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  • 1. Resource Efficient,Low Carbon CitiesFrom the Environmental Sustainability Knowledge Transfer Network
  • 2. Future Cities| September, 2012Resource Efficient, Low Carbon CitiesThe Grand Challenge:Reducing carbon dioxide emissions is not the only pressing issue to be addressed for a city of thefuture. An expanding population with improving standard of living, migrating into cities means that wewill not be able to ensure access to the key resources. This includes food and water, minerals andmetals, oil and power. The effective use of resources, energy and social capital is key for long-termeconomic success. In promoting innovation we take account of the ‘triple bottom line’ ofenvironmental, social and financial sustainability.A future city will be an economically successful, resource efficient, positive place to liveThe Context:Using Backcasting techniques a stakeholder workshop identified five aspects of a Resource EfficientLow Carbon Future City:Figure 1: Five aspects of a Resource Efficient Low Carbon Future City 2
  • 3. Future Cities| September, 20121. Best Practice DeploymentA city of the future would comprise a number of Symbiotic systems e.g. integrated water/wastewater/energy generation. City infrastructure would be Sustainable (in line with the 3Ps ofsustainability), resilient and flexible. This could be in the form of a “resilient” energy infrastructure orprocurement practices which focus on the desired outputs, not the method of delivery, thus allowingthe easier deployment of new technologies and business models as they are developed.The City will have functioning networks of “green” infrastructure providing essential eco-systemservices. The development of best practices in technology and other areas will ensure that allresources are used to maximum potential throughout the life cycle. It will be easy to move materialresources around the city using low carbon transport infrastructure (both for first life and end of lifeusage and distribution).2. People FocusedThe future City will be a pleasant place for the occupants to live and work. It will have a stable, slowgrowth population of “Happy” people. It will create a culture that means everyone contributes to thevision and people will want to make the city attractive to live in.Technology will enable Citizens to have access to data to choose the “right thing” and this “selfinterest” will drive economic and competitive uses of resources. Good sustainable urban planning willmean that People will live near to good local services and facilities to reduce transport needs andminimise congestion.3. Effective use of Energy and HeatIn our City we are capturing fugitive heat and reusing it as heat or power. (From processes andservices which are generating lots of waste heat e.g. data centres). This, combined with effectiveenergy recovery from waste materials, will provide secure energy for the city. In fact some cities mayeven be self-sufficient or even export energy.It will have climate sensitive buildings. Energy use in buildings will be much reduced through: buildinginsulation, low energy lighting, newer buildings. Materials and energy currently treated as waste willbe used productively.4. Commercial Brand ImageThe city of the future will be attractive to investors and new residents. It should be commerciallyvibrant and also have the infrastructure and facilities to attract new business and the staff /customers. It will be more competitive by virtue of being more resource-efficient. The effective use ofphysical resources and utilities will lead to lower costs for business operations and residents. The costof resources and understanding of their true value will drive efficiencies. e.g. “Another thing thatshould not be belittled is that Amsterdam Smart City has succeeded in branding Amsterdam as aforward thinking city with smart ideas, and has made Amsterdam an international example in whichother cities can find inspiration.” 3
  • 4. Future Cities| September, 20125. Efficient Use of Material ResourcesNatural Resource flows will be driven to optimise resource consumption, minimisation of waste. Therewill be a zero waste culture; materials which cannot be economically recovered elsewhere in the valuechain will be used in energy generation.Utilisation of “waste” energy will be a driving factor in the issuing of planning permits. For examplenew commercial enterprises will need to use renewable or district heating grids. Wastes arereprocessed to generate electricity / heat and low carbon fuels (biodiesel and gas), this include foodwastes and waste water solids. The city will be part of a complex system comprising many interlinked“closed loops”.In the move towards a more “circular economy” in product life cycles, the “end of life” managementof materials and products will have a significant role to play in the creation of new products andproduction of resilient water and energy supplies.In order to use resources more efficiently, it is essential to consider the lifecycle of the resource, whichmay encompass multiple product lifetimes. The opportunities to improve the resource efficiency anddecrease the carbon intensity of products are not limited to a specific stage of the lifecycle, andimprovements at one stage may have an adverse impact on another.The greatest benefits accrue by moving from the traditional “linear lifecycle”;(extract  consume  waste) to a closed-loop /circular process as shown in the diagram. Extract Manufacture Extract Manufacture Consume Dispose Dispose ConsumeFigure 2: Linear and Circular economies 4
  • 5. Future Cities| September, 2012However, as cities are always going to be importers of resources, the model is more like a vortexshape of almost closed loops, each extracting maximum value from a resource before it exits to thenext loop. Resources In Extract maximum value from resources Waste Materials OutFigure 3: VortexTop Priorities for the Catapult to Focus onThe themes identified were separated into “technical” and “non-technical” topics and a number ofthese “technical” topics were further explored in the second workshop.From this exercise the following challenges were identified and expanded. • Efficient Use of Resources / Maximising Value of Resources • Resource Efficient Communities / Smart Neighbourhoods • Data Collection and Modelling • Heat movement and storage 5
