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  1. 1. The name Maharashtra means the The Great State or Great Nation. The nameis said to have been originated probably from rathi which means Chariot driver,referring to drivers and builders of chariots who were known as maharathis orFighting Force. Maharashtra gets its name aptly, because it is the largest states inIndia, both in terms of area as well as population. Maharashtra spans 308000 km²with a population over 78,937,000 and the state language being Marathi.Maharashtra - The great Land. As the name itself suggests, Maharashtra isdiverse in its riches. It has been reflected through its, forts, caves, palaces knownfor its rich history, its Saints, philosophers, music, handicrafts and its festivals withall their colourful rituals and traditions, all of which amalgamate together to give atrue reflection of Maharashtrian Culture.Celebration : Birthday of Chhatrapati Shivaji MaharajFalls on : 19th JanuaryOn February 19th, the birthday of Chatrapati Shivaji Maharaj is celebrated on agrand scale in Maharashtra. Shivaji was born at the Shivneri fort on February 19th,1630. He was a great leader and the creator of the Maratha nation.He united the Maratha chiefs from Maval, Konkan and Desh regions for a higherpurpose - the promotion of Maharashtra Dharma - and carved out a small kingdomby defeating the alien powers. He stabilised the state with effective civil andmilitary administration and adopted a policy of religious tolerance to accommodateall religions and sects in his state.Shivaji was not only the maker of the Maratha nation, but also the greatestconstructive genius of medieval India. States fall, empires break up, dynastiesbecome extinct, but the memory of a true hero as King like Shivaji remains animperishable historical legacy for an entire human race. His dazzling victories andever-ready smile made him the idol of his soldiers. A royal gift of judgingcharacter was one of the main causes of his success.
  2. 2. 1)Chhatrapati Shivaji MaharajFounder of Hindavi SwarajyaBirth: 19 Feb 1630Samarth Ramdas, who lived in the times of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj,described this personality in a verse composed of only adjectives as follows:Nishchayacha Mahameru, Bahutajanansi aadharu, Akhandasthiticha Nirdharu,Shrimant Yogi......Ya bhumandalache thai, Dharma rakshi eisa nahi Maharashtra dharma rahilakahi tumha karani.(The pinnacle of determination, protector of people, resolute in intent, wealthy yetdetached from his opulence......There is no other on this earth, who has protectedany people; It is because of you that the culture of Maharashtra survived)This poem, considered to be a literary masterpiece, brings out the differentdimensions and the noble character of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj, as an ideal,determined, brave, courageous and kind King, in words that are powerfully richand deeply meaningful. It also describes the achievements of this revolutionarypersonality in laying the foundation of the Hindavi Swarajya, inwhich Samarth Ramdas himself played an important role.For nearly 300 years, the Mughal kings - the throne of Delhi, Adilshah, Nizam andQutubshah, ruled over the land mass that is today known as Maharashtra. Thisforeign rule was exploitative and torturous and left people helpless against theatrocities that the rulers committed against them. Women and children, the fieldsand crops and homes were not safe in the hands of these rulers who would descendanytime and loot the populace.It was in this period of subjugation and suppression, in times when freedom washard to imagine, that a young Shivaji retaliated against this foreign rule, declaredindependence and proclaimed himself the King of the land.Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj was born the son of Shahaji Raje Bhosale and Jijau onthe third day of the Hindu month of Phalgun in the Hindu year 1551, on the fort ofShivneri in Junnar taluka of Pune district (Ref: Shree Raja ShivChhatrapati,Gajanan Mehendale, Diamond Publications).
