Businessresearchchapter2

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Businessresearchchapter2

  1. 1. Business ResearchBusiness Research MethodsMethods Adopted FromAdopted From Fourth EditionFourth Edition Uma SekaranUma Sekaran Instructor: Ahmad Sohail LodhiInstructor: Ahmad Sohail Lodhi MBE, LLBMBE, LLB
  2. 2. Chapter 2Chapter 2 SCIENTIFICSCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONINVESTIGATION
  3. 3. After completing this chapter youAfter completing this chapter you would be able to understand:would be able to understand:  The Hallmarks of Scientific ResearchThe Hallmarks of Scientific Research  Some obstacles to conducting scientificSome obstacles to conducting scientific research in the management arearesearch in the management area  The building blocks of science in researchThe building blocks of science in research  The hypothetico deductive methodThe hypothetico deductive method  Other types of researchOther types of research
  4. 4. Definition of ScientificDefinition of Scientific ResearchResearch Scientific Research focusing onScientific Research focusing on solving problems and pursues asolving problems and pursues a step by step logical, organizedstep by step logical, organized and rigorous method to identifyand rigorous method to identify the problems, gather data,the problems, gather data, analyze them and draw validanalyze them and draw valid conclusions there from.conclusions there from.
  5. 5. Why Scientific Research?Why Scientific Research?  This research is not based on hunches,This research is not based on hunches, experience and intuition.experience and intuition.  It is purposive and rigorous.It is purposive and rigorous.  Enables all those who are interested inEnables all those who are interested in researching and knowing about the same orresearching and knowing about the same or similar issues to come up with comparablesimilar issues to come up with comparable findings when data are analyzed.findings when data are analyzed.  Findings are accurate and confident.Findings are accurate and confident.  Apply solutions to similar problems.Apply solutions to similar problems.  It is more objective.It is more objective.
  6. 6. Cont.Cont.  Highlights the most critical factors at the workHighlights the most critical factors at the work place that need specific attention to solve orplace that need specific attention to solve or minimize problems.minimize problems.  Scientific Investigation and Managerial DecisionScientific Investigation and Managerial Decision Making are integral part of effective problemMaking are integral part of effective problem solving.solving.  It can be applied to both basic and appliedIt can be applied to both basic and applied research.research.
  7. 7. The Hallmarks of Scientific ResearchThe Hallmarks of Scientific Research 1.1. PurposivenessPurposiveness 2.2. RigorRigor 3.3. TestabilityTestability 4.4. ReplicabilityReplicability 5.5. Precision and ConfidencePrecision and Confidence 6.6. ObjectivityObjectivity 7.7. GeneralizabilityGeneralizability 8.8. ParsimonyParsimony The hallmarks or main distinguishingThe hallmarks or main distinguishing characteristics of scientific research may becharacteristics of scientific research may be listed as follows:listed as follows:
  8. 8. Hallmarks of Scientific ResearchHallmarks of Scientific Research 1.1. PurposivenessPurposiveness  It has to start with a definite aim or purpose.It has to start with a definite aim or purpose.  The focus is on increasing employeeThe focus is on increasing employee commitment.commitment.  Increase employee commitment will translateIncrease employee commitment will translate into less turnover, less absenteeism andinto less turnover, less absenteeism and increased performance levels.increased performance levels.  Thus it has a purposive focus.Thus it has a purposive focus.