  • 6. Future Cities| September, 2012The Challenge: Efficient Use of Resources / Maximising Value of ResourcesA significant area of discussion focused on the areas of “traditional” resource efficiency which areoften highlighted in workshop around this topic. These have included improved recycling technologies,waste collection and separation strategies and technologies, sustainable design, remanufacturingthrough to energy from waste.Although phrases such as “closed loop” and “circular economy” are becoming popular ways todescribe some resource efficiency concepts, they are not necessarily the correct way to describe thiswithin a city system. Due to the nature of a “city” there will be a net import of materials andresources. What is required is the extraction of maximum value from these resources. These materialswill have an associated cost to them on entry to the city system it is vital that the full value of them is“realised” within the city.Resource flows will be driven to optimise resource consumption, minimisation of waste. There will bea move towards zero waste culture; materials which cannot be economically recovered elsewhere inthe value chain will be used in energy generation and soil enrichment.The city will be part of a complex system comprising many interlinked “closed loops”, which willeffectively make a spiral of the value chain until maximum value has been extracted from thematerials.Some of this valorisation of materials feeds into “effective utilisation of energy” as energy recovery is avalid use of materials.The real innovations to be had in this area are around the integration of the disparate systemscurrently in place in many systems which deal with the various waste streams and under different setsof regulation. E.g. household waste water, municipal solid waste, industrial / business waste /industrial waste water etc.There is also the opportunity to redesign products and services to be more resource efficient andcontribute to the “circular economy” model. UK businesses have a significant market opportunity todevelop products and services that make better use of materials in a world that is already facingincreasing competition and prices for these resources. Better resource management not only helpsconserve materials, but also contributes to the low-carbon economy through the management of‘embedded carbon’.In recent years there has been considerable progress made in areas such as recycling and materialrecovery as much as 80% of material flows in the UK economy are still based on the linear model of‘take-make-dispose’, according to data from WRAP (Waste and Resources Action Programme). Thisrecovery rate and the recovery of materials at a higher level in the value chain could be increased byadopting innovative new designs and resource efficient business models; for example, researchsuggests that around 33% of electronic products are still functioning when they are discarded.Extending product lifetimes however, requires not only measures targeting changes in product designand manufacturing, but also complementary measures aimed at changing consumer behaviour andbusiness models.To address the issue of maximising value of “post consumer” goods and materials the idea of“remanufacturing and industrial resource parks” was suggested. 6
  • 7. Future Cities| September, 2012These could embrace a number of the following concepts; • Repair and refurbishment of products - • Remanufacture of products – • Recovery and reuse of components – on site and off site o Also reuse of construction and demolition waste to create new construction materials on site • Recovery and reuse of materials - on site and off site • Recycling of material for use on site and off site • Heat recovery and waste derived fuels • Production of compost and soil improversThe Challenge: Resource Efficient Communities / Smart NeighbourhoodsThis is interlinked with the issue of “Efficient Use of Resources / Maximising Value of Resources”. Theeffective integration of housing and community services could make a significant contribution toresource efficiency and the carbon footprint of the city.The focus of this work stream is not the deployment of photovoltaics, insulation and renewableenergy sources in the community, which we have assumed would be par for the course in “futurecities” and will also be addressed to some extent in the “resilient energy” area, whether retro-fitted ornew build. It is more focused on a new approach to the use of resources and materials within thecommunity.There is a need for large scale deployment of a number of the concepts below at “community scale” orwider. These residential areas would be fully monitored to measure the resource flows in and out,energy consumption and production, environmental scale of the impacts and social impacts onresidents.The resources that have been identified include a range of currently available technologies as well asconcepts requiring further development;• Development and deployment of water saving technologies; o Rainwater harvesting – and quality improvement where required to British Standard for rainwater Harvesting  Flushing  Washing machines  Garden irrigation o Grey water reuse – and quality improvement where required to British Standard for Grey water  Dishwashers  Washing machines  Showers etc.. o Waterless technology• Integration of waste water/sewage systems with food waste disposal 7
  • 8. Future Cities| September, 2012 o For treatment by localised Anaerobic Digestion plants 1 which could provide heat and power back into the community as well as source of soil improver.• New logistics models and responsibility for delivery of goods and collection of waste. o Collection of recyclables by shopping delivery service o Waste collection on demand – “smart” systems to enable householders to have waste and materials collected when needed. o Incentive based recycling systems – ways to reward good behaviour in consumers e.g. local reverse vending machinesWhy is this a priority challenge area? Why is this a complex challenge?This is a priority area as people and communities are the real reason that cities exist and canpotentially have a significant on the overall impacts of the city on the surrounding environment.However, the impact of the citizens can also be mitigated by the type of resources/ products that arepurchased, the way they are delivered, the way that they are used and disposed of. This creates acomplex structure of interlinked challenges ranging from product design, technical integration ofservices through to behavioural change.Who are the stakeholders for this challenge?Stakeholders in this area are diverseProduct and service design - Product designers - Manufacturers, - Retailers and distributors - ConsumersDesign of resource efficient technologies - Innovative SMEs - Universities and research centres - Large businessIntegration and deployment of Technologies - Energy and water utilities - Construction companies - Planners / local authority - Waste companies - ICT companies - Consumers1 http://www.recyclingwasteworld.co.uk/cgi-bin/go.pl/article/article.html?uid=93697;type_uid=49 8