  3. 3. In the absence of his father who was the Jagirdar of the Bangalore region inKarnataka, the young Shivaji was brought up under the watchful eye and tutelageof his mother. She told him stories from Ramayan and Mahabharat and kindled theflame of freedom in the young Shivba. She taught him politics and religion, at thesame time trained him in the art of fighting by wielding the stick and dandpatta (akind of sword with protective armour for the arm). Shivba became a skilledswordsman and a horse rider too. In this way, young Shivaji was well-prepared andgroomed for the mission ahead.Jijabai took charge of the Pune Jagir after Murar Jagdev rendered it useless forhuman habitation (ploughed it with a donkey and destroyed the crops and fields).Jijabai used a golden plough to bring the people of Pune together and re-establishthe city. During this time, Shivaji came in contact with twelve Mavale (youth fromthe Maval area in Pune, those who are fighters) in connection with theadministration of the Jagir. These were his first friends, who were to become hisallies in the freedom struggle. His leadership skills too came to the fore during thistime. He punished a village head by ordering his hands and legs to be cut off whenhe misbehaved with a woman. Thus, the young Shivaji proved himself to be a fairand just ruler and a capable leader of the independent State. At the age of sixteen,with the Lord Shiva at the Rayreshwar temple as his witness, he took the oath tomake Maharashtra independent by cutting himself and offering the shrine his ownblood. His close friends accompanied him on this occasion. Then followed theacquisition of the Torna and Purandar forts and the defeat of FatehKhan, allrengthening his confidence in himself and his commitment to his mission. Yet, hisreal test came when Shahaji Raje was arrested. The enemy of your enemy is yourfriend: by following this rule, he proved his mettle as an able politician andstrategist and used his friendship with the Badshah of Delhi to pressurize Adilshahto secure his father‟s release.Soon after, calamity stuck Maharashtra in the form of AfzalKhan. He burned manyvillages, destroyed many temples and spread terror among the populace. Withoutdithering, Shivaji Maharaj decided to face him squarely. Shivaji Maharaj‟s meetingwith AfzalKhan at the foot of the Pratapgarh fort made history. In this meeting,Maharaj killed AfzalKhan with tiger claws while pretending to greet AfzalKhanwarmly in an embrace. Maharaj had prepared himself for this meeting in minutedetails. He knew his own height and weight and also that of AfzalKhan‟s, and hadcarefully selected his clothes for the occasion. He had also drafted a plan to defeatAfzalKhan‟s army if the mission to kill AfzalKhan in the meeting was successful.There was also a counter-plan to fall back on in case the mission failed and
  4. 4. Maharaj himself was killed. Maharaj also personally selected the people whoaccompanied him on this mission.This crisis brought home the realisation of the responsibility he held as theguardian of Swarajya. The bravery and sacrifices of Kanhoji Jedhe and otherMaratha soldiers brought about a feeling of gratitude, furthering his feeling ofresponsibility.Historians and scholars appreciate Maharaj‟s cunning resourcefulness inengineering this defeat of AfzalKhan.Shivaji Maharaj had extended the boundaries of his kingdom from Tungabhadra inthe south to the Satpuda mountain ranges in the north. During war times, he nevertroubled or terrorized the people and the Maratha soldiers never harassed anywoman. He always advocated ideal goals, norms and values for his soldiers, thussucceeding in maintaining the moral of his army.While Maharaj was building his army, responding to outside attacks and acquiringnew territory, he was also setting up a sound administration and initiating manyconstructive projects. He centralized the salaries of the armies, initiated the systemof transfers of the administering officers, set up a system to collect land revenuebased on the geographical area and introduced the policy to waive revenuecollection in times of natural calamities. He introduced the system of working forsix months in the army and farming for six months, giving his soldiers anopportunity to serve the country and earn a living. This gave the people financialand social security, thus strengthening their belief in Swarajya.Thousands of Mavale like Suryaji Kakade, Waghoji Tupe, Baji Pasalkar, MurarbajiDeshpande, Bajiprabhu Deshpande, Tanaji Malusare, Prataprao Gujar, NetajiPalkar and Bahirji Naik laid down their lives for the dream of Hindavi Swarajya.Their high motivation and patriotism, together with modern weaponry, fast steedsand the establishment of an armada to guard against the attacks from the Arabs,Abyssinians, Siddi and the Portuguese – all contributed to the creation ofSwarajya. Shivaji Maharaj studied the enemy carefully and took advantage of theits weakness to defeat him. He used guerrilla warfare and the elements of speedand surprise to defeat the likes of DilerKhan, ShaisteKhan, AfzalKhan thusprotecting his people against every attack made on the land.Soon, the boundaries of Swarajya extended far and wide. The enthronement ofShivaji to give legitimacy to this kingdom became imperative. Thus, ShivajiMaharaj was coronated Chhatrapati at the hands of Kashi‟s Gagabhatta, in the