  9. 9. 2.2. RigorRigor  A good theoretical base and sound methodological designA good theoretical base and sound methodological design would add rigor to the purposive study.would add rigor to the purposive study.  Rigor adds carefulness, scrupulousness and the degree ofRigor adds carefulness, scrupulousness and the degree of exactitude in research.exactitude in research. Example:Example: A manager asks 10-12 employees how to increase the levelA manager asks 10-12 employees how to increase the level of commitment. If solely on the basis of their responses theof commitment. If solely on the basis of their responses the manager reaches several conclusions on how employeemanager reaches several conclusions on how employee commitment can be increases, the whole approach to thecommitment can be increases, the whole approach to the investigation would be unscientific. It would lack rigor forinvestigation would be unscientific. It would lack rigor for the following reasons:the following reasons:
  10. 10. 1.1. Based on few employeesBased on few employees 2.2. Bias and incorrectnessBias and incorrectness 3.3. There might be other influences on commitmentThere might be other influences on commitment which are ignored and are important for a researcherwhich are ignored and are important for a researcher to knowto know Thus, Rigorous involves good theoretical base andThus, Rigorous involves good theoretical base and thought out methodology.thought out methodology.  These factors enable the researcher to collect the rightThese factors enable the researcher to collect the right kind of information from an appropriate sample withkind of information from an appropriate sample with the minimum degree of bias and facilitate suitablethe minimum degree of bias and facilitate suitable analysis of the data gathered.analysis of the data gathered.  This supports the other six too.This supports the other six too.
  11. 11. 3.3. TestabilityTestability The researcher might hypothesizeThe researcher might hypothesize that those employees who perceivethat those employees who perceive greater opportunities forgreater opportunities for participation in decision makingparticipation in decision making would have a higher level ofwould have a higher level of commitment.commitment. After random selection manager and researcherAfter random selection manager and researcher develops certain hypothesis on how managerdevelops certain hypothesis on how manager employee commitment can be enhanced, thenemployee commitment can be enhanced, then these can be tested by applying certain statisticalthese can be tested by applying certain statistical tests to the data collected for the purposetests to the data collected for the purpose..
  12. 12. It means that it can be used again ifIt means that it can be used again if similar circumstances prevails.similar circumstances prevails. Example:Example: The study concludes that participation inThe study concludes that participation in decision making is one of the mostdecision making is one of the most important factors that influences theimportant factors that influences the commitment, we will place more faith andcommitment, we will place more faith and credence in these finding and apply incredence in these finding and apply in similar situations. To the extent that thissimilar situations. To the extent that this does happen, we will gain confidence indoes happen, we will gain confidence in the scientific nature of our research.the scientific nature of our research. 4.4. ReplicabilityReplicability
  13. 13. PrecisionPrecision – Precision refers to the closeness of the findingsPrecision refers to the closeness of the findings to “reality” based on a sample.to “reality” based on a sample. – It reflects the degree of accuracy and exactitudeIt reflects the degree of accuracy and exactitude of the results of the sample.of the results of the sample. Example: If a supervisor estimated theExample: If a supervisor estimated the number of production days lost during thenumber of production days lost during the year due to absenteeism at between 30 andyear due to absenteeism at between 30 and 40, as against the actual of 35, the precision of40, as against the actual of 35, the precision of my estimation more favorably than if he hasmy estimation more favorably than if he has indicated that the loss of production days wasindicated that the loss of production days was somewhere between 20 and 50.somewhere between 20 and 50. 5.5. Precision and ConfidencePrecision and Confidence
  14. 14. ConfidenceConfidence – Confidence refers to the probability that ourConfidence refers to the probability that our estimations are correct.estimations are correct. – That is, it is not merely enough to be precise,That is, it is not merely enough to be precise, but it is also important that we canbut it is also important that we can confidently claim that 95% of the time ourconfidently claim that 95% of the time our results would be true and there is only a 5%results would be true and there is only a 5% chance of our being wrong.chance of our being wrong. – This is also known as confidence level.This is also known as confidence level.
  15. 15. 6. Objectivity6. Objectivity The conclusions drawn through the interpretation ofThe conclusions drawn through the interpretation of the results of data analysis should be objective; thatthe results of data analysis should be objective; that is, they should be based on the facts of the findingsis, they should be based on the facts of the findings derived from actual data, and not on our subjectivederived from actual data, and not on our subjective or emotional values.or emotional values. Example: If we had a hypothesis that stated that greaterExample: If we had a hypothesis that stated that greater participation in decision making will increaseparticipation in decision making will increase organizational commitment and this was not supportedorganizational commitment and this was not supported by the results, it makes no sense if the researcherby the results, it makes no sense if the researcher continues to argue that increased opportunities forcontinues to argue that increased opportunities for employee participation would still help!employee participation would still help!