  • 9. Future Cities| September, 2012Additionality – how will the Catapult add value over and above work that might be carried outelsewhere?Some of the innovation in these areas lies in the combination and deployment of existing technologiesalongside new ideas. Many of these have been demonstrated at small scale, but there is a greatopportunity to build a large scale demonstration of a combination of the state of the art concepts.The catapult can provide the mechanism to bring these diverse stakeholders together and facilitatejoined-up thinking to address these problems.The planned monitoring, modelling and observation capability of the Catapult will be essential for thecollection of real time data on the material flows, impacts and emissions within these activities.Where are the overlaps with other themes in the Future Cities SIG?This area is heavily influenced by the attitudes and behaviours of the occupants of cities. It is essentialto educate, empower and employ “people” in order to move towards Resource Efficient Communities/ Smart Neighbourhoods. This can be achieved through the engaging citizens work stream and theconnecting city systems. The effective movement of “materials” and “resources” around a city is alsopart of a resource efficient community and this will feed into activities in the Increasing populationwithout increasing congestion work stream.The Challenge: Data Collection and Modelling (Energy and Resources)Participants commented that technological solutions to many resource efficiency problems alreadyexist but that their deployment and, as such, their propagation and further development, are hinderedby lack of data and models and by the difficulty of overcoming ‘institutional inertia’; contrasting withcountries such as Sweden, Denmark and Germany where, it was perceived, “They just get on and doit.”In all groups much was made of the need for detailed mapping of resource flows, including energy. Itwas considered that the development of comprehensive models would permit analysis leading to theidentification of potential areas of synergy. It was perceived that there were problems associated withthe ownership and security of data, interoperability of data (calls for an Internet of Things for energy)and the availability of maps and models for use by third parties (would they be open-sourceplatforms?)Some participants called for research into the dynamic use of energy data based on real-time buildingand appliance use. This would require collaboration and cooperation between energy providers.Similarly, it was proposed that mapping and modelling of materials flows and patterns of use mightenable more resources to be reused and wastes diverted from disposal to secondary uses or recoveryof constituent materials. Without obvious initial benefit or value to individual organizations it will benecessary to establish the ownership, governance and financial structures associated with the datagathering and modelling. 9
  • 10. Future Cities| September, 2012Why is this a priority challenge area?It is a well-known adage that ‘If you can’t measure it you can’t manage it’. By providing the data andinformation on how cities operate now it is possible to generate models and thereby look at linkagesbetween variables. With comprehensive (robust) models it is possible to look at how changes to inputsmight impact on other aspects of the city performance in the future and to trial different options todetermine what is favourable.Pilot-scale interventions can be measured and monitored and their impacts compared against city-models to establish whether the projected impacts accord with reality. By having a city-wide, multi-dimensional model it is possible to fast-track developments that can be shown as beneficial and avoidcostly mistakes.Why is this a complex challenge?Cities are large and complex entities and there are many interrelated variables. Cities already collectmuch data but this is held in a number of different formats and on different platforms. Disparateentities within cities will collect data and generate information that is unknown to others. Even withincity authorities there is rarely a ‘governing mind’ analogous to a brain and there are often vestedinterests that prevent collaboration or disclosure. Questions of data ownership and storage,protection of personal or commercially sensitive interests and the potential for misuse of data are allfactors that mitigate against the development of such widespread monitoring and measurement.Who are the stakeholders for this challenge?Because of the wide scope of this ‘challenge’ the stakeholder community is hard to define. CertainlyCity Authorities have an interest in the potential to simulate interventions and determine whetherpolicies will be effective before they are implemented. Similarly a real-time monitoring system willallow them to ‘fine-tune’ or optimize existing systems. Obviously the manufacturers of monitoringand data collection devices will be key to the development of low cost and robust systems ofmeasurement. Similarly, the IT consultancies that will devise and maintain the models and databaseshave a central role as do game designers who might be involved in providing virtual environments(serious gaming). Social scientists should be heavily involved, given the ‘Orwellian’ overtones of an all-seeing environment or ‘panopticon’. Without the engagement and consent of citizens it might provedifficult to justify the necessary expenditure.Additionality – how will the Catapult add value over and above work that might be carried outelsewhere?The Catapult will, in the first instance, act as a space in which all parties can come together to explorethe concept and work out details. Catapult staff will act as moderators of discussions to ensure thatvested interests do not dominate. Catapult funding will enable participants to engage withoutincurring full cost.The potential impact on the challenge and timescales of impactBy undertaking a trial project it will be possible for the host city to obtain a clearer view of theworkings of its component parts, enabling it to manage better the use of resources (material andenergy). The time to implement such a programme is likely to be significant due to the ill-definednature of the proposals and the requirement for widespread consultation ahead of implementation. 10
  • 11. Future Cities| September, 2012Capability and resource requirements to address the challenge: e.g. technical expertise, capitalfacilities and equipment, etc.In order to undertake projects in this space it will be necessary to engage the expertise of multipleparties, including; suppliers of IT infrastructure - both hardware (sensors, wireless networks) andsoftware (database, serious gaming); resource efficiency/industrial symbiosis expertise (e.g.NISP/International Synergies) in order to facilitate dialogue and design the experimental set-up, cityauthorities to ensure buy-in from potential participants and allow access to public sector facilities;energy utilities; material suppliers and waste handling companies as well as attendant logisticsproviders. Importantly, it will be necessary to support the development of any pervasive datacollection and handling with appropriate social science expertise.Ahead of a funding call to refine the project specification it is difficult to determine precisely what willbe required by way of capital, facilities and equipment. It is likely that there will be a significant needof RFID tags or similar to track the movement of materials and substantial investment in