  5. 5. Hindu month of Jyeshtha in the year 1674. It was an important moment in historythat made Maharashtra and the whole country proud.Upon studying Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj‟s career and personality, a few thingsstand out. Maharaj had courage, valour, physical stamina, fixed ideology, excellentorganising capabilities, disciplined and planned administrative skills and foresight.In addition to these qualities, he was an excellent strategist and was goal oriented. Shivaji worked hard as a child and during his youth to increase his physical strength and stamina. He brought together simple-minded Mavale and enthused them with an ideology and loyalty. He gave them purpose. He vowed to dedicate himself to founding the Hindavi Swarajya and neverfaltered. He brought important forts under his rule and built new ones. He attacked the enemy at the right time or compromised if necessary; using this principle shrewdly, he managed to defeat his enemies most of thetime, at times even facing family disputes. He used guerrilla warfare techniques cleverly. He brought about order and administration to the lives of common people, farmers, soldiers and priests and places of worship. He promoted Marathi as the official language and gave patronage to many art forms and artists. He created an eight-minister cabinet to administer the Hindavi Swarajya. This was one of the most important decisions taken by him. At the same time, he instilled confidence among the poor, downtrodden masses. He gave them a sense of purpose in life. He managed to achieve all this within a short life span of fifty years. Today, Maharashtra continues to be inspired by the spirit of independence sowed in the seventeenth century by Maharaj. The pride and sense of achievement that every Maharashtrian feels even today can be duly attributed to the work of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj.Maharaj‟s health suffered soon after he returned victorious from his conquest ofthe South. The constant expeditions and battles had taken their toll and Maharajpassed away on the 3rd of April 1680. His death signalled the end of an era.Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj is an ideal example of what a mortal can achievethrough his physical and mental strength and will power. His is a shining exampleof the heights one can reach by cultivating such virtues as courage, humility, a high
  6. 6. regard for ethics, foresight, bravery, presence of mind and many other suchqualities. Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj has become immortal for the people ofMaharashtra, setting an exemplary example for us to follow.The story of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj does not end at his death. For thirty yearsafter his death, in the absence of any single, stable leadership, the people ofMaharashtra fought the Mughal even when Aurangzeb himself came to conquerthis land. Finally, the Mughal King had to lay down his life here. This was onlybecause of the foundation of unified Swarajya laid down by Chhatrapati ShivajiMaharaj.Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj created Anandvanbhuvan – a prosperous, heavenlyplace on this land, which is described lucidly by Saint Ramdas in his verseAnandvanbhuvani. It is an apt ode sung in praise of Maharaj, documenting andsaluting his valiant efforts to build the Hindavi Swarajya and bring peace to theland.Death: 03 Apr 1680
  7. 7. CREATIVITY Shri Shivraheshwar Mandir, The Only Temple Of Shivaji Maharaj In The World Chhatrapati Shri Shivaji Maharaj Reconstruction Of 345 Years Old "Shri Shivrajeshwar Temple" Which Is The One & Only, Historic Temple In The World, Of "Chhatrapati Shri Shivaji Maharaj" Located At "Sindhudurg Fort", Malvan, Maharashtra, India, Situated In Amidst The Rocky Bedding & Lashing, Breathholdng Waves Of Arabian Sea, Sindhudurg Fort Is An Evidence Of The Miraculous, Ultimate Human Efforts & Excellent Creativity Which Tells Us About The Unchallenging Foresight Of The Great Maratha Warrior Shivaji Maharaj. Shivrajeshwar Temple Is One Of The Golden Pages In The Indian History. This Temple, Due To Its Old Tenure, Has Undergone Mutilation And Is In Immense Need Of Reconstruction. To Save This Historical Monument, Which, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Had Occassionally Honoured With His Remarkable & Auspicious Presence Like A Miracle. Today is Rajmata Jijabai Bhosale Smrutidin as per Hindu Almanac. HJS salutes Rajmata Jijabai - Inspiration of Greatest Hindu king of Millenium Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj The shape, durability and quality of a pot are entirely dependent on the skill and the creativity of the potter. Likewise Chatrapati Shivaji Raje was entirely nurtured to fight the enemies who were obstructing the Establishment of Hindavi Swarajya. Jijau was born to Mhakasabai and Lakhoji Jadhav in Sindkhed territory. As she grew up, the sufferings of Hindus under the Mughal rule was perceived by her. At the tiny age when girls play with dolls Jijau immersed in learning sword