  16. 16. 7. Generalizability7. Generalizability It refers to the scope of applicability of theIt refers to the scope of applicability of the research findings in one organization setting toresearch findings in one organization setting to other settings.other settings. Example: If a researcher’s findings thatExample: If a researcher’s findings that participation in decision making enhancesparticipation in decision making enhances organizational commitment are found to be true inorganizational commitment are found to be true in a variety of manufacturing, industrial and servicea variety of manufacturing, industrial and service organizations, and not merely in the particularorganizations, and not merely in the particular organization studied by the researcher, then theorganization studied by the researcher, then the generalizability of the findings to othergeneralizability of the findings to other organizational settings in enhanced. The moreorganizational settings in enhanced. The more generalizable the research, the greater itsgeneralizable the research, the greater its usefulness and value.usefulness and value.
  17. 17. 8. Parsimony8. Parsimony Simplicity in explaining the phenomenon or problems thatSimplicity in explaining the phenomenon or problems that occur, and in generating solutions for the problems, isoccur, and in generating solutions for the problems, is always preferred to complex research frameworks thatalways preferred to complex research frameworks that consider an unmanageable number of factors.consider an unmanageable number of factors. For instance, if 2-3 specific variables in the work situation areFor instance, if 2-3 specific variables in the work situation are identified, which when changed would raise theidentified, which when changed would raise the organizational commitment of the employees by 45%, thatorganizational commitment of the employees by 45%, that would be more useful be more useful and valuable to thewould be more useful be more useful and valuable to the manager than if it were recommended that he shouldmanager than if it were recommended that he should change 10 different variables to increase organizationalchange 10 different variables to increase organizational commitment by 48%.commitment by 48%.
  18. 18. The Building Blocks of Science inThe Building Blocks of Science in ResearchResearch Deduction and InductionsDeduction and Inductions Answers to issues can be foundAnswers to issues can be found either by the process ofeither by the process of induction or the process ofinduction or the process of induction, or by a combinationinduction, or by a combination of the two.of the two.
  19. 19. DeductionDeduction  Deduction is the process by which we arrive at aDeduction is the process by which we arrive at a reasoned conclusion by logical generalization of areasoned conclusion by logical generalization of a known fact.known fact. Example: we know that all high performers are highlyExample: we know that all high performers are highly proficient in their jobs.proficient in their jobs. If John is a high performer, we then conclude that heIf John is a high performer, we then conclude that he is highly proficient in his jobis highly proficient in his job
  20. 20. InductionInduction  Induction is a process where we observe certainInduction is a process where we observe certain phenomena and on this basis arrive at conclusions.phenomena and on this basis arrive at conclusions. In other words, in induction we logicallyIn other words, in induction we logically establish a general proposition based onestablish a general proposition based on observed facts.observed facts.
  21. 21. To define or describe theTo define or describe the figure.figure. Figure is a five-sided figureFigure is a five-sided figure enclosing two dots.enclosing two dots.
  22. 22. The Hypothetico-Deductive MethodThe Hypothetico-Deductive Method
  23. 23. ObservationObservation – Observation is the first stage, in whichObservation is the first stage, in which one senses that certain changes areone senses that certain changes are occurring or that some new behaviors,occurring or that some new behaviors, attitudes and feelings are surfacing inattitudes and feelings are surfacing in one’s environment (i.e., the workone’s environment (i.e., the work place).place). – How does one observe phenomena andHow does one observe phenomena and changes in the environment?changes in the environment?
  24. 24. Preliminary Information Gathering:Preliminary Information Gathering: – It involves the seeking of information in depth, ofIt involves the seeking of information in depth, of what is observed.what is observed. – This could be done by talking informally to severalThis could be done by talking informally to several people in the work setting or to clients or to otherpeople in the work setting or to clients or to other relevant sources, thereby gathering information onrelevant sources, thereby gathering information on what is happening and why. (Unstructuredwhat is happening and why. (Unstructured interviews)interviews) – Then it is followed by structured interviews.Then it is followed by structured interviews. – Additionally by doing library research or obtainingAdditionally by doing library research or obtaining information through other sources, the investigatorinformation through other sources, the investigator would identify how such issues have been tackledwould identify how such issues have been tackled in other situations.in other situations.