thedevelopment/integration of wireless networks. A suitably-scaled and representative domain in whichto apply the measurement and modelling is necessary. This might consist of a borough, a campus, avillage or something similarly discrete in order to be able to identify and delineate the parameters tobe measured and monitored.Example projects or activities - Virtual environment for the trading of waste products incorporating third-party tracking and brokerage as well as one-to-one interaction - Distributed, pervasive monitoring and mapping of energy usage and waste heat generation. - Modelling of stand-by generation capacity for use in periods of peak demand. - The application of serious gaming technology to model the user interface in a virtual environment through a number of scenariosHeadline Business Case for activity – Predicted impact on UK businesses, activity, jobs, etc, andinward investment opportunities; How much investment for this kind of impact? Who wouldbenefit? What are the opportunities for UK industry? Is this an opportunity for UK to take a globallead?The main drivers for the many calls for greater measurement and monitoring were the need forgreater efficiency of city systems and the ability to track resources such that they can be readilycaptured for re-use, thus saving cost, reducing emissions of CO2 and minimizing waste.If it were possible to demonstrate that it is feasible to develop meaningful information from theaccrual of mass datasets on the material and energy resources in a city then it is possible that UKbased consultants can sell the expertise globally however it is not readily apparent where the scope isfor the development of a significant technological component that might result in the establishment ofmanufacturing facilities or licensing opportunities.What are the opportunities for SMEs and how do they enter the market?SMEs are unlikely to be the main ‘players’ in this market initially, although they will almost certainlyfeature in the supply chains of the large consultancy companies that will undertake the datamanagement and modelling. However, it is likely that some of the computer gaming and virtual 11
  • 12. Future Cities| September, 2012environment design will be carried out by SMEs and SMEs will certainly benefit from the efficiencygains resulting from implementation of the measurement and modelling.Where are the overlaps with other themes in the Future Cities SIG?This area is heavily influenced by the attitudes and behaviours of the occupants’ of cities. It is essentialto educate, empower and employ “people” in order to be able to collect the required data. This can beachieved through the engaging citizens work stream and the connecting city systems. The effectivemovement of “materials” and “resources” around a city is also part of a resource efficient communityand this will feed into activities in the Increasing population and without increasing congestion workstream.The Challenge: Heat movement and storageThere was much discussion at both workshops of the problem of waste heat energy in urban areas:both the impacts of fugitive heat and the need for cooling but primarily the capture, storage, transportand deployment of heat energy. Examples were given of large industrial heat sources (extant or inplanning) that are (or will be) located remotely from the parts of the city that require heat or theenergy that might be recovered from it.Examples were given of schemes where heat was being scavenged (e.g. PepsiCo in Leicester) and itwas agreed that the technology exists to capture and re-use heat locally, however heat transport oversignificant distances is problematic due to losses via temperature gradient and because of the veryhigh costs of trenching for pipe laying.It is evident that an expensive and carbon-intensive resource is being wasted in cities the world overand that cost and environmental impact could be minimised by devising policies and mechanisms toencourage and enable its reuse. By establishing a viable market in heat the producers of heat wouldbenefit by selling their ‘waste’, those involved in the capture, storage and transport would benefit byselling the heat and those in the construction and technology sectors who facilitate the wholetransaction would benefit through the development of equipment and systems that could bereplicated globally.Specific comments from the workshop on the 5th September include: • ‘Look at best practice for energy and heat mapping (e.g. Nottingham City Council, Sheffield University/NERC)’ • ‘Grades of “waste” heat mapped to enable co-location of possible users’ • ‘Policies for the geographically appropriate siting of industry (e.g. industries with large cooling demand in colder areas)’ • ‘Look at planning policy and zoning to reduce energy wastage – create standards’ • ‘Examine existing District Heating Schemes (Sheffield and Birmingham in the UK, global best- practice e.g. Copenhagen Heat Networks) to look at the constraints and examine where improvement is required.’ • ‘Look at failed schemes to learn lessons for the future.’ • ‘Need for effective Low and High grade heat storage technologies.’ • ‘Putting wasted (heat) Energy to use. • Establish network to identify partnering opportunities 12
  • 13. Future Cities| September, 2012 • Develop credible models to evaluate the cost & benefit to both parties (supplier & user) • Include environmental & social cost/benefit.’ • ‘Look at imaginative uses for waste heat, e.g. saunas.’Why is this a priority challenge area?The problem of what to do about waste heat is a priority challenge because it represents both ahugely expensive wasted resource and a significant environmental impact. Moreover, the Urban HeatIsland effect (to which waste heat is a contributing factor) is a significant factor in urban poor healthissues and has a knock-on environmental impact in that it encourages the use of cooling devices suchas air conditioning; in themselves very energy intensive and generators of waste heat.Why is this a complex challenge?The complexity lies in the fact that waste heat is generated in many parts of the urban environmentand similarly potential users of waste heat are widely distributed. Heat energy is generated in a varietyof forms (low temperature, high temperature, hot air, steam etc.) and does not always lend itself tocapture. Waste heat is generated continually even when the demand for it from potential users isreduced.Who are the stakeholders for this challenge?Stakeholders include the (mostly large industrial) producers of waste heat, potential users includingother industries, office and domestic accommodation and swimming pools, city authorities who haveresponsibility for the infrastructure through which waste heat might be transported (roads,pavements, public spaces) and technology providers. Energy utilities have often been involved in thedelivery of combined heat and power systems and would most likely be key stakeholders in thischallenge. The construction sector would need to be involved in order to work on