  8. 8. fighting. Her mother nurtured Jijaus courage by telling the tales of valor.The situation in the country was to provide services to Mughal Rulers, tobecome local commanding officers under Mughals the actual enemy, praisethem and loot own people for them.Hindu women were being assaulted by Muslims and auctioned. Society hadbecome a mute spectator. Farmers were working on empty stomachs, onlyfor Mughals. Jijau was searching for a person who could fight this injustice.Jijau was married to Sahaji Raje Bhosale in the year 1605. She finally foundrecourse in prayers, by appealing to Goddess Bhavani to give her a son whowould be bright, accomplished and immensely capable of establishing“Swarajya”.After marrying Shahaji Raje, Jijau could sense her husband beingundervalued by rulers like Mughals, Adilshah, and Nijamshah etc. Sherealised that even though her husband was powerful but had no recognition,security and was not beneficial to the community.Jijau may be the only woman in the history of mankind who decided thepurpose of her child even before he was born.Goddess Bhavani fulfilled Jijaus appeal as she shared Jijaus sorrows interms of assaults on her land, drowning of her religion and her temples, idolsbeing broken by the Yavan enemies like Mughals, Adilshah, Nijamshah etc.Jijau and Goddess Bhavani shared the same dream of Hindu Swarajya.Jijau told Shivaji the tales of King Ram, Krishna, Bheem etc. fighting theinjustice and freeing of people from tyranny. These stories made ShivajiRaje that freedom was the only path and that is the only purpose of his life.Jijau also taught politics to her son Shivaji Raje and prepared his mindset forjustice of equality, courage, valor and hardest punishments to unjust peopledoing wrong things. She personally supervised his training with various
  9. 9. weapons. Due to such guidance from his own mother Jijau, Shivaji Raje wasable to get himself out safely and miraculously from incidents like ShahajiRajes captivity, Afzalkhans defeat, and escape from Agra etc.Jijau carried out both the roles of an affectionate mother as well as givingaptitude for accomplishments as a father in his absence.Only due to training from Jijau, Shivaji Raje could vanquish the centuries ofMuslim rule and establish Hindavi Swarajya.Jijau survived till the Coronation of her son Shivaji Raje as Chatrapati evenin the absence of her husband, lovingly encouraging & guiding her son forthe growth and longevity of Hindavi Swarajya. She left for heavenly abodejust after 12 days of coronation on 17 June 1674. Her Samadhi is at Village“Pachad” at the foothills of Fort Rajgad.4) Harmony team spirt creativiyy 1) founder 2)coteaching 3) siginificance
  10. 10. IMPORTANT OF SHIV JAYANTIChhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj, the great warrior of India, from the state ofMaharashtra was a people‟s king, who fought for the freedom of the country fromthe Mughal kingdom. 19th February is the birth anniversary of the great hero,whose name is written permanently in the Indian history.At the tender age of 15, Shivaji took an oath, to free the country from the atrocitiesof the Mughals. He was a fearless warrior as he captured the Mughal fort, just withhelp of few of his soldiers, which was in a very difficult terrain.In 1674, Shivaji was conferred the title of „Chhatrapati‟, which means a personwho is worthy of a ceremonial umbrella. On this occasion, here are a few SMSs toremind your friends and family about the great warrior.1. Remember, my friend Remember aboutA great leaderA great freedom fighterHonor of Maharashtra“Chatrapati Shivaji Maharaj”Shivaji Maharaj Jayanti 20102. A fearless warriorWho fought for the nationRemember the great warrior by spreading his wordsHappy Shiv Jayanti
  11. 11. HARMONYOf paeans and politicsHemant Mawale is struggling to keep powada alive in Pune, writes HunedContractorWhen, on the occasion of Shiv Jayanti or Maharashtra Day, various mandal inPune jostle with each other to put up the best floats and announce paeans toMaratha king Shivaji from loudspeakers, one man is in huge demand: HemantMawale, or Shahir Mawale as he is popularly known.Mawale is skilled at singing powada, a traditional Maratha form of music andverse that recounts the valour of Shivaji. "If it werent for these two days in a year,powada would have been lost to the ravages brought on by cultural erosion," hesays grimly. As a form of poetic recital accompanied by a rhythmic exposition ofthe daf, the tuntuna and the dholak, powada also finds a mention in the epicDynaneshwari. Historical records reveal that powada was first heard inMaharashtra when Jijamata appointed Agindas, Maharashtras first shahir, to writeapowada to celebrate the victory of Shivaji over Afzal Khan. A powada can alsobe a comment on contemporary political events.Past glory aside, Mawale sees a bleak future ahead: "It is a dying art form now asthere arent many powada singers or writers left." He rues the fact that while thestate government has started heeding the demands oftamasha artists, not much hasbeen done for powadasingers because they do not have a strong lobby. "Last year,after much persuasion, I received a grant of Rs 25,000 from the governments Artand Culture Department to buy musical instruments," he says. "Later, I was toldthat the government has announced a special financial package for powada singers
