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Needs Something that is necessary for an organism to live a healthy life Deficiency would cause a clear negative outcome - deficiency or death Can be Objective/Physical or Subjective Objective needs - food, shelter, sleep Subjective needs – affection, acceptance, self- esteem
Ten Fundamental Human Needs Protection Idleness affection Creation subsistenc e Understan ding transcend ence Participati on freedom Identity
The needs - MeaningNeed Meaning (having things)subsistence food, shelter, workprotection social security, health systems, workaffection friendships, family, relationships with natureunderstanding literature, teachers, policies, educationalparticipation responsibilities, duties, work, rightsleisure games, parties, peace of mindcreation abilities, skills, work, techniquesidentity language, religions, work, customs, values, normsfreedom equal rights
Abraham MaslowProfessor of PsychologyColumbia UniversityOriginal thinkerPredecessors focused on the abnormaland the illMaslow focused on positive qualities ofpeople (April 1, 1908 – June 8, 1970)
Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs Proposed in his paper – A Theory of Human Motivation, in 1943 Focuses on describing the stages of growth in humans On study of exemplary people such as Albert Einstein, etc, rather than mentally crippled or mentally ill
Physiological Needs• Mostly, literal requirements for human survival• If not met, the human body cannot function• Metabolic needs – air, water, food, rest• Clothing, shelter – needed by even animals• Could be classified as basic animal needs
Safety Needs• Once physical needs are met, safety needs take over• Personal including emotional• Health and well-being• Financial, job security• Safety of property against natural disasters, calamities, wars, etc• Law & order
Social Needs• Need to love and be loved• Need to feel a sense of belonging and acceptance• Small groups – clubs, office teams, school/college houses• Large groups – political parties, Sports teams, facebook
Esteem Needs• Need to be respected by others and in turn respect them• Sense of contribution, to feel self-valued, in profession or hobby• Lower - respect of others, the need for status, recognition, fame, prestige, and attention• Higher - self-respect, the need for strength, competence, mastery, self-confidence, independence and freedom
Self Actualization Needs• What a man can be, he must be• Intrinsic growth of what is already in a person• Growth-motivated rather than deficiency- motivated• Cannot normally be reached until other lower order needs are met• Rarely happens - < 1%• Acceptance of facts, spontaneous, focused on problems outside self, without prejudice
Maslow’s Theory in Practice in Management Products are formed and placed to satisfy a category of needs in marketing as well as advertising
Maslow’s Theory in Marketing/Advertising• PN - wife/child-abuse help-lines, social security benefits, Samaritans, roadside recovery.• SN- home security products, insurance, life assurance, schools.• EN- cosmetics, fast cars, home improvements, furniture, fashion clothes, drinks, lifestyle products and services.