARK A DISCUSSION ON A
    • SUBJECT THAT INTERESTS
    • MANY PRESENT :
    • a hobby/ interest that the group has in common
    • a spectator experience you’ve shares together
  • 57. WATCH YOUR REACTIONS
    • BE PLEASANT
    • BE CHEERFUL
    • BE SINCERE
  • 58. CONVERSATION MEANS GIVE AND TAKE AND NOT SIMPLY ASKING QUESTIONS
  • 59. RID YOURSELF OF INHIBITION/ SHYNESS
    • THINK OBJECTIVELY ABOUT THE PROBLEM, NOT SUBJECTIVELY ABOUT YOURSELF
    • PUT THE NEEDS OF OTHERS FIRST
  • 60. COMMUNICATE CLEARLY
    • ENGAGE MIND BEFORE STARTING TONGUE
    • SIMPLICITY IMPROVES EFFECTIVENESS
    • DON’T GET EMOTIONAL
    • USE SPECIFIC AND NOT GENERAL WORDS
    • AIM FOR A MORE ANIMATED COVERSATION
  • 61. BUILD A RESERVOIR OF KNOWLEDGE AND CULTIVATE INTERESTS
  • 62. USE A GENERALIST AND SPECIALIST APPROACH
    • READ BOOKS, PAPERS, MAGAZINES
    • RECALL MOVIES, TV SHOWS
    • KNOW YOUR ENVIRONMENT, GEOGRAPHICAL AREA
    • KNOW YOUR JOB, YOUR COMPANY AND ITS PRODUCT/ SERVICE
  • 63. DON’T
    • MONOPOLISE
    • BE GARRULOUS
    • BE INSULTING & ABUSIVE
    • AIR DIFFERENCES
    • TALK OF MUNDANE TOPICS
    CONTD
  • 64.
    • TALK OF ILLNESS & MISFORTUNE
    • GOSSIP
    • INTERRUPT
    • FINISH SENTENCES
    • SNATCH STORY
    DON’T
  • 65. HOW TO END
  • 66. VOICE MODULATION
    • SPEECH BLEMISHES & HOW TO DETECT THEM
    • MIRROR
    • Are you using your hands too much?
    • Are you tense, aloof, stiff, talking without moving your lips? Forcing your voice? Making faces while talking?
    • TAPE RECORDER
    • Helps you to hear exactly as you sound. You can detect your defects and shortcomings. You can use it to review your ideas aloud, to edit, practice speech/presentations before interviews.
    • VIDEO RECORDER
    • This is a combination of mirror & tape recorder. Helps to see as well as hear.
  • 67.
    • NOSE TALKER
    • When you talk through your nose, you twang. Clasp your nose between thumb and forefingers and say “ Mona sang seventeen songs & swooned” Your fingers pick up the vibration caused in your nose by “M”, “N” and “NG” The three legitimate sounds in our language.
    • The voice finds its way through the nose if your mouth does not open enough when you talk.
    • There should be at least half an inch gap between your teeth when you talk. Nasal speakers speak with their teeth close – worse are those who speak with their lips closed.
    • For persuasive and impressive speech bring your resonance from your chest and not your nose .
    • The clenched jaw speaker emanates tenseness & strain. Tightness in the voice creates the impression you are holding back.
  • 68.
    • Strident
    • Do you talk that way even when you are not angry?
    • Neck looks taut, veins and cords stand out like ropes. Muscles around the chin are tight to the eye and touch.
    • The Unfocussed Speaker
    • Sounds weary & depressed.
    • Lacks vitality, vigor, energy, enthusiasm & intensity.
    • Whisperer
    • When you fail to project because of improper breath support.
    • Whispering is for telling secrets. Whisper is a ghost of a sound from which tone and resonance are missing.
    • A Fader
    • One whose voice comes and goes. Starts on a strong note but fades into silence.
  • 69.
    • Fog Horn
    • Because of faulty breath support leading to strain. Unsupported voice is like climbing a hill in high gear. It moves slower , jerks and finally stalls altogether..
    • Lazy lips
    • A person whose lips do not move enough. Fails to project, runs whole words together sometimes omitting whole syllables.
    • Colour Gray
    • Average voice scales 12 to 20 notes. A professional singer or actor reaches 36.. A bad speaker hits 5 notes. This is the voice like a tap with a faulty washer – it goes drip drip drip – the kind of voice that puts people to sleep.
  • 70.
    • No variety, no pitch, no colour. To check your voice for drabness read from a newspaper and check your speech for pitch and pacing.
    • Does your speedometer need adjusting
    • Talking fast makes the audience breathless and talking slowly puts him to sleep!
    • We should average between 120 to 160 wpm. We read faster than we talk. Rate should never be constant. Thought and emotion alter pacing. Pause for effect. Chance in tempo provides variety.
    • Speech tics
    • “ You knows”, “:That is”, “um” and “I believes” Also called padding. Unattractive and irritating.
    • Don’t upstage with visual detractors .
  • 71.
    • Eye Clasp
    • Like a handclasp – establishes link with human being Tells you audience reaction.
    • Improve your voice
    • Proper breath support is the foundation of a good voice.
    • The way you exhale is what counts.
    • Project your voice, don’t shout.
    • Don’t let your voice sound older than you are
    • Make your lips lively, not lazy
    • Be a low pitcher
    • Be a smooth talker.

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