the problemsassociated with pipe installation.Additionality – how will the Catapult add value over and above work that might be carried outelsewhere?Because the issue does not belong to one group of stakeholders it is a knotty problem that no one iskeen to ‘own’. By pulling stakeholders together in a research project and demonstrating a workablemodel for assessing, modelling, allocating, storing and transporting waste heat the Catapult canaccelerate the development of a market and as such the provision of technological solutions toaddress that market.The potential impact on the challenge and timescales of impactCombined Heat and Power systems exist but are not commonplace and are generally designed fromscratch. This represents an opportunity to make inroads into the use of a distributed resource byestablishing the economic viability, technical feasibility and ‘do-ability’.An exercise in mapping heat sources and sinks across a medium-sized city such as Leeds orNottingham might be achieved in 6 months with a further 6 month modelling period.Trials of trenchless pipe-installation techniques might reasonably be achieved within one year. 13
  • 14. Future Cities| September, 2012The investigation of alternatives to heat transfer in pipes could be undertaken inside 6 monthsalthough the development of appropriate infrastructure and transport media/vehicles might be along-term project (1-2 years)Capability and resource requirements to address the challenge: e.g. technical expertise, capitalfacilities and equipment, etc.In order to address this challenge it will be necessary to work with a city that has one or, preferably,more large heat sources and potential users of the waste heat. It will be necessary to involvemanufacturers and installers of thermally insulated pipework (assuming that is considered the optimalmeans of transporting the heat energy) or manufacturers of equipment for the recovery of low gradeheat for the generation of power (e.g. Rankine Cycle engines). It will require academic input to designexperiments and undertake measurement, analysis and reporting and will need strong central co-ordination and facilitation to ensure all parties remain engaged.Example projects or activities- Comparison of different heat transport media.- Exploring the use of road/rail transport of heated media to get around the expense and difficulty involved in the installation of (underground) pipe networks.- Analysis of heat recovery and transport versus direct recovery of heat energy as electric power and re-use via the grid.- City-wide mapping of heat sources and potential sinks including real-time inputs- District-scale modelling of heat generation and needs and subsequent construction of heat distribution network using novel, low-cost technology and trenching/trenchless techniques.Headline Business Case for activity – Predicted impact on UK businesses, activity, jobs, etc, andinward investment opportunities; How much investment for this kind of impact? Who wouldbenefit? What are the opportunities for UK industry? Is this an opportunity for UK to take a globallead?The business case lies in the recovery of what is currently a wasted resource. By capturing and reusinga substantial energy source, cities can reduce the costs of operation for businesses, making themattractive places for companies to locate (including overseas companies) and thereby stimulating cityeconomies. If widely developed, the reduction in energy demand generally will contribute to thecompetitiveness of UK plc and contribute to the reduction in CO2 emissions required by government.There are opportunities to use waste heat for heat-intensive nascent industries such as city-farms orbiorefineries for the production of algal-derived fuels and other chemicals/chemical feedstocks. Thesesectors have struggled to get off the ground to date because of the high energy costs but representpotentially high-value industries, contributing significantly to city economies.By reducing the emissions to the low atmosphere of waste heat it will be possible to impact on thereduction of the heat-island effect and thereby making a general contribution to well-being in cities. 14
  • 15. Future Cities| September, 2012For the companies involved in manufacturing of equipment and devising methods of deploying noveltechnologies there is the opportunity to be First Movers and to export those skills and equipmentsince this is a global issue. If it were possible to demonstrate low-cost and efficient means of movingwaste heat around an urban environment, the potential implications for UK manufacturing andconsulting would be significant.What are the opportunities for SMEs and how do they enter the market?Opportunities for SME involvement are not immediately apparent however the establishment of amarket will inevitably generate supply-chain roles in servicing the requirements of large infrastructureengineering companies. It is unlikely that such a novel market sector could be delivered using onlyexisting technology and methods of working.Where are the overlaps with other themes in the Future Cities SIG?There are numerous potential overlaps/interfaces between this challenge and those being addressedby others in the SIG and the associated KTNs: Resilient energy, effective use of resources, energygeneration and supply and the Energy SIG.Potential Role of the CatapultIn the areas addressed under the theme of Resource Efficiency, much of the potential innovation inlies in the combination and deployment of existing technologies alongside new ideas. Many of thesetechnologies have been demonstrated on small scale, often as the result of funded research projectsbut there is a great need to build large scale demonstrators with a combination of the state of the artconcepts.The Catapult can provide the mechanisms to bring these diverse stakeholders together, access fundingand facilitate joined up thinking to address these problems. Lending its brand to the project(s) willhelp get around the issue of ‘not invented here’ syndrome or parochialism.The planned monitoring, modelling and observation capability of the Catapult will be essential for thecollection of real time data on the benefits, impacts and emissions within these activities.Recommendations to the Technology Strategy BoardThe UK has enjoyed decades of growth in wealth and wellbeing, based on a linear consumptionpattern, fuelled by intensive use of resources. However there is now a dual challenge of stimulatingthe growth needed to provide jobs and well-being to its citizens, and of ensuring that the quality ofthis growth leads to a sustainable future.To tackle these challenges and turn them into opportunities the UK economy will require afundamental transformation within a generation – in energy, industry, transport systems, and inproducer and consumer behaviour.The creation of a Future Cities Catapult, with a strong focus on “Resource Efficient – SmartNeighbourhoods” will enable this transformation in a timely, predictable and controlled manner andwill allow us to develop our wealth and wellbeing, whilst reducing the levels and impact of ourresource use. 15