  12. 12. but there has been no further information." The stepmotherly treatment hasdemoralised the six or seven existing powada singers who now see no point inpassing the tradition to the next generation.Mawale is undeterred though. His Saturday evenings are reservedfor powada tutelage during which he coaches about 70 children. "There are threeregulars who have been learning it for the past seven years," says Mawale, whoseown knowledge was derived from the renowned singer Shahir Kisanrao Hinge.Mawale heard him sing powada 25 years ago, while he was on his way to school.Incidentally, Mawales six-year-old son Honraj is already showing signs ofbecoming an accomplished powada singer.Mawale works as a collection agent for a bank and has recently started aninsurance agency. "I dont want a full-time job because that will leave me withlittle time for powada," he reasons. He feels state patronage can help keep the artalive. "Its only during elections that we are remembered because politicians inMaharashtra like to have a powada before their speeches." Mawales cynicismbarely conceals his anguish.Featured in Harmony MagazineJuly 2009. Early days Shivaji was born on 19th Februray, 1627, in Shivneri Fort, 60 kms north of Pune. He was named after the local Goddess Shivai, to whom his mother prayed for a son. His father Shahaji Bhosle was the chief of the kingdom of Bijapur. He was however, not allowed to take charge of any fort. His mother had a great influence on him as he was introduced to Indian epics of Mahabharata, Ramayana and other holy books by her. Shivaji also gained a lot of knowledge from his father‟s unsuccessful attempts to gain power. He was inspired by his father military tactics, peacetime diplomacy and also possessed knowledge of Sanskrit and Hindu scriptures.
  13. 13. His administrationShivaji grew into a fearless military leader with trainings from commanderslike Gomaji Naik and Baji Pasalkar. Young Shivaji was motivated,enthusiastic and energetic. In his early days he was successful in inspiringlocal youths to follow his idealistic pursuits. At the age of 17, he attackedand captured Torna Fort of Bijapur and by 1647 he took control of Kondanaand Raigad Forts. The Western Ghats along the Konkan Coast were alsounder his control by 1654.His achievementsIn order to sabotage Shivaji‟s rise to power, Adilshah arrested Shahji, hisfather by deceitful means and had armies sent against Shivaji and his elderbrother Sambaji. To suppress Shivaji‟s control of the Bijapur kingdom,Afzal Khan was sent to destroy Shivaji. However, with his cunning means,Shivaji successfully stabbed Afzal Khan. Eventually Bijapur‟s armies wererouted in the famous Battle of Pratapgarh in 1659 and Shivaji turned into ahero of the Marathas. Now, under the confident leadership of Shivaji, the
  14. 14. Marthas successfully pushed back the Mughals and the Sultanatekingdowms from his homeland.The Mughals also fought against Shivaji led by Shaista Khan underAurangazeb. However, Shivaji lost many men against a well trained anddisciplined Mughal army. Shivaji felt the need of finance to maintain anarmy and decided to loot the Mughal city of Surat. The Mughal emperorthen sent Jai Singh to defeat Shivaji. After a few skirmishes, he thought itwise to accept the emperor‟s soverignity. But he was soon placed underhouse arrest in Agra. Using tact and intelligence, Shivaji successfullyescaped from Agra and hid in his homeland and kept a low profile for sometime. Shivaji gradually rebuild his empire and within six months was able torecover much of his lost ground.Shivaji extended his empire further south to Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. Inorder to regain one of his forts, Kondana, he appointed his most trustedgeneral Tanaji Malusare. The battle that followed between the Marathas andthe Mughals came to be known as the Maratha war of Independence wherethe Marathas were successful in regaining the control of the fort.Chatrapati ShivajiShivaji was formally coronated Chatrapati in 1674 in Raigad fort andhenceforth came to be known as Chatrapati Shivaji. Shivaji died in 1680 butnot before leaving an indelible mark on the history pages. He laid thefoundation of a Hindu empire which lasted for over two centuries. Shivajihas been a source of inspiration and pride for generations for his courage andmilitary acumen.