  25. 25. Theory FormulationTheory Formulation – It is an attempt to integrate all theIt is an attempt to integrate all the information in a logical manners, so that theinformation in a logical manners, so that the factors responsible for the problem can befactors responsible for the problem can be on conceptualized and tested.on conceptualized and tested. – The theoretical framework formulated isThe theoretical framework formulated is often guided by experience and intuition.often guided by experience and intuition. – In this step the critical variables areIn this step the critical variables are identified and examined as to theiridentified and examined as to their contribution or influence in explaining whycontribution or influence in explaining why the problem occurs and how it can bethe problem occurs and how it can be solved.solved.
  26. 26. HypothesizingHypothesizing – It is the next logical step after theory formulation.It is the next logical step after theory formulation. – From the theorized network of associations amongFrom the theorized network of associations among the variables, certain testable hypotheses orthe variables, certain testable hypotheses or educated conjectures can be generated.educated conjectures can be generated. – Hypothesis testing is called deductive research.Hypothesis testing is called deductive research. Sometimes, hypotheses that were not originallySometimes, hypotheses that were not originally formulated do get generated through the process offormulated do get generated through the process of induction.induction.
  27. 27. Further Specific Data CollectionFurther Specific Data Collection –After the development of theAfter the development of the hypotheses, data with respecthypotheses, data with respect to each variable in theto each variable in the hypotheses need to behypotheses need to be obtained.obtained. –Further data are collected toFurther data are collected to test the hypotheses that aretest the hypotheses that are generated in the study.generated in the study.
  28. 28. Data AnalysisData Analysis – Data gathered are statistically analyzedData gathered are statistically analyzed to see if the hypotheses that wereto see if the hypotheses that were generated have been supported.generated have been supported. – Co relational method will be used toCo relational method will be used to analyze and determine the relation shipanalyze and determine the relation ship of two or more factors in theof two or more factors in the hypotheses for example: stockhypotheses for example: stock availability and customer satisfactionavailability and customer satisfaction..
  29. 29. DeductionDeduction –Deduction is the process ofDeduction is the process of arriving at conclusions byarriving at conclusions by interpreting the meaning ofinterpreting the meaning of results of the data analysis.results of the data analysis.
  30. 30. Other Types of ResearchOther Types of Research  Case studies and action researchCase studies and action research are sometimes used to studyare sometimes used to study certain types of issues.certain types of issues. 1.1. Case StudiesCase Studies 2.2. Action ResearchAction Research
  31. 31. Case StudiesCase Studies  Case studies involve in depth, contextual analyses ofCase studies involve in depth, contextual analyses of similar situations in the other organizations, wheresimilar situations in the other organizations, where the nature and definition of the problem happen to bethe nature and definition of the problem happen to be the same as experienced in the current situation.the same as experienced in the current situation.  Case study, as a problem solving technique, is notCase study, as a problem solving technique, is not often undertaken in organizations because suchoften undertaken in organizations because such studies dealing with problems similar to the onestudies dealing with problems similar to the one experienced by a particular organization of aexperienced by a particular organization of a particular size and in a particular type of setting areparticular size and in a particular type of setting are difficult to come by.difficult to come by.
  32. 32. Action ResearchAction Research  The researcher begins with a problem that is alreadyThe researcher begins with a problem that is already identified and gathers relevant data to provide aidentified and gathers relevant data to provide a tentative problem solution.tentative problem solution.  This solution is then implemented, with theThis solution is then implemented, with the knowledge that there may be unintendedknowledge that there may be unintended consequences following such implementation.consequences following such implementation.  The effects are then evaluated, defined and diagnosedThe effects are then evaluated, defined and diagnosed and the research continues on an ongoing basis untiland the research continues on an ongoing basis until the problem is fully resolved.the problem is fully resolved.

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