  • 16. Future Cities| September, 2012In addition, becoming more resource efficient will lead to lowering carbon emissions. A city’s carbonemissions could be characterized as in-manufacture, in-use and at point of disposal (the carbonfootprint of a city). The opportunity exists, therefore to establish systems and business models thatrequire fewer initial inputs, which maximise efficiency in use and that recover as much as possiblepost-use. Specifically, it is recommended that projects be procured which address the use, reuse andrecovery of materials and the capture, transfer and reuse of heat energy at a pilot-scale. Both of theseinitiatives would require a significant element of data capture and modelling in order for them to beconsidered of significant benefit. 16
  • 17. Future Cities| September, 2012Appendix 1: Key Stakeholders: Who should the Catapult engage with?Some suggested stakeholder representatives. Affiliation Experience/Expertise Marks and Spencer plc ESKTN Board Member Sustainable retail / Sustainable food supply Sustainable construction / Plan A SITA External Affairs director at SITA UK Veolia Managing Director at Veolia Environmental Services plc ASDA Head of Corporate Sustainability Sustainable retail / Sustainable food supply Waste management Independent Sustainable retail / Sustainable food supply consultant – Retail Sector Waste management Geneco (Wessex General Manager, Geneco Water) Wastewater, Sustainable transport (bio-gas for transport) Carillion Chief Sustainability Officer Sustainable construction, Building services Halcrow Global Leader, Tunnel engineering Below-ground infrastructure Balfour Beatty Global Head of Sustainability Peel Holdings Director of Sustainability Transport Communities / Retail Waste / Energy Ellen Macarthur Chief Executive Foundation (Partners = B&Q, BT/Cisco, Rethinking the economy Renault and National Grid The Circular Economy Towns (and cities) in transition Transition Towns Co-founder of Transition Town Totnes and of Movement the Transition Network Coordinated the first eco-village development in Ireland to be granted planning permission. 17
  • 18. Future Cities| September, 2012Affiliation Experience/ExpertiseProfessor of Trustee of Urban Mines, Chair of the Academy forSustainable Spatial Sustainable Communities. Vice-President of the TownDevelopment at the and Country Planning Association, Hon-Chair of theUniversity of Leeds Regional Studies Association,Birmingham City Head of Climate Change & SustainabilityCouncilIndependent Ex Director of Biffa Waste Services Limited, Chair ofConsultant Waste2Tricity renewable energyWRAP Resource Efficiency and Sustainable Development (Design and Waste Prevention)Energy Innovation Denise heads up the world-class Energy InnovationCentre Centre, taking the lead in assisting individuals and businesses in getting their ideas to commercialisationEnergy Technology Chief ExecutiveInstituteForum for the Future?AECOM consulting Technical Director District Energy and SustainabilityengineersMilton Keynes Interim Dean, founded Smart Cities InstituteUniversitySevern Trent Water Water Strategy ManagerEON Energy Sustainable Cities InitiativeYorkshire Water Head of Innovation DeliveryArup Global Head of WaterUnited Utilities Innovation ManagerMarks and Spencer Sustainable Raw Materials SpecialistBalfour Beatty Global Head of SustainabilityCBI Policy Advisor, SustainabilityStrathclyde University Former Head of Energy Policy Scottish Government, all round guru on energy and cities http://www.strath.ac.uk/economics/staff/bellinghamric hard 18
  • 19. Future Cities| September, 2012Appendix 2: Examples: List of examples of best practice from around the world• Centre for Low Carbon Futures – Resource Efficient Cities http://www.lowcarbonfutures.org/projects/smart-infrastructure/future-cities• Sustainable Urban Environments – multi-university long term initiative in UK http://www.urbansustainabilityexchange.org.uk/ISSUESSueProgramme.htm and subsidiary consortia - http://www.urbansustainabilityexchange.org.uk/ISSUESSueConsortia.htm• Sustainable Cities Research Institute, University of Northumbria• King’s College MSC Sustainable Cities http://www.kcl.ac.uk/prospectus/graduate/sustainable- cities• Helsinki – Low to No http://ec.europa.eu/environment/ecoinnovation2012/1st_forum/presentations/day1/session_3_ 1_justin_cook.pdf• Sheffield EWF plant and district heating - http://www.chpa.co.uk/chp-with-district- heating_187.html http://www.veoliaenvironmentalservices.co.uk/Sheffield/What-happens-to- your-waste/District-Energy/• Bristol http://www.sustainablebristol.com/topics/resources/• Birmingham – district heating http://tinyurl.com/6nktc7d• Masdar City http://www.masdarcity.ae/en/ - UAE• Various EU cities participating in Biogas Max project http://www.biogasmax.eu/ deriving biogas from organic wastes and using it as a fuel for municipal transport.• Various EU cities participating in Eco-City project demonstration sites http://www.ecocity- project.eu/ especially Trondheim http://www.ecocity-project.eu/TheProjectTrondheim.html• Melbourne City as a Catchment ‘total water cycle management’ - http://wsud.melbournewater.com.au/• Vancouver 2020 – greenest city initiative http://vancouver.ca/greenestcity/ with a ten-point action plan summarized in pdf documents such as ‘Clean Water’, ‘Zero Waste’ and ‘Lighter Footprint’. University of British Columbia Centre for Interactive Research on Sustainability.• Hamburg Ecocity - http://www.ecocity.de/en a smallish development in the docks area of the city showcasing developments in material use, water management and energy• Thirteen French cities in the Eco-City (Cities of tomorrow) initiative http://www.dialogue- ecocite.fr/ 19
  • 20. Future Cities| September, 2012Appendix 3: Resources: List of available resources e.g. research papers, reports, UK researchcentres• Sustainable Cities http://sustainablecities.dk/ - Denmark• Sustainable Cities International (inc. Sustainable Cities Network) – Canada http://sustainablecities.net/our-info/our-story• Sustainable Cities Collective (information source rather than actual initiative) – USA http://sustainablecitiescollective.com/all/6540?ref=navbar• Worldchanging http://www.worldchanging.com/• Sino-British Sustainable Cities Collaboration http://www.eco-cities.org.uk/background/index.php• European Urban Knowledge Network http://www.eukn.org/France/fr_en• EcoAP forum on Eco-Innovation in the sustainable construction value chain http://ec.europa.eu/environment/ecoinnovation2012/1st_forum/presentations.html• Transition Network - http://www.reconomyproject.org/?cat=33• San Francisco Foodshed Project – e.g. http://www.farmland.org/programs/states/ca/Feature%20Stories/SanFranciscoFoodshedProject. asp• EcoInnovation Observatory - http://www.eco- innovation.eu/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=280&Itemid=212• The Crystal - a sustainable cities initiative by Siemens that explores how we can create a better future for our cities.http://www.thecrystal.org/_html/about/about.html 20
