1920’s $.50 /hr avg. wage Output doubled, but consumers had inadequate income to buy.
1930’s - 40’s $.66/hr avg. wage... production made products cheaper so consumers could buy.
1940’s customer was the retailer or wholesaler Sales
Late 1940’s pent up demand, shortage, made old product better, Chemicals, electronic advances
1960’s Customer Orientation
1970’s Competitor Orientation
1980’s Strategic Marketing Orientation
1990’s Streamlining, Optimizing Market Offerings
2000’s Global markets, Low Price, High Tech, Off Shore Production
Marketing is a set of activities designed to satisfy the needs and wants of a market (the customer) through an exchange process.
Types of Research Studies by Stage of Product Life Cycle Preintroduction Introduction Growth Mature Decline Product Satisfaction Name/package Product positioning Advertising copy Market response Store Audits: Sales/share Product stocking, out-of-stock, In-store Promotion, Prices Tracking: Awareness, Trial, Repeat buying Product Performance Sales Forecasting Product Positioning New users New product uses Line extensions Competitors’ activities Product availability Price elasticity Cost reductions
Product and Brand Associations Name and Symbol Product Attributes Intangibles Customer Benefits Relative Price Use / Application User / Customer Celebrity / Person Life Style / Personality Product Class Competitors Country / Geographic Area
Top Management Quality Plan Quality as perceived by Personnel Quality as desired by Customer Quality as perceived by Customer ACTUAL QUALITY RESULT Involvement Gap Planning Gap Perception Gap Realization Gap Value Gap Point of View Gap Compliance Gap Comprehension Gap
1. Performance. How well does a drug cure an ailment, or a piece of diagnostic equipment diagnose? A physician operate?
2. Durability. How long will the lawn mower last...any corollaries in the health care area? Treatments?
3. Conformance with Specifications. What are the inside dimensions? Corollaries with health care area? Standard procedures?
4. Features. Does the airline flight offer movies? How Many? MD11 business class (6 movies x 4) Amenities in hotel or hospital...do they differ for each area of the hospital...pediatrics Vs. medical/surgical unit.
5. The Name. Is it a name that means quality? Cars/Planes/Leather/Jewelry?
6. Reliability. Will each visit result in the same satisfaction.
7. Serviceability. Is the service system efficient, competent, convenient?
8. Fit and Finish. Does the product look and feel like a quality product?