  • 21. Future Cities| September, 2012Appendix 4: Engagement Activities: List of engagement activities carried out and participatingorganisations.Full report of Stakeholder round table and back casting exercise - attachment.Outputs from 5th September Large workshop - see below Manufacturers Local Authorities Waste / water/ energy management company Resource efficient Retailers Waste CHP – district Integrated recycling heating + electricity facility Supply Chain Integrated Food Waste is minimised, supply and waste reused &recycled in disposal Closing the Materials Loop What is not the city. recycled is used for T2 Heathrow, reuse Energy recovery Integrated water of demolition/ and waste constructionTransport recycling materials on siteProviders Construction Waste collected on Refunds / incentives Companies demand and pay as for recycling materials you throw Barrier Politicians Public mandate HK Gov - Planned integrated Financial + waste management short term accounting models (acknowledge limitations of for efficiency underlying philosophy) Policy Barrier Design for disassembly – Planning Process Local Authorities clear materials streams and Objectives separation. Effective & Residents are conscious not to waste – enforceable policy and behavioural change regulation Retailers Technology Solution Illegal / illicit supply / Education of demand providers Media people Communication / education People Provision of high tech for Solution Schools Further farmers in rural areas? Action & Adaption of Provide information Education Education 21
  • 22. Future Cities| September, 2012Group 2 Efficient Use of Resources SMART Neighbourhoods SMART Housing *** Give individuals the ability to have waste and recycling bins Inc. water conservation, emptied on demand through rainwater harvesting, waste ICT recycling & treatment, energy efficiency etc.. Large Scale Food Waste Small scale, urban located Disposal + sewage trail. Fully CHP using residential waste monitored e.g Milton Keynes feeding local electricity & heat east or west expansion ** demands * Enabling Research Demonstrate effective co-waste Grades of “waste” heat water / organic food waste Planning Policy framework for mapped to enable co-location disposal to sewer for downstream “smart” business/industrial of possible users AD energy recovery; decentralised estate framework * energy production Retro-fitting of local grids for “Tri-Generation” + (tools?) Planning Policy framework for On a whole city basis, what is the decentralised off-grid power optimal balance of separation vs generation aggregation Bio-remediation creating fuel Local vs central crops - can it be done (safely)? AD vs incineration vs remanufacture vs compost * Evaluation /Proper Measurement Database of “resource” research 1. development indicators to measure the benefits of - NDTP sustainability resources - Wastenet 2. Efficient allocation of resources in - Universities sustainability context ** - EU - SMART Futures LCA vs ecofootprint vs carbon calc ** 22
  • 23. Future Cities| September, 2012 Social / Behavioural change Equity in access to scarce resources. Ensuring benefits of Developing a “benefit corporate sustainable cities benefit the structure” in the UK disadvantagedFund a “resources Czar” ** Transparency of waste costs “new media” at a household level Behavioural change to save 1. stamp issues? energy and resources * 2. “waste file” weekly TV (country file) * Integrated Resources Centre How to use recyclates. Local recycling to create Materials Research *** employment and products Integrated Waste Recycling Landfill mining and resource centre recovery Proper “remanufacturing Facility” – upping value of Resource Recovery recyclates before leaving site * - materials - RDF Biomass use before and Energy From waste, using novel following energy recovery ** technologies at an industrial Valorising Waste scale * 23
  • 24. Future Cities| September, 2012Exercise 2 – group 1 Planning and Design Develop more effective standards for integrated city design and management Establish effective governance for sustainability. ******** Circular Economy Develop standards and practical measures to drive the end of life materials / circular economy via improved design for reuse / disassembly *** Knowledge Networks Develop international learning networks to share good (and bad) practice between cities * Accounting and Management Systems Design integrated, life cycle led, financial and resource management system. *** 24
  • 25. Future Cities| September, 2012 WATER Adding value to waste Food + biodegradable Stakeholders waste to landfill ban (resources) Food WasteWaste / waste water Water Conservation - Householder - Manufacturers Collecting coffee grounds (fromCo-disposal options to - Food prep cafes) and converting them toAD - Roads (drainage /flooding) boards + soil improvers Bioremediation + fuel Adding value to waste Solid and liquid wastes. crops i.e. growing biomass (resources) Water management Changing attitudes in Using segregated waste on land that cannot be favour used for anything else. Bioremediation + fuel Collecting coffee grounds (from - CIWEM crops i.e. growing biomass cafes) and converting them to Water meter - OFT on land that cannot be boards + soil improvers programmes used for anything else. Food Waste Resources Using segregated waste streams Imperial College Public Centres to see + try Severn Trent “carbon neutral” Mini food waste innovative resource or zero carbon HQ composting Source control, not end management of pipe Broad Mill “energy Farm. Matching resource flows across industry – networks of resource Israel – capturing Community owned wind and Decentralised low flows energy from trucks to solar farm carbon power Short coppice willow or power houses! generation miscanthus on poor quality land Resource recovery for organics / Good practice – Nottingham or contaminated land non-organics City homes have “better homes scheme, which is changing tenant behaviour Stakeholders Build guidance on waste Local Authorities management and storage - National Government Good practice – Nottingham - Utilities City Council have Energy - EU consumption Map of city 25
  • 26. Future Cities| September, 2012 Stakeholders - Universities - Schools /FE Finland – changed planning - Companies /HR regs to allow innovation - NGOs - Gov Agencies Mapping of heat sources Problem People – 60% of and demand (uni Sheffied – UK population don’t NERC) believe in global warming Birmingham City council – CHP Streamlining + district heating network processing Build guidance on waste management and storage Public Education & Mapping CO2 and VOCs in full 2 Community energy share awareness at m scale – measurement European pathway schemes rather than assumptions Baseline long term common programme Information and data flow to governance Ethical Investment models those who implement innovation City Governance – Political Drivers – EU 1. Start up capital models to Footballs - elections directives Understand “true ensure innovation 2. PPI investment models value” of materials Education / Local Authority Planning – New corporation typesFinance & investment for environmental Maximise stakeholder value, Best and worst benefits – benefit Communication Policy not shareholder value companies and stakeholders (California) Reconciling quarterly profits SMART business estates – reporting vs. long term planning / land lords Stakeholders investment requirement for infrastructure - Universities - Schools /FE Planning policy – zoning to - Companies /HR reduce energy - NGOs - Gov Agencies 26
  • 27. Future Cities| September, 2012 27
  • 28. Future Cities| September, 2012 Effective Utilisation of Energy Urban Small Scale AD networks – Energy (Heat) Storage + Movement manage organic waste + fully utilise all outputs  energy, Effective Energy Storage How to store Low transport fuel, fertiliser Low and High Systems grade Heat more How do we find funding for Urban growing + agriculture grade Heat effectively innovative clean technologies? Utilise existing heat sources storage (PV+ water H2 Crowd funding? Identification of City technologies H2 +O2  water + energy Systems that (can?) Technology Efficiency Can systems balance interact and share energy micro gen and macro gen sources How do we store How can innovative effectively? energy more technologies overcome thePutting wasted (heat) Energy to use. efficiently? ‘valley of death’ in terms of Decentralise vs centralised.2.1.1 | establish network to identify partnering opportunities their deployment? How do we balance their3.1.1 | develop credible models to development? Effective Integration and evaluate the cost & benefit to both Energy Storage Solutions How do we manage and control of networked parties (supplier & user) Invest in SMART grids How do we overcome split How best to operate between them? energy sources (CHP,4.1.1 | include env & social and alternative storage incentives between investors create green EFW, BioFuel etc) developers, utilities, citizens infrastructure? etc.? Energy Systems Facilitate public-private co-working Secondment of public sector and utility staff between each others’ Data & Modelling offices to enable people behaviour Who collects, stores, manages and distributes and technology transfer Enabling Instruments all the data? Dynamic use of energy data 1.1.1.1 | Integrated building appliances How to optimise ‘People’ City systems data – investment in energy- to feed into data gathering exercise saving measures for ownership, security, – requires integration between Governance standards and buildings and energy service providers. infrastructure Reduce fuel interoperability, 2.1.1.1 | Based on building use (real • ‘optimum’ governance consumption in monetisation, business time) provide advice to end users • Creative partnerships transport. Encourage models on efficiency • Regulation v. incentives cycling to work and mobility managers Data governance – how Access to city urban data Envisioning what a Minimize energy use to manage/govern data in open way but taking Energy Models future city really (Maximize use of How do we get people generated by energy account of privacy means for people passive technology) who will live in these monitoring • New systems to care? conceptualization What are the social justice Lack of integrated energy • marketisation models and social equity issues of (engineering/commercial) creating sustainable future cities? 28
  • 29. Future Cities| September, 2012 Please select the area you areCompany interested in: Waste / Low Waste / EnergyESKTN from WasteSustainable Construction iNet Energy Efficiency and HeatSevern Trent Water Best Practice Deployment Waste / Low Waste / EnergyCEGE University College London from Waste Waste / Low Waste / EnergyCranfield University from Waste Waste / Low Waste / EnergyAmey from Waste Waste / Low Waste / EnergyWAMTECH from Waste Waste / Low Waste / EnergyUniversity of Northampton from Waste Waste / Low Waste / EnergyHalcrow Group Limited from Waste Waste / Low Waste / EnergyResource Efficiency Pathway from WasteCAG Best Practice DeploymentZero Waste Scotland Energy Efficiency and HeatNew Economy Energy Efficiency and HeatNottingham City Council Energy Efficiency and HeatBoots Energy Efficiency and HeatClicks and Links Ltd Energy Efficiency and Heat Waste / Low Waste / EnergyThe University of Northampton from WasteManchester City Council Best Practice DeploymentArgenta Europ Ltd Best Practice DeploymentCranfield University Best Practice DeploymentDan & Adam Ltd Best Practice DeploymentCarbon Trust Energy Efficiency and HeatGreenwatt Technology Energy Efficiency and Heatleit-werk Best Practice DeploymentBalfour Beatty plc Energy Efficiency and Heat Waste / Low Waste / EnergyCO2Sense CIC from Waste 29
  • 30. Future Cities| September, 2012 Please select the area you areCompany interested in:Brunel University Energy Efficiency and HeatBrunel University Energy Efficiency and HeatUniversity of Reading Energy Efficiency and HeatYork Environmental Waste / Low Waste / EnergySustainability Institute from Waste Waste / Low Waste / EnergyADMEC - Nottingham Trent from WasteProduct Design, NottinghamTrent University Energy Efficiency and HeatIndependent Best Practice DeploymentAdvEnTech Group Ltd. Energy Efficiency and HeatNustone Ltd Best Practice DeploymentWolverhampton University Best Practice DeploymentUniversity of Westminster Best Practice DeploymentOxford Brookes University Energy Efficiency and HeatCreative Health Lab Waste / Low Waste / Energy from WasteAquamatiX Ltd Waste / Low Waste / Energy from WasteDe Montfort University Energy Efficiency and Heat Waste / Low Waste / EnergyNone from WasteEcoVentures Energy Efficiency and HeatAndrew Kluth Associates Best Practice DeploymentPlan Bee ltd Best Practice Deployment Waste / Low Waste / EnergyESKTN from WasteurbedDesignerUrbed Energy Efficiency and HeatUniversity of Salford Energy Efficiency and Heatenergy4evolution Energy Efficiency and HeatNottingham Trent University Best Practice DeploymentCoverCare Energy Efficiency and HeatAbiliti Best Practice Deployment Waste / Low Waste / EnergyWYG Group plc from WasteSpace Synapse Systems Ltd Best Practice Deployment 30
  • 31. Future Cities| September, 2012 Please select the area you areCompany interested in:Doug Marriott Associates Ltd Energy Efficiency and Heat Waste / Low Waste / EnergyEHV Engineering from WasteOpportunity Peterborough Best Practice DeploymentSmart Cities institute, UCMK(University of Bedfordshire) Best Practice Deployment 31
  • 32. Contact DetailsEnvironmental Sustainability Knowledge Transfer NetworkUniversity of Oxford C-Tech Innovation LtdBegbroke Science Park Capenhurst Technology Park SCAN THE QR CODE TOKidlington Capenhurst REGISTER ON _CONNECT!Oxford ChesterOX5 1PF CH1 6EHTelephone: +44 (0)1865 610500Fax: +44 (0)1865 610501Email: esktn@earth.ox.ac.ukWebsite: www.innovateuk.org/sustainabilityktn 32

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